ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller)

Authors:
  • Battelle; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Abstract

An evidence-based systematic review including scientific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
MONOGRAPH
FROM NATURAL STANDARD
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD, Column Editor
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller)
Ethan Basch, MD
Ivo Foppa, MD, PhD
Richard Liebowitz, MD
Jamie Nelson, PharmD
Michael Smith, MRPharmS, ND
David Sollars, MAc, HMC
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD
Ethan Basch is affiliated with the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Ivo
Foppa is affiliated with Harvard University. Richard Liebowitz is affiliated with Duke
University. Jamie Nelson is affiliated with the University of Rhode Island. Michael
Smith is affiliated with the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine. David Sollars
is affiliated with the New England School of Acupuncture. Catherine Ulbricht is affili
-
ated with Massachusetts General Hospital. All are members of Natural Standard Re
-
search Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and
is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on re
-
view of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience.
This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should
consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies,
diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
Copyright 2003 Natural Standard Inc. Reprinted with permission.
Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 4(2) 2004
http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JHP
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1300/J157v04n02_07 63
ABSTRACT. An evidence-based systematic review including scien
-
tific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacol
-
ogy, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and
dosing.
[Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Deliv
-
ery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <docdelivery@haworthpress.
com> Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.com>]
KEYWORDS. Lavender, Lavendula angustifolia Miller, limonene, perillyl
alcohol, POH
SYNONYMS/COMMON NAMES/RELATED SUBSTANCES
Common lavender, English lavender, garden lavender, Lavandula
burnamii, Lavandula dentate, Lavandula dhofarensis, Lavandula latifolia,
Lavandula officinalis L., Lavandula stoechas, limonene, perillyl alcohol,
pink lavender, POH, true lavender, white lavender.
CLINICAL BOTTOM LINE/EFFECTIVENESS
Brief Background
Lavender is native to the Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula, Rus-
sia, and Africa. It has been used cosmetically and medicinally through-
out history. In modern times, lavender is cultivated around the world
and the fragrant oils of its flowers are used in aromatherapy, baked
goods, candles, cosmetics, detergents, jellies, massage oils, perfumes,
powders, shampoo, soaps, and tea. English lavender (L. angustifolia)is
the most common species of lavender used, although other species are in
use, including Lavandula burnamii, L. dentate, L. dhofarensis, L. latifolia,
and L. stoechas.
64 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
Many people find lavender aromatherapy to be relaxing, and it has
been reported to have anxiolytic effects in several small, methodologi
-
cally flawed trials. Overall, the weight of the evidence suggests a small
positive effect, although additional data from well-designed studies are
required before the evidence can be considered strong.
Lavender aromatherapy is also used as a hypnotic, although there is
insufficient evidence in support of this use.
Small phase I human trials of the lavender constituent perillyl alcohol
(POH) for cancer have suggested safety and tolerability (up to 1200 mg/
m
2
four times/day), although efficacy has not been demonstrated.
Scientific Evidence for Common/Studied Uses
Historical or Theoretical Uses that Lack Sufficient Evidence
Acne, alopecia, analgesia, angioprotectant, anticolic, anticonvulsant,
antidepressant, antiflatulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory,
1
antimicro-
bial,
2
antioxidant,
3
antipyretic, antiseptic, anxiety, appetite stimulant,
asthma, balenotherapy (functional circulatory disorders), cholagogue,
choleretic, chronic bronchitis, ciatrizant, cordial, diabetes,
4
diuretic,
douche, emmenagogue, exercise recovery, gas, hangovers, hyptension,
infertility, insect repellent, insomnia,
5
lice, migraine, non-tubercular
mycobacteria (NTM),
6
parasitic infection, psychosis, rheumatism,
Roehmheld’s syndrome, rubefacient, toothache, varicose veins, vomit
-
ing.
Expert Opinion and Historic Precedent
Lavender is rich in volatile oils and has been used for centuries both
as a fragrance and medicinal herb. Linen bags containing lavender
flowers were commonly placed under pillows for their alleged soporific
properties.
Lavender is thought by some experts to possess antibacterial proper
-
ties. Currently, lavender oil is often used as an aromatherapeutic anxio
-
Monograph from Natural Standard 65
Indication
Evidence Grade
Anxiety (aromatherapy)
B
Hypnotic/Sleep (aromatherapy)
C
Perineal discomfort following childbirth (bathing)
C
Spasmolytic (oral)
C
Antibiotic (topical)
C
Cancer (oral perillyl alcohol [POH])
C
A
B
C
D
E
GRADING
SYSTEM
LINK
lytic and hypnotic, including in the hospital setting.
7
Infusions of
lavender flowers have been used for similar indications.
Brief Safety Summary
Likely Safe: When consumed in amounts commonly found in foods and
beverages (received Generally Recognized as Safe [GRAS] status for food
use in the United States), or when used in recommended oral/topical doses.
Possibly Unsafe: When used concomitantly with central nervous system
depressants, due to potential additive effects.
8,9,10
DOSING TOXICOLOGY
General
Recommended doses are based on those most commonly used in
available trials, or on historical practice. These doses have not necessarily
been shown effective. Anecdotal dosing regimens are based on traditional
health practice patterns and/or expert opinion. With natural products it is
often not clear what the optimal doses are to balance efficacy and safety.
