ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller)

  • Battelle; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


An evidence-based systematic review including scientific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD, Column Editor
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller)
Ethan Basch, MD
Ivo Foppa, MD, PhD
Richard Liebowitz, MD
Jamie Nelson, PharmD
Michael Smith, MRPharmS, ND
David Sollars, MAc, HMC
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD
Ethan Basch is affiliated with the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Ivo
Foppa is affiliated with Harvard University. Richard Liebowitz is affiliated with Duke
University. Jamie Nelson is affiliated with the University of Rhode Island. Michael
Smith is affiliated with the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine. David Sollars
is affiliated with the New England School of Acupuncture. Catherine Ulbricht is affili
ated with Massachusetts General Hospital. All are members of Natural Standard Re
search Collaboration (
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and
is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on re
view of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience.
This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should
consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies,
diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
Copyright 2003 Natural Standard Inc. Reprinted with permission.
Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 4(2) 2004
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1300/J157v04n02_07 63
ABSTRACT. An evidence-based systematic review including scien
tific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacol
ogy, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and
[Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Deliv
ery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <docdelivery@haworthpress.
com> Website: <>]
KEYWORDS. Lavender, Lavendula angustifolia Miller, limonene, perillyl
alcohol, POH
Common lavender, English lavender, garden lavender, Lavandula
burnamii, Lavandula dentate, Lavandula dhofarensis, Lavandula latifolia,
Lavandula officinalis L., Lavandula stoechas, limonene, perillyl alcohol,
pink lavender, POH, true lavender, white lavender.
Brief Background
Lavender is native to the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, Rus-
sia, and Africa. It has been used cosmetically and medicinally through-
out history. In modern times, lavender is cultivated around the world
and the fragrant oils of its flowers are used in aromatherapy, baked
goods, candles, cosmetics, detergents, jellies, massage oils, perfumes,
powders, shampoo, soaps, and tea. English lavender (L. angustifolia)is
the most common species of lavender used, although other species are in
use, including Lavandula burnamii, L. dentate, L. dhofarensis, L. latifolia,
and L. stoechas.
Many people find lavender aromatherapy to be relaxing, and it has
been reported to have anxiolytic effects in several small, methodologi
cally flawed trials. Overall, the weight of the evidence suggests a small
positive effect, although additional data from well-designed studies are
required before the evidence can be considered strong.
Lavender aromatherapy is also used as a hypnotic, although there is
insufficient evidence in support of this use.
Small phase I human trials of the lavender constituent perillyl alcohol
(POH) for cancer have suggested safety and tolerability (up to 1200 mg/
four times/day), although efficacy has not been demonstrated.
Scientific Evidence for Common/Studied Uses
Historical or Theoretical Uses that Lack Sufficient Evidence
Acne, alopecia, analgesia, angioprotectant, anticolic, anticonvulsant,
antidepressant, antiflatulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory,
antipyretic, antiseptic, anxiety, appetite stimulant,
asthma, balenotherapy (functional circulatory disorders), cholagogue,
choleretic, chronic bronchitis, ciatrizant, cordial, diabetes,
douche, emmenagogue, exercise recovery, gas, hangovers, hyptension,
infertility, insect repellent, insomnia,
lice, migraine, non-tubercular
mycobacteria (NTM),
parasitic infection, psychosis, rheumatism,
Roehmheld’s syndrome, rubefacient, toothache, varicose veins, vomit
Expert Opinion and Historic Precedent
Lavender is rich in volatile oils and has been used for centuries both
as a fragrance and medicinal herb. Linen bags containing lavender
flowers were commonly placed under pillows for their alleged soporific
Lavender is thought by some experts to possess antibacterial proper
ties. Currently, lavender oil is often used as an aromatherapeutic anxio
Monograph from Natural Standard 65
Evidence Grade
Anxiety (aromatherapy)
Hypnotic/Sleep (aromatherapy)
Perineal discomfort following childbirth (bathing)
Spasmolytic (oral)
Antibiotic (topical)
Cancer (oral perillyl alcohol [POH])
lytic and hypnotic, including in the hospital setting.
Infusions of
lavender flowers have been used for similar indications.
Brief Safety Summary
Likely Safe: When consumed in amounts commonly found in foods and
beverages (received Generally Recognized as Safe [GRAS] status for food
use in the United States), or when used in recommended oral/topical doses.
Possibly Unsafe: When used concomitantly with central nervous system
depressants, due to potential additive effects.
Recommended doses are based on those most commonly used in
available trials, or on historical practice. These doses have not necessarily
been shown effective. Anecdotal dosing regimens are based on traditional
health practice patterns and/or expert opinion. With natural products it is
often not clear what the optimal doses are to balance efficacy and safety.
Preparation of products may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer,
and from batch to batch within one manufacturer. Because it is often not
clear what are the active components of a product, standardization may
not be possible, and the clinical effects of different brands may not be
Lavender products are not standardized in the United States.
Each species of lavender has unique chemical constituents and ac
The flowers are the part of lavender most often used medicinally.
Adult Dosing (18 Years and Older)
Tea: One to two teaspoons of the herb taken as a tea (based on anecdote
and expert opinion). The tea can be made by steeping 2 U.S. teaspoons (10
grams) of leaves in 250 mL (1 cup) boiling water for 15 minutes.
