Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Tubular Waveguides in Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States
Optics Letters (Impact Factor: 3.29). 09/2004; 29(16):1840-2. DOI: 10.1364/OL.29.001840
Source: PubMed


Femtosecond laser direct writing is employed for the fabrication of buried tubular waveguides in bulk poly(methyl methacrylate). A novel technique using selective chemical etching is presented to resolve the two-dimensional refractive-index profile of the fabrication structures. End-to-end coupling in the waveguides reveals a near-field intensity distribution that results from the superimposition of several propagating modes with different azimuthal symmetries. Mode analysis of the tubular waveguides is performed using the finite-difference method, and the possible propagating mode profiles are compared with the experimental data.

Download full-text


Available from: Kathleen Richardson, May 24, 2014
  • Source
    • "The use of ultrashort laser pulses for micromachining transparent materials has been applied in the fabrication of several optical devices, such as, for instance, amplifiers, resonators, waveguides, and switches, most of them in glass [7]–[9]. In the last few years, however, this technique has started being explored to fabricate photonic devices in polymers [10]–[13]. Polymeric materials are promising candidates for photonic devices mainly because their optical properties can be modified by chemical synthesis or doping, which allows tailoring for specific applications. Although there are several methods capable of structuring polymers in a low-cost and reproducible way, most of them—standard photolithography, electron beam writing, or photopatterning in photosensitive polymers [4], [14]–[17]—are limited to structuring only the sample's surface. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of laser light to modify the material's sur-face or bulk as well as to induce changes in the volume through a chemical reaction has received great attention in the last few years, due to the possibility of tailoring the material's properties aiming at technological applications. Here, we report on recent progress of microstructuring and microfabrication in polymeric materials by using femtosecond lasers. In the first part, we describe how polymeric materials' micromachining, either on the surface or bulk, can be employed to change their optical and chemical prop-erties promising for fabricating waveguides, resonators, and self-cleaning surfaces. In the second part, we discuss how two-photon absorption polymerization can be used to fabricate active mi-crostructures by doping the basic resin with molecules presenting biological and optical properties of interest. Such microstructures can be used to fabricate devices with applications in optics, such as microLED, waveguides, and also in medicine, such as scaffolds for tissue growth. Index Terms—Laser ablation, laser excitation, laser material processing applications, optical polymers, two-photon absorption (TPA).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
  • Source
    • "Polymers have been shown to be interesting materials for the development of several devices [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7], mainly due to the flexibility of tailoring their properties to match specific goals. Numerous methods have been explored to structure the surface of polymers, aiming at technological applications. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we show the fabrication of hydrophobic polymeric surfaces through laser microstructuring. By using 70-ps pulses from a Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, we were able to produce grooves with different width and separation, resulting in square-shaped pillar patterns. We investigate the dependence of the morphology on the surface static contact angle for water, showing that it is in agreement with the Cassie–Baxter model. We demonstrate the fabrication of a superhydrophobic polymeric surface, presenting a water contact angle of 157°. The surface structuring method presented here seems to be an interesting option to control the wetting properties of polymeric surfaces.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Applied Surface Science
  • Source
    • "Femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) is a powerful technique to generate truly 3-D features in transparent bulk materials [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. It provides a unique 3-D fabrication protocol creating embedded structures with a single step process. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) has been widely employed to create volumetric structures in transparent materials that are applicable as various photonic devices such as active and passive waveguides, couplers, gratings, and diffractive optical elements (DOEs). The advantages of fabrication of volumetric DOEs using FLDW include not only the ability to produce embedded 3D structures but also a simple fabrication scheme, ease of customization, and a clean process. DOE fabrication techniques using FLDW are presented as well as the characterization of laser-written DOEs by various methods such as diffraction efficiency measurement. Fresnel zone plates were fabricated in oxide glasses using various femtosecond laser systems in high and low repetition rate regimes. The diffraction efficiency as functions of fabrication parameters was measured to investigate the dependence on the different fabrication parameters such as repetition rate and laser dose. Furthermore, several integration schemes of DOE with other photonic structures are demonstrated for compact photonic device fabrication.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Show more