Preparation of products may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer,
and from batch to batch within one manufacturer. Because it is often not
clear what are the active components of a product, standardization may
not be possible, and the clinical effects of different brands may not be
comparable.
Standardization
Lavender products are not standardized in the United States.
Each species of lavender has unique chemical constituents and ac
-
tivity.
The flowers are the part of lavender most often used medicinally.
Adult Dosing (18 Years and Older)
Oral
Tea: One to two teaspoons of the herb taken as a tea (based on anecdote
and expert opinion). The tea can be made by steeping 2 U.S. teaspoons (10
grams) of leaves in 250 mL (1 cup) boiling water for 15 minutes.
66 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
Oral Perillyl Alcohol (POH): In preliminary (phase I) cancer trials,
doses between 800-1200 mg/m
2
four times/day in a 50:50 POH:soybean
oil preparation were tolerated with minimal adverse effects (efficacy has
not been demonstrated).
11,12
Inhalation (Aromatherapy)
Aromatherapy: Two to four drops in 2-3 cups boiling water; inhale va
-
pors. Aromatherapy can be administered intermittently or daily as needed
(based on anecdote and expert opinion).
Topical/Infusion
Bath Additive: For perianal discomfort after childbirth, 6 drops of laven
-
der oil has been studied as a bath additive (no specific brand).
13
Those
wishing to use the whole flower may add 1/4 to 1/2 cup of dried laven-
der flowers to hot bath water (based on anecdote and expert opinion).
Massage Therapy: One to four drops per tablespoon of base oil (based
on anecdote and expert opinion).
Pediatric Dosing (Younger Than 18 Years)
Insufficient data available.
Toxicology
There have been rare reports of sensitization after topical use of lav-
ender.
14,15
Lavender has been reported to exert ‘narcotic-like’ effects in both an
-
imals
8,9
and humans.
5
PRECAUTIONS/CONTRAINDICATIONS
Allergy
Caution should be exercised in patients with known allergy/hyper
-
sensitivity to lavender. Persons with allergy to lavender may experience
mild local skin reactions after topical use of lavender oil.
14,16
Adverse Effects
General: In recommended doses, lavender is generally considered to be
well-tolerated, with minimal adverse effects.
7,13,17
Monograph from Natural Standard 67
Dermatologic: There have been case reports of mild dermatitis follow
-
ing the use of topical lavender oil.
18
One individual developed an itchy
dermatitis on his face after using lavender oil on his pillow.
16
Patch test
-
ing subsequently confirmed a positive allergy to lavender. There have been
reports of photosensitization and changes in skin pigmentation after the use
of topical products containing lavender oil.
19,14
Neurologic/CNS: Central nervous system depression has rarely been re
-
ported with aromatherapy,
5,11
and additive narcotic effects have been noted
in rats when taken orally concomitantly with barbiturates or chloral hy
-
drate.
9,20
Hematologic: Reversible neutropenia has been noted after high oral
doses of perillyl alcohol (POH), a monoterpene constituent of lavender, in
patients with untreatable malignancies (on multiple chemotherapy regi
-
mens).
11
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting and anorexia have been reported af-
ter large oral doses of lavender (>5.0 g/day),
21,22
and after large doses of the
lavender constituent perillyl alcohol (POH).
12
Precautions/Warnings/Contraindications
Avoid in patients with a known allergy/hypersensitivity to lavender,
based on several case reports of dermatitis in patients with lavender al-
lergy.
16,19
Use cautiously in patients who are currently taking drugs that depress
the central nervous system, because concomitant use of lavender may
exacerbate sedation.
5,9,10
Pregnancy and Lactation
Not recommended due to lack of sufficient data.
Due to its purported properties as an emmenagogue, excessive inter
-
nal use should be avoided during pregnancy. However, there is no de
-
finitive evidence in this area.
INTERACTIONS
Lavender/Drug Interactions
Sedating Drugs: In rats, concomitant use of lavender and pentobarbital
or chloral hydrate has significantly increased sleeping time and narcotic ef
-
68 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
fects.
9,20
Concurrent use with other sedative or hypnotic agents theoreti
-
cally may act in an additive or synergistic fashion.
Anticoagulants, NSAIDs, Anti-Platelet Agents: Lavender contains vary
-
ing amounts of coumarins and may therefore theoretically increase the ef
-
fect of anticoagulant medications.
Anti-Seizure Medications: Lavender enhances GABA effects and may
therefore intensify the sedative effects of GABA-dependent antiepileptics.
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors, Niacin, Cholesterol Lowering Agents;
Theoretical Positive Interaction: Lavender may act in an additive fashion
with cholesterol-lowering agents: Cineole, a cyclic monoterpene found in
lavender, lowers cholesterol in rats via inhibition of the HMG-CoA en
-
zyme; the lavender constituent perillyl alcohol (POH) has been shown to
inhibit the conversion of lathesterol to cholesterol.
23,24
Lavender/Herb/Supplement Interactions
Sedating Agents: Lavender has been found to have sedative effects in
animal models, and acts additively with sedatives including pentobarbital
and chloral hydrate.
9,20
In theory, it may intensify the effects of other seda-
tive agents such as kava or valerian root.
Anticoagulant Herbs/Supplements: Lavender contains varying amounts
of coumarins and may therefore theoretically increase the effect of antico-
agulant medications.
Lavender/Food Interactions
Insufficient available evidence.