Oral Perillyl Alcohol (POH): In preliminary (phase I) cancer trials,
doses between 800-1200 mg/m
four times/day in a 50:50 POH:soybean
oil preparation were tolerated with minimal adverse effects (efficacy has
not been demonstrated).
Inhalation (Aromatherapy)
Aromatherapy: Two to four drops in 2-3 cups boiling water; inhale va
pors. Aromatherapy can be administered intermittently or daily as needed
(based on anecdote and expert opinion).
Bath Additive: For perianal discomfort after childbirth, 6 drops of laven
der oil has been studied as a bath additive (no specific brand).
wishing to use the whole flower may add 1/4 to 1/2 cup of dried laven-
der flowers to hot bath water (based on anecdote and expert opinion).
Massage Therapy: One to four drops per tablespoon of base oil (based
on anecdote and expert opinion).
Pediatric Dosing (Younger Than 18 Years)
Insufficient data available.
There have been rare reports of sensitization after topical use of lav-
Lavender has been reported to exert ‘narcotic-like’ effects in both an
and humans.
Caution should be exercised in patients with known allergy/hyper
sensitivity to lavender. Persons with allergy to lavender may experience
mild local skin reactions after topical use of lavender oil.
Adverse Effects
General: In recommended doses, lavender is generally considered to be
well-tolerated, with minimal adverse effects.
Monograph from Natural Standard 67
Dermatologic: There have been case reports of mild dermatitis follow
ing the use of topical lavender oil.
One individual developed an itchy
dermatitis on his face after using lavender oil on his pillow.
Patch test
ing subsequently confirmed a positive allergy to lavender. There have been
reports of photosensitization and changes in skin pigmentation after the use
of topical products containing lavender oil.
Neurologic/CNS: Central nervous system depression has rarely been re
ported with aromatherapy,
and additive narcotic effects have been noted
in rats when taken orally concomitantly with barbiturates or chloral hy
Hematologic: Reversible neutropenia has been noted after high oral
doses of perillyl alcohol (POH), a monoterpene constituent of lavender, in
patients with untreatable malignancies (on multiple chemotherapy regi
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting and anorexia have been reported af-
ter large oral doses of lavender (>5.0 g/day),
and after large doses of the
lavender constituent perillyl alcohol (POH).
Avoid in patients with a known allergy/hypersensitivity to lavender,
based on several case reports of dermatitis in patients with lavender al-
Use cautiously in patients who are currently taking drugs that depress
the central nervous system, because concomitant use of lavender may
exacerbate sedation.
Pregnancy and Lactation
Not recommended due to lack of sufficient data.
Due to its purported properties as an emmenagogue, excessive inter
nal use should be avoided during pregnancy. However, there is no de
finitive evidence in this area.
Lavender/Drug Interactions
Sedating Drugs: In rats, concomitant use of lavender and pentobarbital
or chloral hydrate has significantly increased sleeping time and narcotic ef
Concurrent use with other sedative or hypnotic agents theoreti
cally may act in an additive or synergistic fashion.
Anticoagulants, NSAIDs, Anti-Platelet Agents: Lavender contains vary
ing amounts of coumarins and may therefore theoretically increase the ef
fect of anticoagulant medications.
Anti-Seizure Medications: Lavender enhances GABA effects and may
therefore intensify the sedative effects of GABA-dependent antiepileptics.
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors, Niacin, Cholesterol Lowering Agents;
Theoretical Positive Interaction: Lavender may act in an additive fashion
with cholesterol-lowering agents: Cineole, a cyclic monoterpene found in
lavender, lowers cholesterol in rats via inhibition of the HMG-CoA en
zyme; the lavender constituent perillyl alcohol (POH) has been shown to
inhibit the conversion of lathesterol to cholesterol.
Lavender/Herb/Supplement Interactions
Sedating Agents: Lavender has been found to have sedative effects in
animal models, and acts additively with sedatives including pentobarbital
and chloral hydrate.
In theory, it may intensify the effects of other seda-
tive agents such as kava or valerian root.
Anticoagulant Herbs/Supplements: Lavender contains varying amounts
of coumarins and may therefore theoretically increase the effect of antico-
agulant medications.
Lavender/Food Interactions
Insufficient available evidence.
Lavender/Lab Interactions
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipo-
protein (HDL): Based on animal studies, oral lavender may act similarly to
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and lower total cholesterol/LDL while
raising HDL.
Lavender is comprised of over 100 constituents, including linalool,
perillyl alcohol, linalyl acetate, camphor, limonene, tannins, triterpenes,
coumarins, cineole, and flavonoids.
Linalool has been shown to reduce motor activity in mice due to a
Monograph from Natural Standard 69
dose-related binding to glutamate, a primary excitatory neurotransmitter
of the central nervous system, and it has been suggested that hypnotic
and anticonvulsant effects of lavender may be due to the potentiation of
the neurotransmitter GABA.
The mechanism of lavender’s spasmolytic activity has not been fully
elucidated. Gamez et al. studied the antispasmodic effect of L. dentate (a
lavender species) in vitro.
