Papillary Lesions of the Breast With and Without Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Can We Accurately Predict Benign Behavior From Core Needle Biopsy?

Department of Pathology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle 98195, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 10/2004; 122(3):440-3. DOI: 10.1309/NAPJ-MB0G-XKJC-6PTH
Source: PubMed


Evaluation of papillary lesions of the breast can be difficult, and in core needle biopsy specimens, accurate diagnosis is challenging. Initial studies suggested that all papillary lesions revealed by core biopsy required surgical excision. Recent data suggest that only papillary lesions with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) revealed by core biopsy need surgical excision. We evaluated our experience at the University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, with papillary lesions with and without ADH on core biopsy to determine whether diagnostic accuracy can be achieved. In 51 core biopsy specimens, we evaluated the presence or absence of ADH: 25 were benign papillomas; 26 were papillomas with ADH. Surgical follow-up was available for 36 cases (11 papillomas and 25 papillomas with ADH). Clinical (radiologic) follow-up was available in 5 papilloma cases (average follow-up, 35.6 months). Follow-up revealed that all papillomas on core biopsy were benign. Excisional biopsy revealed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in 12 (48%) of 25 papillary lesions with ADH. Benign papillomas can be adequately diagnosed with core biopsy. All papillary lesions with ADH require surgical excision owing to the high rate of associated neoplasia.

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Available from: Thomas Joseph Lawton, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "Indeed, there is a great controversy on how to act when a new case of intraductal papilloma is diagnosed. In fact there are papers suggesting a radical excision of the lesion in all cases [11] [12], while others support only an expectant follow-up [13] [14] [15]. An accurate diagnosis pointing to cases amenable of a malignant behavior is essential [6] [16] [17], not only for the benefit of the patient, as it would avoid unnecessary interventions, but also because of its economic impact [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the progress achieved in the treatment of breast cancer, there are still many unsolved clinical issues, being the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of papillary diseases, one of the highest challenges. Because of its unpredictable clinical behavior, treatment of intraductal papilloma has generated a great controversy. Even though considered as a benign lesion, it presents high rate of malignant recurrence. This is the reason why there are clinicians supporting a complete excision of the lesion, while others support an only expectant follow-up. Previous results of our group suggested that procollagen 11 alpha 1 (pro-COL11A1) expression correlates with infiltrating phenotype in breast lesions. We analyzed the correlation between expression of pro-COL11A1 in intraductal papilloma and their risk of malignant recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of pro-COL11A1 was performed in 62 samples of intraductal papilloma. Ten out 11 cases relapsed as carcinoma presents positive staining for COL11A1, while just 17 out of 51 cases with benign behaviour present immunostaining. There were significant differences ( P < 0.0001 ) when comparing patients with malignant recurrence versus nonmalignant relapse patients. These data suggest that pro-COL11A1 expression is a highly sensitive biomarker to predict malignant relapse of intraductal papilloma and it can be used as indicative factor for prevention programs.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To prospectively determine the upgrade rate following surgery in benign papilloma initially diagnosed at ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge gun biopsy. Methods A total of 128 benign papillomas were diagnosed in 114 patients after a US-guided biopsy. Surgical excision was recommended where the biopsy indicated benign papilloma, regardless of imaging findings. The upgrade rate to ‘atypical’ and ‘malignancy’ was measured on a per-lesion basis. We analysed potential associations between clinical presentation, lesion variables and the results of surgical excision (using logistic regression). Results Of the 114 patients, 87 eventually underwent surgery: among the 100 supposed benign papillomas, surgical excision revealed fibrocystic change or no residual lesion in nine cases, intraductal papilloma in 74, atypical papilloma in 13, papillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in three and one invasive papillary carcinoma. The upgrade rate for an atypical papilloma or papilloma with adjacent foci of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and malignancy was 13% (95% CI = 7.1–21.2%) and 4% (95% CI = 1.1–9.9%), respectively. The mean lesion size (P = 0.041) was significantly larger when lesions were upgraded to malignancy. Other features were not significantly associated with pathological underestimation (P > 0.05). Conclusion Surgical excision should be considered for benign intraductal papillomas above 1.5 cm in size.
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary neoplasms of the breast represent a complex spectrum ranging from benign to malignant lesions. The myoepithelial cell (MEC) layer is generally continuous in papillomas and increasingly discontinuous to absent in atypical and malignant counterparts. Identification of MECs can be difficult on morphological grounds and currently relies on immunomarkers. We investigated the potential role of p63 and CD10 in 20 papillary lesions and compared them with 1A4 and calponin. In 18 cases, adjacent normal breast tissue was available for study. All four markers were diffusely positive in all samples of normal tissue and benign papillomas indicating similar sensitivity in the identification of MECs. Intense positivity was found in 100% of the cases with 1A4 and CD10, but in only 76% with calponin and in 60.5% with p63 (differences statistically significant, p < 0.05), suggesting that the former two render more reproducible results. The most specific markers were p63 and CD10 which showed cross-reactivity in 0% and in up to 33% of the cases respectively. 1A4 and calponin showed diffuse cross-reactivity in all cases. When assessing benign versus atypical papillomas, the best parameters were diffuse positivity using CD10 or p63, and continuous MEC layer, mainly using CD10. When comparing benign papillomas to carcinomas all parameters were equally useful with 1A4 and CD10. Regardless of the marker, intense positivity was the only parameter that could distinguish atypical papillomas from papillary carcinomas. p63 staining, which renders a nuclear and mostly discontinuous reactivity, was not as useful as the other markers when the parameter continuous MEC layer was evaluated. Although CD10 seems to combine the highest specificity and reproducibility with a good sensitivity, reproducibility of 1A4 is higher. Thus, a minimum panel to assess papillary lesions should include both markers. Although p63 is the most specific, its nuclear and discontinuous pattern may lead to erroneous diagnosis, especially in the differentiation between benign papillomas and atypical/malignant lesions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · The Breast Journal
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