Lavender/Lab Interactions
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipo-
protein (HDL): Based on animal studies, oral lavender may act similarly to
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and lower total cholesterol/LDL while
raising HDL.
23,24
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Pharmacology
Lavender is comprised of over 100 constituents, including linalool,
perillyl alcohol, linalyl acetate, camphor, limonene, tannins, triterpenes,
coumarins, cineole, and flavonoids.
Linalool has been shown to reduce motor activity in mice due to a
Monograph from Natural Standard 69
dose-related binding to glutamate, a primary excitatory neurotransmitter
of the central nervous system, and it has been suggested that hypnotic
and anticonvulsant effects of lavender may be due to the potentiation of
the neurotransmitter GABA.
25
The mechanism of lavender’s spasmolytic activity has not been fully
elucidated. Gamez et al. studied the antispasmodic effect of L. dentate (a
lavender species) in vitro.
26
An observed antagonism of acetylcholine-in
-
duced muscle contractions was attributed largely to cineole. Lis-Balchin et
al. observed that the linalool and linalyl acetate in L. angustifolia oil can in
-
duce cAMP-mediated relaxation of guinea pig ileum smooth muscle.
27
The
authors postulated a cAMP-based mechanism for lavender’s purported
physiological effects on sympathetic nervous system activity.
Components of lavender appear to have cytotoxic properties. Fulton
et al. demonstrated cell proliferating effects of perillyl alcohol (POH)
on smooth muscle cell cultures.
28
Both limonene and POH have been
shown to inhibit tumor growth in rats by blocking initiation and by pro-
moting apoptosis.
29,30,31
One in vitro study evaluated the effects of POH in
lung carcinogenesis, and described an inhibitory effect on farnesylation, a
step towards activation of the oncogene K-ras.
32
The lipid-lowering effect of lavender has been attributed to the con-
stituent cineole, a cyclic monoterpene which lowers cholesterol in rats
via inhibition of the HMG-CoA enzyme.
23
The lavender constituent
perillyl alcohol (POH) has been shown to inhibit the conversion of lathesterol
to cholesterol.
24
Caffeic acid, a constituent of lavender, has been demonstrated to pos-
sess antioxidant effects in vitro.
33
Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics
Topical: Lavender oil is quickly absorbed by the skin. The constituents
linalool and linalyl acetate are detectable in the blood five minutes after
topical application, peak at 19 minutes, and largely disappear from the
blood within 90 minutes.
34
Oral: The constituents limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are metabo
-
lized into perillic acid (PA) and dihydroperillic acid (DHPA). In rats fed a
diet containing POH or limonene, peak levels of PA can be seen at 1-2.5
hours, peak levels of DHPA are noted at 2-3.5 hours, and half-lives for
each metabolite are 1-2 hours.
30
POH, PA, and DHPA are detectable in
subjects’ urine following high doses of POH ingestion. Approximately
9% of the total dose can be recovered in the first 24 hours. PA is the ma
-
jor metabolite found, with <1% of recovered POH.
70 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
The absorption of POH does not appear to be affected by concomi
-
tant ingestion of foods.
11,12
HISTORY
The name lavender is derived from the Latin lavare, meaning to wash.
In ancient Greece, Persia and Rome, it was used as a perfume in baths and
laundry, and as an antiseptic. Ancient Egyptians created mummification
casts by soaking linen in oil of lavender containing asphalt, then wrapping
the bodies with these and drying them in the sun until the casts were hard.
Lavender has been renowned as a ‘healing agent’ in India and Tibet. In Ti
-
betan Buddhist medicine, lavender is still used to treat insanity and psycho-
ses. Today, in Europe and the Americas, lavender is often used as an
anxiolytic and sleep aid.
EVIDENCE TABLE
Monograph from Natural Standard 71
Condition Study Design Author,
Year
N Statistically
Significant?
Quality of
Study
0-2=poor
3-4=good
5=excellent
Magnitude
of Benefit
ARR NNT Comments
Anxiety Not randomized,
controlled
Saeki,
2000
10 Yes 1 Small NA NA Poor
description of
methodology;
unclear
blinding or
randomization.
Anxiety Randomized,
controlled
Dunn,
1995
12
2
Yes 1 Small NA NA Initial benefit
dissipated
after first
session.
Anxiety Not randomized,
controlled
Motomura,
1998
42 Yes 0 Large NA NA Small study,
results unclear
due to lack of
randomization.
Anxiety Case series Itai, 2000 14 Yes NA Large NA NA No significant
difference
compared to
odorless smell.
Hypnotic Case series Hardy,
1995
4 NA NA None NA NA Small series
using
aromatherapy.
Perineal
relief
following
childbirth
Double-blind,
randomized,
controlled
Dale,
1994
63
5
No 3 None NA NA Subjective
outcome
measure,
incomplete
data, no
difference
found.
Tumor
regression
Case series
(phase I clinical
trial)
Ripple,
1998
18 NA 1 NA NA NA Uncontrolled
trial using
perillyl alcohol
(POH).
EVIDENCE DISCUSSION
Anxiety (Aromatherapy)
Summary: In general, the evidence supporting lavender aromatherapy as
an anxiolytic is weak. There are conflicting results from methodologically
flawed studies, with some showing lack of effect. However, overall, the
weight of the evidence suggests a small positive effect in relieving anxiety.