An observed antagonism of acetylcholine-in
duced muscle contractions was attributed largely to cineole. Lis-Balchin et
al. observed that the linalool and linalyl acetate in L. angustifolia oil can in
duce cAMP-mediated relaxation of guinea pig ileum smooth muscle.
authors postulated a cAMP-based mechanism for lavender’s purported
physiological effects on sympathetic nervous system activity.
Components of lavender appear to have cytotoxic properties. Fulton
et al. demonstrated cell proliferating effects of perillyl alcohol (POH)
on smooth muscle cell cultures.
Both limonene and POH have been
shown to inhibit tumor growth in rats by blocking initiation and by pro-
moting apoptosis.
One in vitro study evaluated the effects of POH in
lung carcinogenesis, and described an inhibitory effect on farnesylation, a
step towards activation of the oncogene K-ras.
The lipid-lowering effect of lavender has been attributed to the con-
stituent cineole, a cyclic monoterpene which lowers cholesterol in rats
via inhibition of the HMG-CoA enzyme.
The lavender constituent
perillyl alcohol (POH) has been shown to inhibit the conversion of lathesterol
to cholesterol.
Caffeic acid, a constituent of lavender, has been demonstrated to pos-
sess antioxidant effects in vitro.
Topical: Lavender oil is quickly absorbed by the skin. The constituents
linalool and linalyl acetate are detectable in the blood five minutes after
topical application, peak at 19 minutes, and largely disappear from the
blood within 90 minutes.
Oral: The constituents limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are metabo
lized into perillic acid (PA) and dihydroperillic acid (DHPA). In rats fed a
diet containing POH or limonene, peak levels of PA can be seen at 1-2.5
hours, peak levels of DHPA are noted at 2-3.5 hours, and half-lives for
each metabolite are 1-2 hours.
POH, PA, and DHPA are detectable in
subjects’ urine following high doses of POH ingestion. Approximately
9% of the total dose can be recovered in the first 24 hours. PA is the ma
jor metabolite found, with <1% of recovered POH.
The absorption of POH does not appear to be affected by concomi
tant ingestion of foods.
The name lavender is derived from the Latin lavare, meaning to wash.
In ancient Greece, Persia and Rome, it was used as a perfume in baths and
laundry, and as an antiseptic. Ancient Egyptians created mummification
casts by soaking linen in oil of lavender containing asphalt, then wrapping
the bodies with these and drying them in the sun until the casts were hard.
Lavender has been renowned as a ‘healing agent’ in India and Tibet. In Ti
betan Buddhist medicine, lavender is still used to treat insanity and psycho-
ses. Today, in Europe and the Americas, lavender is often used as an
anxiolytic and sleep aid.
Monograph from Natural Standard 71
Condition Study Design Author,
N Statistically
Quality of
of Benefit
ARR NNT Comments
Anxiety Not randomized,
10 Yes 1 Small NA NA Poor
description of
blinding or
Anxiety Randomized,
Yes 1 Small NA NA Initial benefit
after first
Anxiety Not randomized,
42 Yes 0 Large NA NA Small study,
results unclear
due to lack of
Anxiety Case series Itai, 2000 14 Yes NA Large NA NA No significant
compared to
odorless smell.
Hypnotic Case series Hardy,
4 NA NA None NA NA Small series
No 3 None NA NA Subjective
data, no
Case series
(phase I clinical
18 NA 1 NA NA NA Uncontrolled
trial using
perillyl alcohol
Anxiety (Aromatherapy)
Summary: In general, the evidence supporting lavender aromatherapy as
an anxiolytic is weak. There are conflicting results from methodologically
flawed studies, with some showing lack of effect. However, overall, the
weight of the evidence suggests a small positive effect in relieving anxiety.
Further study through well-designed randomized trials would strengthen this
case. However, there are inherent difficulties involved with designing blind
ing or placebo control for study of an olfactory therapy. These difficulties
must be overcome before compelling results can be generated.
Evidence: Saeki et al. attempted to demonstrate that lavender aromatherapy
via footbath produced anxiolytic effects compared to placebo.
This “be-
fore and after” study, which consisted of 10 subjects, concluded that a hot
footbath with lavender oil is associated with small but significant changes
in autonomic activity. However, the incomplete description of methodol-
ogy and analysis make results difficult to interpret.
Dunn et al. conducted a randomized, single-blind study in 122 inten-
sive care unit patients, allocated to one of three groups: body massage
with grapeseed oil, body massage with lavender oil, or undisturbed
Psychological endpoints were assessed using an arbitrary 4-point
scale, and physiological endpoints included blood pressure, heart rate,
and breaths-per-minute. Treatment ranged from one to three 30-minute
sessions, 24 hours apart. All patients received at least one session; 66
patients completed three sessions. After the first session, patients who
had received a massage with lavender oil had significantly less anxiety
than the group who rested. This difference was not maintained in the
following sessions. It is not clear to what extent the lack of dou-
ble-blinding, or the high dropout rate, affected results.