Further study through well-designed randomized trials would strengthen this
case. However, there are inherent difficulties involved with designing blind
-
ing or placebo control for study of an olfactory therapy. These difficulties
must be overcome before compelling results can be generated.
Evidence: Saeki et al. attempted to demonstrate that lavender aromatherapy
via footbath produced anxiolytic effects compared to placebo.
17
This “be-
fore and after” study, which consisted of 10 subjects, concluded that a hot
footbath with lavender oil is associated with small but significant changes
in autonomic activity. However, the incomplete description of methodol-
ogy and analysis make results difficult to interpret.
Dunn et al. conducted a randomized, single-blind study in 122 inten-
sive care unit patients, allocated to one of three groups: body massage
with grapeseed oil, body massage with lavender oil, or undisturbed
rest.
7
Psychological endpoints were assessed using an arbitrary 4-point
scale, and physiological endpoints included blood pressure, heart rate,
and breaths-per-minute. Treatment ranged from one to three 30-minute
sessions, 24 hours apart. All patients received at least one session; 66
patients completed three sessions. After the first session, patients who
had received a massage with lavender oil had significantly less anxiety
than the group who rested. This difference was not maintained in the
following sessions. It is not clear to what extent the lack of dou-
ble-blinding, or the high dropout rate, affected results.
Motomura et al. conducted an experiment in which 42 students were di
-
vided into three groups: Group 1 experienced a “stressful condition;” group
2 experienced a “stressful condition” with the addition of lavender odor;
group 3 experienced a “non-stressful condition.” Stress was evaluated
based on a Japanese version of Cox and Mackay’s stress/arousal adjective
checklist. The experiment found that scores in the lavender group were sig
-
nificantly lower than the group who was stressed and did not receive laven
-
der therapy.
35
However, blinding and randomization were not clearly
described.
In a case series consisting of 14 female, chronic renal failure patients
on hemodialysis, Itai et al. evaluated the effect of lavender oil on mood
72 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamil
-
ton rating scale for Anxiety (HAMA).
36
Compared to natural smell (base
-
line), lavender was observed to decrease anxiety as evidenced by the
HAMA scale (P = 0.05). Lavender did not significantly alter patients’
HAMD scores from baseline. When lavender was compared to odorless
conditions, the difference in HAMA and HAMD scores was minimal.
Buckle compared therapeutic benefits of oils from two different spe
-
cies of lavender (L. angustifolia and L. burnatti) applied by massage to 28
hospitalized patients.
37
A semi-structured interview to collect qualitative,
subjective data was used several days after treatment. The study reported
that L. burnatti had significantly more relaxing effects than its counterpart.
However, further details of statistical analysis or methodology were in-
complete, thus raising question about the results.
Hypnotic/Sleep (Aromatherapy)
Summary: Many experts and patients believe that lavender aromatherapy
is an effective hypnotic. Although preliminary evidence suggests some
hypnotic effects of lavender, there are no randomized trials in the available
literature. Without further study, the current evidence can only be consid-
ered equivocal. However, there are inherent difficulties involved with de-
signing blinding or placebo control for study of an olfactory therapy. These
difficulties must be overcome before compelling results can be generated.
Evidence: Hardy et al. evaluated aromatherapeutic lavender as an alter-
native to conventional hypnotics in four geriatric patients.
5
Sleep hours
were monitored during three two-week phases. During phase I, subjects
continued their current hypnotic (temazepam, promazine, chlormethiazole).
Phase II involved a withdrawal and washout period. During phase III, lav
-
ender oil was introduced into the patients’ sleeping quarters via an odor dif
-
fuser. The results demonstrated that hours asleep were comparable to the
number of hours asleep during phase I of the trial for all four participants.
However, without controls or blinding, results can only be considered pre
-
liminary.
Diego et al. demonstrated the effects of three-minute aromatherapy
sessions using a 10% lavender oil concentration on participants’ brain
waves via electroencephalogram (EEG).
38
The EEG reading was re
-
corded prior, during, and after sessions. Alpha and beta activity were found
to increase after the inhalation of lavender. Notably, increased frontal alpha
and beta activity have been associated with increased drowsiness, which
provides mechanistic supportive evidence for this purported indication.
Monograph from Natural Standard 73
Perineal Discomfort Following Childbirth (Baths)
Summary: There is insufficient scientific evidence regarding the use of
lavender oil baths for the relief of postpartum perineal discomfort.
Evidence: Dale and Cornwell examined the effect of lavender oils baths
on perineal discomfort in 635 postpartum women in a randomized trial.
13
Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 added a natural lavender
oil extract to baths, group 2 added a synthetic lavender oil to baths, and the
third group used an unspecified control substance that had U.S. “Generally
Recognized As Safe” status. The control was reported to be distinguishable
from the other two oils by smell, and in efforts to compensate for this, pa
-
tients were informed that the trial was testing “different bath additives.” To
evaluate discomfort, women were asked to complete visual analogue
scales (VAS), a subjective questionnaire used to evaluate the degree of dis-
comfort over the 10 days of the experiment. Data were obtained from
~60% (n = 386) of participants. Although this trial found no significant dif-
ferences in perineal relief between the groups, the large dropout rate and
lack of information about the control substance (which could have been ac-
tive) raise doubts about the validity of results.
Spasmolytic (Oral)
Summary: Preliminary data from animal and in vitro studies indicate a
potential spasmolytic effect of lavender oil inhalation. However, human
evidence is lacking.
Animal Data: A variety of lavender species have demonstrated an abil-
ity to inhibit stimulated muscle contractions in the ileum and conjunctiva of
animal models.
26,39,40,27,41
Antibiotic (Topical)
Summary: Preliminary data from in vitro studies suggest that lavender
oils possess antibiotic activity. However, this has not been tested in animal
or human studies, and results cannot be considered clinically relevant.
In Vitro Data: Gabbrielli et al. demonstrated in vitro activity of lavender
oil (L. angustifolia and L. latifolia) against various strains of non-tubercular
Mycobacterium.
6
Nelson et al. found documented activity of 2% to
0.12% (v/v) lavender oils against both methicillin-resistant Staphylo
-
coccus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
2
74 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
Cancer (Oral)
Summary: Preliminary data from animal studies suggest an antineoplastic
effect of oral perillyl alcohol (POH) and other monoterpenes found in lav
-
ender. Studies have focused on cancers of the pancreas, breast, and intes
-
tine. Small phase I studies have been conducted in humans, suggesting
safety and tolerability of POH (up to 1200 mg/m
2
four times/day), but effi
-
cacy has not been established.
Animal Data: Elegbede et al. and Haag et al. demonstrated regression of
primary mammary tumors in rats after supplementing diets with limonene
and POH (lavender constituents).
29,30
Burke et al. documented inhibition of
pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth in hamsters using a similar diet.
42
Reddy et al. found a significant chemoprotective effect of oral POH on
carcinogenesis of the large and small intestines in rats.
43
Human Evidence: In a phase I clinical trial, Ripple et al. examined
the potential of POH to suppress tumor growth in humans.
11
This study
consisted of 18 patients with advanced malignancies of various origins,
refractory to standard therapies. POH was formulated in gelatin cap-
sules containing 250 mg of POH and 250 mg of soybean oil. Prior to re-
ceiving POH, as a washout, patients did not receive hormonal or
immunological therapy for two weeks, or chemotherapy/radiation for
four weeks. Patients were divided into three groups: 800 mg/m
2
/dose;
1600 mg/m
2
/dose; or 2400 mg/m
2
/dose, three times/day. Although no
objective tumor responses were noted, disease stabilization was noted
in several patients for up to six months. POH was generally well toler-
ated, although dose-dependent gastrointestinal side effects (nausea,
early satiety) and fatigue led to withdrawal of one patient from the
study.
In a second case series, the same authors examined the effects of
more frequent administration at slightly lower doses.
12
Nineteen patients
with various malignancies, refractory to standard treatment, were treated
at the following doses: 800 mg/m
2
/dose; 1200 mg/m
2
/dose; or 1600 mg/
m
2
/dose, four times/day. The maximum tolerated dose of POH given
continuously four times/day was 1200 mg/m
2
/dose. Patterns of disease
progression similar to the initial trial were observed at all doses. Al
-
though promising, these results must be further evaluated through con
-
trolled studies before a recommendation can be made. Nonetheless,
these small studies suggest safety and tolerability of POH at doses up to
1200 mg/m
2
four times/day.
Monograph from Natural Standard 75
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-
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78 JOURNAL OF HERBAL PHARMACOTHERAPY
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... Lavender, rich in volatile oils, has been used for centuries as both a fragrance and medicinal herb (Basch et al., 2004) and, more recently, as a flavouring agent/ingredient in the food industry (Seidler-Ło _ zykowska, Mordalski, Kucharski, Kę dzia, & Bocianowski, 2014). L. angustifolia Mill., used in this study, is a perennial plant with edible flowers that belongs to the Lamiaceae family (Grzeszczuk, Stefaniak, & Pachlowska, 2016). ...
Article
Lipid composition and oxidative stability of Gouda-type cheese, with and without lavender flower powder as a flavouring ingredient, was evaluated during 30 days of maturation at 14 °C. Triacylglycerols represented the main lipid fraction, followed by diacylglycerols, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and monoacylglycerols, and generally, there were no significant changes in their content with ripening time. Saturated fatty acids prevailed in cheese fats, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic, oleic, myristic, and stearic acids as the main ones. The fatty acid profile was not significantly influenced by ageing, regardless of cheese assortment. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased with ripening time in control cheese and had a V-shape behaviour in lavender cheese, while peroxide value did not change substantially in both cheeses. Supplementation of milk used in Gouda-type cheese making with lavender flower powder (0.5 g L⁻¹) did not significantly interfere with lipolytic and oxidative processes.