Motomura et al. conducted an experiment in which 42 students were di
vided into three groups: Group 1 experienced a “stressful condition;” group
2 experienced a “stressful condition” with the addition of lavender odor;
group 3 experienced a “non-stressful condition.” Stress was evaluated
based on a Japanese version of Cox and Mackay’s stress/arousal adjective
checklist. The experiment found that scores in the lavender group were sig
nificantly lower than the group who was stressed and did not receive laven
der therapy.
However, blinding and randomization were not clearly
In a case series consisting of 14 female, chronic renal failure patients
on hemodialysis, Itai et al. evaluated the effect of lavender oil on mood
using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamil
ton rating scale for Anxiety (HAMA).
Compared to natural smell (base
line), lavender was observed to decrease anxiety as evidenced by the
HAMA scale (P = 0.05). Lavender did not significantly alter patients’
HAMD scores from baseline. When lavender was compared to odorless
conditions, the difference in HAMA and HAMD scores was minimal.
Buckle compared therapeutic benefits of oils from two different spe
cies of lavender (L. angustifolia and L. burnatti) applied by massage to 28
hospitalized patients.
A semi-structured interview to collect qualitative,
subjective data was used several days after treatment. The study reported
that L. burnatti had significantly more relaxing effects than its counterpart.
However, further details of statistical analysis or methodology were in-
complete, thus raising question about the results.
Hypnotic/Sleep (Aromatherapy)
Summary: Many experts and patients believe that lavender aromatherapy
is an effective hypnotic. Although preliminary evidence suggests some
hypnotic effects of lavender, there are no randomized trials in the available
literature. Without further study, the current evidence can only be consid-
ered equivocal. However, there are inherent difficulties involved with de-
signing blinding or placebo control for study of an olfactory therapy. These
difficulties must be overcome before compelling results can be generated.
Evidence: Hardy et al. evaluated aromatherapeutic lavender as an alter-
native to conventional hypnotics in four geriatric patients.
Sleep hours
were monitored during three two-week phases. During phase I, subjects
continued their current hypnotic (temazepam, promazine, chlormethiazole).
Phase II involved a withdrawal and washout period. During phase III, lav
ender oil was introduced into the patients’ sleeping quarters via an odor dif
fuser. The results demonstrated that hours asleep were comparable to the
number of hours asleep during phase I of the trial for all four participants.
However, without controls or blinding, results can only be considered pre
Diego et al. demonstrated the effects of three-minute aromatherapy
sessions using a 10% lavender oil concentration on participants’ brain
waves via electroencephalogram (EEG).
The EEG reading was re
corded prior, during, and after sessions. Alpha and beta activity were found
to increase after the inhalation of lavender. Notably, increased frontal alpha
and beta activity have been associated with increased drowsiness, which
provides mechanistic supportive evidence for this purported indication.
Monograph from Natural Standard 73
Perineal Discomfort Following Childbirth (Baths)
Summary: There is insufficient scientific evidence regarding the use of
lavender oil baths for the relief of postpartum perineal discomfort.
Evidence: Dale and Cornwell examined the effect of lavender oils baths
on perineal discomfort in 635 postpartum women in a randomized trial.
Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 added a natural lavender
oil extract to baths, group 2 added a synthetic lavender oil to baths, and the
third group used an unspecified control substance that had U.S. “Generally
Recognized As Safe” status. The control was reported to be distinguishable
from the other two oils by smell, and in efforts to compensate for this, pa
tients were informed that the trial was testing “different bath additives.” To
evaluate discomfort, women were asked to complete visual analogue
scales (VAS), a subjective questionnaire used to evaluate the degree of dis-
comfort over the 10 days of the experiment. Data were obtained from
~60% (n = 386) of participants. Although this trial found no significant dif-
ferences in perineal relief between the groups, the large dropout rate and
lack of information about the control substance (which could have been ac-
tive) raise doubts about the validity of results.
Spasmolytic (Oral)
Summary: Preliminary data from animal and in vitro studies indicate a
potential spasmolytic effect of lavender oil inhalation. However, human
evidence is lacking.
Animal Data: A variety of lavender species have demonstrated an abil-
ity to inhibit stimulated muscle contractions in the ileum and conjunctiva of
animal models.
Antibiotic (Topical)
Summary: Preliminary data from in vitro studies suggest that lavender
oils possess antibiotic activity. However, this has not been tested in animal
or human studies, and results cannot be considered clinically relevant.
In Vitro Data: Gabbrielli et al. demonstrated in vitro activity of lavender
oil (L. angustifolia and L. latifolia) against various strains of non-tubercular
Nelson et al. found documented activity of 2% to
0.12% (v/v) lavender oils against both methicillin-resistant Staphylo
coccus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Cancer (Oral)
Summary: Preliminary data from animal studies suggest an antineoplastic
effect of oral perillyl alcohol (POH) and other monoterpenes found in lav
ender. Studies have focused on cancers of the pancreas, breast, and intes
tine. Small phase I studies have been conducted in humans, suggesting
safety and tolerability of POH (up to 1200 mg/m
four times/day), but effi
cacy has not been established.
Animal Data: Elegbede et al. and Haag et al. demonstrated regression of
primary mammary tumors in rats after supplementing diets with limonene
and POH (lavender constituents).
Burke et al. documented inhibition of
pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth in hamsters using a similar diet.
Reddy et al. found a significant chemoprotective effect of oral POH on
carcinogenesis of the large and small intestines in rats.
Human Evidence: In a phase I clinical trial, Ripple et al. examined
the potential of POH to suppress tumor growth in humans.
This study
consisted of 18 patients with advanced malignancies of various origins,
refractory to standard therapies. POH was formulated in gelatin cap-
sules containing 250 mg of POH and 250 mg of soybean oil. Prior to re-
ceiving POH, as a washout, patients did not receive hormonal or
immunological therapy for two weeks, or chemotherapy/radiation for
four weeks. Patients were divided into three groups: 800 mg/m
1600 mg/m
/dose; or 2400 mg/m
/dose, three times/day. Although no
objective tumor responses were noted, disease stabilization was noted
in several patients for up to six months. POH was generally well toler-
ated, although dose-dependent gastrointestinal side effects (nausea,
early satiety) and fatigue led to withdrawal of one patient from the
In a second case series, the same authors examined the effects of
more frequent administration at slightly lower doses.
Nineteen patients
with various malignancies, refractory to standard treatment, were treated
at the following doses: 800 mg/m
/dose; 1200 mg/m
/dose; or 1600 mg/
/dose, four times/day. The maximum tolerated dose of POH given
continuously four times/day was 1200 mg/m
/dose. Patterns of disease
progression similar to the initial trial were observed at all doses. Al
though promising, these results must be further evaluated through con
trolled studies before a recommendation can be made. Nonetheless,
these small studies suggest safety and tolerability of POH at doses up to
1200 mg/m
four times/day.
Monograph from Natural Standard 75
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... Fragrant lavender oil and flowers are used in aromatherapy, detergents, massage oils, perfumes and personal hygiene products, such as shampoo and soap [113]. Aromatherapy is considered effective due to the psychological effects of fragrance as well as the physiological effects of the compounds, which act through limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) [21]. ...
... Pharmacotherapy screening on the properties of lavender found indications for their use in relation to anxiety, with strong evidence. Several other indications of use, although with only moderate evidence, were hypnotic/sleep aid, mitigation of perineal discomfort following childbirth, spasmolytic and antibiotic treatments and cancer treatment based on phase I human trials (lavender constituent perillyl alcohol) [113]. Several studies on cell lines revealed cytotoxic effects on cancer cells of specific lavender compounds or essential oils: breast cancer cells, leukemia cells, melanoma cells [117], colon cancer cells and ovary cancer cells [71]. ...
... Among the potential uses, such as fresh cut flowers, dried buds and wreaths are the most common [107]. Sachets filled with lavender flowers for their soporific properties to be placed under the pillow [113] or crafts for other home uses could be easily created on the farm and sold locally. ...
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Lavender is in the research spotlight due to its increasing economic importance, while market demand is expected to continue to grow. Among the hundreds of essential-oil-bearing plants, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. remains one of the most valuable. This paper explores the lavender chain timeline from crop to products, examining the expanding knowledge on the characteristics, phytochemical profile and functional potential of lavender that could lead to new products and uses. Lavender crops can be expanded without competing for productive land, instead using marginal, contaminated or unproductive land. A novel cultivation trend proposes leveraging agri-background biodiversity, arbuscular mycorrhiza and the natural enemies of pests for healthy crops. Together with breeding efforts targeting highly performant genotypes with complex volatile profiles coupled with resistance to specific biotic (particularly Phytoplasma) and abiotic (salt, heavy metals) stressors, industry could have a steady supply of high-quality raw material. Besides the expansion of the uses of essential oil in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food and environmental and agri-applications, novel channels have appeared for the use of the solid by-product, which is rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides; these channels have the potential to create additional streams of value. The stabilization and optimization of techno-functional delivery systems through the encapsulation of essential oil can extend shelf-life and enhance biological activity efficiency. Plants 2023, 12(2): 357
... Лаванда вузьколиста (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) -ефiроолiйна культура, яка широко застосовується в харчовiй, фармакологiчнiй, косметично-парфумернiй промисловостях, також вирощується в декоративних та рекреацiйних цiлях [1]. Одним iз можливих шляхiв популяризацiї культури в Українi є розробка iнтенсивних методiв селекцiї, зокрема, мiкроклонального розмноження в культурi in vitro. ...
Лаванда вузьколиста – ефіроолійна культура, яка має широке комерційне застосування. Метою роботи було отримання ліній лаванди вузьколистої та розробка технології їх клонального мікророзмноження. В якості матеріалів дослідження використовували вирощені в умовах відкритого ґрунту комерційні сорти лаванди вузьколистої «Munstead» та «Ellagance Purple». Рослинний матеріал було простерилізовано двома методами і висаджено на поживні середовища з різним вмістом кінетину, для визначення впливу гормонів росту на морфогенез лаванди в умовах in vitro. Отримані результати вказують, що на регенераційну здатність тканин лаванди впливають склад поживного середовища, схема стерилізації експлантів та умови культивування in vitro.
... It grows primarily for its essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation of the flowers; this oil is chemically made of over 100 constituents. Linalool is considered the primary active constituent responsible for the pharmacological effects, including its supposed calming and sedative activity [14]. ...