... Todays, Lavandula angustifolia Miller (lavender) is considered as one of the most frequent essential oils for treatments of mental disorders, for example, anxiety, insomnia, stress, and depression [70]. Reviews regarding the mechanisms of lavender in aromatherapy, previous studies have revealed that this plant due to the high content of terpenoid compounds such as linalool and linalyl acetate displayed their promising effects in aromatherapy for improving anxiety, and depression through some mechanisms, for example, interact with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and dysfunction of voltage-gated calcium channels, inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT), and increased parasympathetic tone [71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was a comprehensive review of studies on the effect of aromatherapy with plant essential oils on the improvement of some conditions, for example, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, fatigue, and pain in people with cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: We carried out this systematic review based on the instructions of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ethical agreement was not necessary as main data have not been collected. During March 2022, we searched the main English databases, for example, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed/MEDLINE, with limitation to human clinical trials. For this study, no time limit was applied for the publication of articles. Results: Out of 1380 papers, 52 papers up to March 2022 were eligible for review in this systematic review. Based on the obtained results, the most widely used medicinal plants for aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases were Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, 55.7%), Rosa damascena (Damask rose, 11.5%), and Mentha piperita (peppermint, 5.8%), respectively. Most studies have been performed on the effect of aromatherapy on coronary angiography (21 papers, 40.4%), followed by artery bypass graft surgery (14 studies, 26.9%), and cardiac patients (5 studies, 9.6%). Most studies on the effect of aromatherapy in cardiovascular diseases were performed on anxiety (31 papers, 59.6%), sleep quality (8 studies, 15.4%), and hemodynamic parameters (6 studies, 11.5%), respectively. Conclusion: This study systematically reviewed the effects of aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The review of studies showed that lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint are the most frequents plants used for aromatherapy, whereas they significantly improved some illnesses and conditions, especially anxiety and sleep quality. Therefore, it can be concluded that cardiologist can used aromatherapy as a natural complementary and alternative therapy particularly with lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint to improve quality of life and some conditions such as anxiety and sleep quality.
... Although, the neuroprotective properties of lavender has been proven (Koulivand et al., 2013), the mechanism of action of Lavender in OD has not been clearly known. This plant has some constituents such as polyphenols, and esters, which are known for their antiinflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002;Basch et al., 2004;Hajhashemia et al., 2003). Therefore, lavender may be effective on OD by its anti-inflammatory activities. ...
Article
Objective: The effect of lavender syrup on COVID-19-induced olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been assessed in this study. Materials and methods: This pilot clinical trial was conducted in Gonbad-E-Kavoos (Golestan province, Iran). Twenty-three outpatients with COVID-19 and OD in lavender group took 9 ml of lavender syrup/bid for 3 weeks along with the standard COVID-19 treatments and 20 patients in control group took only standard COVID-19 treatments. The severity of OD was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Data analysis was performed by Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean± standard deviation of age was 36.6±9.1, and 42.6±10.4 years (p=0.05), and the duration of symptoms was 7.4±3.5, and 7.5±3.4 days (p=0.98) in the lavender and control group, respectively. The VAS score for OD decreased from 6.8±3.04 to 0.26±0.86 in the lavender group and from 5.3±3.4 to 1±2.61 in the control group. Although, VAS for OD was significantly decreased in both groups (p<0.001), the amount of VAS decrease was 6.6±2.9 scores in the lavender group, and 4.3±4 in the control group (p=0.03). No side effects were observed in the lavender group. Conclusion: The present study showed that lavender syrup is an effective treatment for COVID-19-induced OD. It is suggested to conduct further studies with larger sample size.
... Lavandula spica L.) is a perennial evergreen shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. Nowadays, this species is naturalized almost all over Europe, North Africa, United States, and Australia [1]. L.angustifolia (Lavander) is one of the most valuable medicinal and aromatic plants traditionally used to treat pain, parasitic infections, burns, insect bites, cramps, and muscle spasms [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The producers of essential oils from the Republic of Moldova care about the quality of their products and at the same time, try to capitalize on the waste from processing. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition of lavender (Lavanda angustifolia L.) essential oil and some by-products derived from its production (residual water, residual herbs), as well as to assess their “in vitro” antimicrobial activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oils produced by seven industrial manufacturers led to the identification of 41 constituents that meant 96.80–99.79% of the total. The main constituents are monoterpenes (84.08–92.55%), followed by sesquiterpenes (3.30–13.45%), and some aliphatic compounds (1.42–3.90%). The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis allowed the quantification of known triterpenes, ursolic, and oleanolic acids, in freshly dried lavender plants and in the residual by-products after hydrodistillation of the essential oil. The lavender essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora at 300 μg/mL concentration, and Erwinia amylovora, Candida utilis at 150 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Lavender plant material but also the residual water and ethanolic extracts from the solid waste residue showed high antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, Bacillus sp., and Pseudomonas aeroginosa strains, at 0.75–6.0 μg/mL, 0.08–0.125 μg/mL, and 0.05–4.0 μg/mL, respectively.
... angustifolia, S. sclarea) families and are native to the Mediterranean region and/or West Asia. However, nowadays, they are grown throughout the world [3][4][5][6][7]. Lavender, lovage, and clary sage are perennial plants, whereas dill and coriander are annual. ...