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Significance Statement: It considered the psychological consequences associated with cancer treatment that affect the patient's quality of life. Aromatherapy is considered an emotional intervention involving responding to sensory stimuli, knowing that olfactory stimuli may effectively promote well-being. Research within the field of aromatherapy emphasizes investigating the effect of different essential oils on precise brain centers known to regulate an individual's mood. This narrative review explores the information in the literature regarding the therapeutic psychological uses of certain aromatic oils that could support cancer patients. Abstract: A cancer diagnosis can affect the emotional health of patients. Common feelings during this life-changing experience include anxiety, distress, and depression. It is important to recognize these changes and try to assist. The search for the most effective and safe treatments is essential. Aromatherapy has attracted many researchers' attention as a complementary method for treating psychological consequences. In general, it seems to relieve pain, improve mood, and promote a sense of relaxation. Smelling and inhaling essential oil vapors can activate the immune system and assist in psychotherapy during the cancer treatment journey.
... Te foral essential oil of lavender is documented to have therapeutic efects such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, analgesic, and anti-infammatory [3,6,7]. In addition, according to Basch et al., the aroma of lavender is one of the most widely utilized in aromatherapy, considered to be relaxing, with anxiolytic efects [8]. Te multiple therapeutic applications of L. angustifolia are attributed mainly to the presence of volatile bioactive substances contained in the essential oil [4]. ...
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The main aim of this study was to assess the differences in the chemical composition of essential oil from biocultivated Lavandula angustifolia in the Thracian Lowland floristic region, Bulgaria, and commercially available products from Bulgarian markets. Following the analytical results conducted with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we have established some differences in the chemical composition of the tested samples. The essential oil of biocultivated lavender contained 35 compounds, which represent 94.13% of the total oil. Samples from commercial products contained 28–42 compounds that represent 93.03–98.69% of the total oil. All the examined samples were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.68–12.77%), oxygenated monoterpenes (70.42–87.96%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.03–13.78%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (0.14–0.76%). The dominant components in all examined samples were linalool (20.0–45.0%) and linalyl acetate (20.79–39.91%). All the examined commercial samples contained linalool and linalyl acetate as was described in the European Pharmacopoeia, but in one of the samples, the quality of linalyl acetate is lower than that recommended in the European Pharmacopoeia.
... Ramuan ini merangsang produksi urin dan meningkatkan pencernaan, mengurangi stres emosional dan kecemasan, ramuan ini menyembuhkan luka bakar dan luka dan meningkatkan tidur, meningkatkan eksim dan psoriasis, mengurangi jerawat dan menyimpan warna kulit. Lavender juga digunakan dalam terapi aroma [9]. ...
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Essential oils are known by the name of ethereal oil or flying oil (ethereal oil or volatile oil ) which is produced by plants. At high concentrations, essential oils can be used as local anesthetics. Essential oils have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties, one of which is lavender essential oil which has commercial relevance in pharmaceutical applications due to its therapeutic properties, such as anticonvulsive, sedative, antidepressant, antiseptic, antihypertensive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Not only lavender essential oil, coconut oil or commonly known as VCO is an oil that contains vitamin E that the skin needs and is medically useful for healing cracked skin. Coconut oil or VCO is rich in antibacterial, antiaging, antioxidant, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Pharmaceutical applications that are very important for humans are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, especially for babies. Infants are an extreme age group who are at risk of damage to skin integrity in the perianal area. This can be due to factors such as increased humidity causing a rash. The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of using lavender essential oil using coconut oil VCO in the manufacture of baby diaper rash cream products to prevent skin integrity in infants such as rashes. The method used in this study is a qualitative descriptive analysis test. Where using testing 5 times on 4 samples, it was proven that the 4th sample had a good level of characteristics. The results of this study, the test was proven by organoleptic testing carried out, namely the color produced was white, the aroma was lavender, and it had a creamy texture. Homogeneity test has homogeneous results. The pH test resulted in 7.84. The stickiness test on the 4th sample lasted for 1 minute 10 seconds. The dispersion test with a load of 50 grams is 2 cm, a load of 100 grams is 3.7 cm, a load of 150 grams is 4 cm, a load of 200 grams is 4.2 cm, and a load of 250 grams is 4.5 cm.
Conference Paper
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The influence of new synthetic pyrimidine derivatives on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) of the Valuta variety was studied. The analysis of morphometric parameters of 8-week-old soybean plants confirmed the positive effect of synthetic pyrimidine derivatives on the indicators of shoot length (mm), root length (mm), number of roots (pieces) and average root length (mm). It was shown that the activity of these compounds according to the indicated parameters was similar or exceeded the activity of the phytohormones IAA and Kinetin. The practical use of the most biologically active synthetic derivatives of pyrimidine, applied at a concentration of 10−7 M, as new effective growth regulators of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) of the Valuta variety is proposed.
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Lavandula species are one of the most useful aromatic and medicinal plants and have great economic potential. The phytopharmaceutical contribution of the secondary metabolites of the species is unquestionable. Most recent studies have been focusing on the elucidation of the genetic background of secondary metabolite production in lavender species. Therefore, knowledge of not only genetic but especially epigenetic mechanisms for the regulation of secondary metabolites is necessary for the modification of those biosynthesis processes and the understanding of genotypic differences in the content and compositional variability of these products. The review discusses the genetic diversity of Lavandula species in relation to the geographic area, occurrence, and morphogenetic factors. The role of microRNAs in secondary-metabolites biosynthesis is described.
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Çukurova Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma ve Uygulama Çiftliğinde 2018-2020 yılları arasında iki yıllık bir deneme olan bu çalışmada farklı Lavandin çeşitleri ve bir Lavandin ekotipinin Çukurova koşullarında verim ve kalite özellikleri incelenmiştir. Saplı çiçek uzunluğu ve çiçek başak uzunluğunda birleştirilmiş yıllarda Akmeşe ekotipi (53.47 cm; 10.67 cm) en yüksek değerlere sahip olmuştur. Yıllar bazında ise ölçülen her iki kompanent için de 2. yılda 1. yıla oranla daha yüksek değerler elde edilmiştir. Yeşil herba ve kuru herba verimlerinde birleştirilmiş yıllarda ve ÇeşitxYıl interaksiyonunda Abrial çeşidinin en yüksek verime, Akmeşe ekotipinin ise en düşük verime ulaştığı saptanmıştır. Yıllar bazında yeşil herba ver kuru herba verimlerinde 1. yılda 2. yıla oranla daha yüksek verim değerlerine ulaşılmıştır. Kuru çiçek verimi, uçucu yağ oranı ve uçucu yağ verimi bakımından “Grosso” çeşiti öne çıkmıştır. İki yıllık veriler birlikte değerlendirildiğinde uçucu yağ bileşenleri 1,8-sineol (%6.51-20.53), linalol (%24.62-34.68), kafur (%6.02-18.87) endo-borneol (%3.42-20,21) ve linalil asetat (%1.33-22.69) olarak belirlenmiştir.
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Lavender oil is an important essential oil with many applications. The purpose of this study was to compare different methods of essential oil extraction to determine which method would be the most effective and profitable for commercial-scale production from Lavandula x intermedia (‘Margret Roberts’) flowers and leaves. The lavender from this variety flowers year-round, providing an extended production season compared to some other lavender varieties. Steam distillation, hydrodistillation, and cellulase-assisted hydrodistillation were used to extract oil. The average extraction times for steam distillation, hydrodistillation, and cellulase-assisted hydrodistillation were 57-, 51-, and 49 min, respectively, and the average energy consumption was 15.0-, 13.4-, and 30.8 kJ/g, respectively. Cellulase-assisted hydrodistillation produced the best quality oils, with a lower camphor content and a sweeter, more pleasant smell, while steam-distilled oils had the highest camphor content, as well as a more plant-like smell. Factors affecting scale-up (surface area of cut plants, equipment loading times, energy efficiencies, safety, mixing) have been discussed, while a basic cost analysis of theoretical large-scale processes showed that hydrodistillation and cellulase-assisted hydrodistillation would be the most and least profitable methods, respectively. Overall, hydrodistillation is recommended as the best method for commercial lavender oil production.
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Purpose: To investigate the effective components and possible mechanism of action of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil (LEO) in preventing vomiting through the olfactory pathway. Materials and methods: A new network pharmacology-based method was established to analyze main components and pathways of LEO involved in antiemetic effects by introducing component content; biological activities of key proteins of the olfactory pathway and their corresponding compounds were verified by molecular docking technique; and finally pica in a rat model was established to verify the molecular mechanism of antiemetic effects of LEO by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the serum 5-HT, substance P, and DA levels in each group and by immunohistochemistry to determine the contents of 5-HT3R, CaMKII and ERK1/2 proteins in the medulla oblongata tissue. Results: Network pharmacology combined with molecular docking analysis showed that the mechanism of the antiemetic effect of LEO may be related to (2Z)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl acetate, linalyl acetate, butanoic acid, hexyl ester, 4-hexen-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-, acetate, .tau.-cadinol and other active ingredients, which regulate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway and the expression of BRAF, PDE and other targets on the pathway. An ELISA revealed that LEO reduced the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), substance P, and dopamine in serum compared with the model group (P <0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that LEO decreased the expression of 5-HT3R, CaMKII, and ERK1/2 proteins in the medulla oblongata of rats compared with the model group (P <0.01). Conclusion: LEO may achieve the antiemetic effect by reducing the content of 5-HT and inhibiting its related receptors, thereby regulating downstream Ca2+/CaMKII/ERK1/2 pathway of the cAMP signaling pathway.
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In the present experiment the effect of the lavender odorant to human beings was investigated. Japanese version of Cox and Mackay's stress / arousal adjective checklist (J-SACL) , blood pressure, heart rate, stroop test, non-spatial working memory task and the computed electroencephalography (cEEG) was performed before and after the lavender odorants stimulation. The results indicated that lavender odorants have an anti-stress effect and reduce the arousal state in J-SACL, although lavender odorants did not influence blood pressure, heart rate, stroop test and non-spatial working memory task. Furthermore, the power spectrum of theta 1 (F4) was increased and beta 1 waves in T3, O1, P4 and F4 were decreased in the lavender stimulated group. These results suggest that the lavender odorants reduce an electrophysiological arousal state. CoxとMackayにより開発されたストレスチェックリスト,血圧,脈拍,ストループ課題,非空間性作動記憶課題と脳波定量分析をもちいて,ラベンダーの香りが人体に及ぼす影響を調べた。その結果,ラベンダーの香りには抗ストレス作用があることが認められたが,血圧,脈拍,ストループ課題および非空間性作動記憶課題には変化はみられなかった。ラベンダーの負荷後,脳波のパワースペクトラムではF4のθ1波が増加し,T2,O1,P4におけるβ1波が減少していた。このことは,ラベンダーの香りには脳波上覚醒度を下げる働きがあることを示唆するものである。
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The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the effect of foot-bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system. Design: Randomized crossover controlled study. Setting: Nursing college, Nagano, Japan. Intervention:Young women sat with their feet soaked in hot water for 10 minutes with and without the essential oil. Outcome measures:An electrocardiogram, finger tip blood now and respiratory rate were recorded,Autonomic function was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Results:The foot-bath caused no changes in heart or respiratory rates, but produced a significant increase in blood now. Using spectral analysis, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly during the both types of foot-bath. In the case of the foot-bath with the addition of essential oil of lavender, there were delayed changes to the balance of autonomic activity in the direction associated with relaxation. Conclusion:A hot foot-bath and oil of lavender appear to be associated with small but significant changes in autonomic activity. (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Synopsis In the present study, the percutaneous absorption of the essential oil of lavender from a massage oil was investigated. It was shown that lavender oil penetrates the skin of a male subject. Within five minutes of finishing, the massage traces of linalool (1) and linalyl acetate (2) as the main constituents of lavender oil could be detected in the blood. After 20 minutes, 100 ng/ml for 2 and 121 ng/ml for 1 showed up as the maximum concentration. Within 90 minutes, most of the lavender oil was eliminated. The sedative and relaxing effect of lavender oil after a massage may be based on two different ways of incorporation: the inhalation of fragrant molecules and the penetration through the skin.
Abstract Effects of aromatherapy (odorless condition, lavender, and hiba oil) on mood and anxiety were investigated in 14 female patients who were being treated with chronic hemodialysis. A control period consisting of natural hospital smells was established before each test session, and then aromatic test conditions were systematically evaluated for odorless conditions as well as aromatic conditions containing lavender and hiba oil aromas. The effects of aromatherapy were measured using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAMA). Hiba oil aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMD and HAMA, and lavender aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMA. The mean scores of HAMD and HAMA in an odorless condition were not significantly different from those of the control conditions. These results indicate that in chronic hemodialysis patients hiba oil is an effective, non-invasive means for the treatment of depression and anxiety, and that lavender alleviates anxiety.
Mice Swiss are orally given essential oil of lavander diluted at 1/60 in olive oil. Sedative effects are observed with some tests (hole board test, four plates test, plus-maze test, potentiation of barbiturate sleeping time). A significant interaction exists with pentobarbital: the sleeping time is increased and the asleeping time shortened.
The antihypertensive activity of spirapril given alone or in combination with felodipine was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during a 3-week treatment regimen and for one week after drug withdrawal. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded once a week just before dosing and at varying time intervals up to 6 hr thereafter. Recordings were continued for one week after drug withdrawal. Spirapril alone at 1 and 5 mg/kg p.o. was found to produce dose-related antihypertensive effects throughout the treatment period. Felodipine alone at 5 mg/kg p.o. reduced blood pressure slightly more than did the low dose of spirapril. The combination of spirapril and felodipine induced a marked antihypertensive response which was greater than that observed in rats treated with either drug alone. One week after treatment withdrawal, blood pressure was at initial levels with no evidence of rebound phenomena. No significant heart rate changes were observed in the treated groups, as compared with the controls, except for an increase on the 1st day of treatment in rats given felodipine. These findings indicate that the combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a calcium antagonist leads to an effective control of hypertension over a prolonged period of treatment. Since the combination allows effectiveness with lower doses of ACE inhibitor, it is expected that the antihypertensive efficacy might be associated with a lower liability to untoward effects.
An 18-year-old female hairdresser had a red, scaly, itchy dermatitis on the back of her hands and fingers and front of the wrists. She had worked as an apprentice hairdresser for 4 years, mainly shampooing, but also in contact with permanent wave liquids and dyes. She usually had dry fissured skin on the back of the hands, but in the previous 6 months, it had become worse with extension to the fingers, and itching. She had a history of nickel allergy but not atopy. She was patch tested with the standard and hairdresser's series (Trolab), with several shampoos and other products with which she was in contact in her job. At 48 and 96 h, the following positive tests were observed: nickel sulfate 5% pet. ++; p-phenylenediamine 1% pet. +++; p-toluenediamine 1% pet. +++; ammonium thioglycolate 2.5% pet. +++; permanent wave liquid 20% water +++; lavender shampoo 5% water +++. The lavender shampoo was the one she used several times a day. Although we could not obtain its composition from the manufacturer, she was patch tested some weeks later with lavender oil (1% ethanol) and several formaldehyde releaser preservatives. A strong positive reaction (+++) to lavender oil was observed.