Article
Full-text available
The mineral contents of roots, leaves, stalks, and inflorescences of the aromatic plant species Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, and Salvia sclarea L. were studied by means of neutron activation analysis. The contents of 36 major and trace elements were determined and biological transfer coefficients were calculated. Among major and minor elements, K with a content in the range of 9230–59,600 mg/kg and Fe in the range of 69–3420 mg/kg were the most abundant elements in the studied plants. The content of the toxicant As ranged between 0.14–0.79 mg/kg; however, in the leaves (1.3 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1.0 mg/kg) of L. angustifolia there was found to be about 1 mg/kg, equal to the guideline maximal level recommended for food by the WHO. By comparing the data to Markert’s Reference Plant, “chemical fingerprints” were identified for each species. High contents of the elements Al, Hf, Se, Sc, Na, Ta, Th were determined in all studied plants. Collocated soil samples from the cultivation field were analyzed to calculate the biological accumulation coefficients for 35 of the elements determined in the plants. Considering the levels of chemical elements, the medicinal herb samples investigated are considered as relatively safe for human consumption. Keywords: medicinal plants; aromatic plants; elemental analysis; biological coefficient; neutron activation analysis
... Dioscorides in 1 st Century AD has described it first in his book "De Materia Medica". The name of the genus is given from the word 'Lavare' means 'to wash', as it was used to wash the body and clothes in ancient Greek and Rome [14]. The specific name is taken from 'Stoechades', a group of islands on the south coast of the Marseilles, where it grows abundantly [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ustukhuddus (Lavandula stoechas L.) is one of the most important aromatic plant of the family Lamiaceae. It is named as Jarub-i�Dimagh (broom of brain) in Unani System of Medicine due to its scavenging property of evacuating morbid matters from the brain, those matters may cause neurological disorders like insomnia, amnesia, melancholia etc. The drug is used since time immemorial and was mentioned by Dioscorides in 1st Century AD for its various pharmacological properties. Various studies on its effect on nervous system have been explored by researchers which may attributes to its bioactive compounds present in it like, glycosides, phenols, steroids, terpenes etc. This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the phytochemistry, and pharmacological actions along with its uses in the perspective of Unani System of Medicine
Article
Sleep disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder amongst the general population. It is also one of the most frequent complaints in primary healthcare centers. Lavender is called “the broom of the brain” in different oriental traditional medicines. It is one of the most used plants for patients with sleep disorders. This study reviews what is currently known about the use of lavender for sleep disorders in patients with different diseases, from cancers and end‐stage renal disease to neurological‐psychiatric diseases (e.g., depression, dementia, and autism), respiratory, cardiac, and metabolic diseases. Additionally, its most used administration route is the inhalation of its essential oil (i.e., aromatherapy) alone or in combination by massage. Some limitations of the reviewed literature were discussed briefly. Overall, this critical review provides promising evidence of the lavender efficacy for sleep disorders in a wide variety of populations and diseases. However, further clinical studies with robust design and longer durations of intervention are necessary for more evidence‐based judgment on its effect on sleep problems and to investigate its mechanism of action.
Research
ABSTRACT: The disparity between levels of antioxidant defenses and the levels of oxidant can lead to a condition called oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can damage the four biomolecules that make up cell structure and function so that it can cause various disease. So, antioxidant are needed that can work as ROS (oxidant) reducers. English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) which is a decorative plant, food ingredient, and traditional medicine is a source of antioxidant. The purpose of this study is to examine secondary metabolites, total antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, alkaloid content, and cytotoxicity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. flower extract. This experimental research consist of In-vitro and bioassay examination. The in-vitro test consisted of a phytochemical screening (Harborne), total antioxidant capacity using DPPH (Blois), phenolic content (Singleton and Rossi), alkaloid content (Trivedi et al), and cytotoxicity bioassay using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Meyer) on the methanol extract of english lavender flower. This study using maceration method. The semi-quantitative test shows that the sample's extract contains phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, quinones, glycosides, cardioglycosides, coumarins, anthocyanins dan bethacyanins. The result of the total antioxidant capacity test is (IC50 = 264.39 µg/mL) which is considered medium, total phenolic content (1960.44 µg/mL), total alkaloid content (14.01 g/mL) and toxicity test (LC50 = 281.16 µg/mL) which is considered toxic thus has the potential to be antioxidant and antimitotic. Keywords: Lavandula angustifolia Mill., English Lavender, OMCL, Oxidative Stress, Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, DPPH, BSLT
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Herbs of the lavender genus are widely used today as anti-bacterial drugs in traditional medicine. Lavandula angustifolia (LA) is endemic in the Iberian Peninsula and common in Iran that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Lavandula oils, well known for their scent and aroma, have been used in the perfumery and food industry for many years, therefore the aim of this study is the assessment of the anti-bacterial effect of LA extracts against pathogens and non-pathogen bacteria. Methods: 96-well microplates MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Five Serial dilutions from 50 to 1 μg/mL concentrations were admitted for all bacteria which include: Escherichia Coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Probiotics complex. Results: LA watery extract demonstrate the statically inhibitory effect in just 50 g/L concentration against E.Coli, E. Faecalis, Pu, and Probiotic p= 0.024, 0.025, 0.004, and 0.012 respectively, whereas this concentration was 1g/L for Staph. aureus p=0.026. LA alcohol extracts display the same effect in 1g/L for all bacteria p= 0.000. Conclusion: Our results showed that LA in both watery and Alcohol extractions can inhibit both pathogenic and non-pathogen bacteria whereas active compounds are alcohol soluble. Long-time consumption of LA in the herbal product could disrupt normal bacteria of the gastrointestinal system.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils that derive from aromatic plants are typically obtained by steam distillation known as important sources of novel therapeutic molecules. Also, during distillation, part of these essential oil components become dissolved in and remain in the distillation water and giving a 'product' called as hydrosol, which is also known as the distillate water. Hydrosol possess various applications in health, cosmetic and food industries selectively contains polar volatile components. Also, it finds application in aromatherapy that has been steadily gaining popularity in today's society as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. This review discusses bio-active properties of some important hydrosol and their medicinal potential. Introduction:
Article
Full-text available
In the present experiment the effect of the lavender odorant to human beings was investigated. Japanese version of Cox and Mackay's stress / arousal adjective checklist (J-SACL) , blood pressure, heart rate, stroop test, non-spatial working memory task and the computed electroencephalography (cEEG) was performed before and after the lavender odorants stimulation. The results indicated that lavender odorants have an anti-stress effect and reduce the arousal state in J-SACL, although lavender odorants did not influence blood pressure, heart rate, stroop test and non-spatial working memory task. Furthermore, the power spectrum of theta 1 (F4) was increased and beta 1 waves in T3, O1, P4 and F4 were decreased in the lavender stimulated group. These results suggest that the lavender odorants reduce an electrophysiological arousal state. CoxとMackayにより開発されたストレスチェックリスト,血圧,脈拍,ストループ課題,非空間性作動記憶課題と脳波定量分析をもちいて,ラベンダーの香りが人体に及ぼす影響を調べた。その結果,ラベンダーの香りには抗ストレス作用があることが認められたが,血圧,脈拍,ストループ課題および非空間性作動記憶課題には変化はみられなかった。ラベンダーの負荷後,脳波のパワースペクトラムではF4のθ1波が増加し,T2,O1,P4におけるβ1波が減少していた。このことは,ラベンダーの香りには脳波上覚醒度を下げる働きがあることを示唆するものである。
Article
Full-text available
The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
Article
Objectives:This study was designed to investigate the effect of foot-bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system. Design: Randomized crossover controlled study. Setting: Nursing college, Nagano, Japan. Intervention:Young women sat with their feet soaked in hot water for 10 minutes with and without the essential oil. Outcome measures:An electrocardiogram, finger tip blood now and respiratory rate were recorded,Autonomic function was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Results:The foot-bath caused no changes in heart or respiratory rates, but produced a significant increase in blood now. Using spectral analysis, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly during the both types of foot-bath. In the case of the foot-bath with the addition of essential oil of lavender, there were delayed changes to the balance of autonomic activity in the direction associated with relaxation. Conclusion:A hot foot-bath and oil of lavender appear to be associated with small but significant changes in autonomic activity. (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Article
Synopsis In the present study, the percutaneous absorption of the essential oil of lavender from a massage oil was investigated. It was shown that lavender oil penetrates the skin of a male subject. Within five minutes of finishing, the massage traces of linalool (1) and linalyl acetate (2) as the main constituents of lavender oil could be detected in the blood. After 20 minutes, 100 ng/ml for 2 and 121 ng/ml for 1 showed up as the maximum concentration. Within 90 minutes, most of the lavender oil was eliminated. The sedative and relaxing effect of lavender oil after a massage may be based on two different ways of incorporation: the inhalation of fragrant molecules and the penetration through the skin.
Article
Abstract Effects of aromatherapy (odorless condition, lavender, and hiba oil) on mood and anxiety were investigated in 14 female patients who were being treated with chronic hemodialysis. A control period consisting of natural hospital smells was established before each test session, and then aromatic test conditions were systematically evaluated for odorless conditions as well as aromatic conditions containing lavender and hiba oil aromas. The effects of aromatherapy were measured using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAMA). Hiba oil aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMD and HAMA, and lavender aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMA. The mean scores of HAMD and HAMA in an odorless condition were not significantly different from those of the control conditions. These results indicate that in chronic hemodialysis patients hiba oil is an effective, non-invasive means for the treatment of depression and anxiety, and that lavender alleviates anxiety.
Article
Mice Swiss are orally given essential oil of lavander diluted at 1/60 in olive oil. Sedative effects are observed with some tests (hole board test, four plates test, plus-maze test, potentiation of barbiturate sleeping time). A significant interaction exists with pentobarbital: the sleeping time is increased and the asleeping time shortened.
Article
The antihypertensive activity of spirapril given alone or in combination with felodipine was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during a 3-week treatment regimen and for one week after drug withdrawal. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded once a week just before dosing and at varying time intervals up to 6 hr thereafter. Recordings were continued for one week after drug withdrawal. Spirapril alone at 1 and 5 mg/kg p.o. was found to produce dose-related antihypertensive effects throughout the treatment period. Felodipine alone at 5 mg/kg p.o. reduced blood pressure slightly more than did the low dose of spirapril. The combination of spirapril and felodipine induced a marked antihypertensive response which was greater than that observed in rats treated with either drug alone. One week after treatment withdrawal, blood pressure was at initial levels with no evidence of rebound phenomena. No significant heart rate changes were observed in the treated groups, as compared with the controls, except for an increase on the 1st day of treatment in rats given felodipine. These findings indicate that the combination of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a calcium antagonist leads to an effective control of hypertension over a prolonged period of treatment. Since the combination allows effectiveness with lower doses of ACE inhibitor, it is expected that the antihypertensive efficacy might be associated with a lower liability to untoward effects.
Article
An 18-year-old female hairdresser had a red, scaly, itchy dermatitis on the back of her hands and fingers and front of the wrists. She had worked as an apprentice hairdresser for 4 years, mainly shampooing, but also in contact with permanent wave liquids and dyes. She usually had dry fissured skin on the back of the hands, but in the previous 6 months, it had become worse with extension to the fingers, and itching. She had a history of nickel allergy but not atopy. She was patch tested with the standard and hairdresser's series (Trolab), with several shampoos and other products with which she was in contact in her job. At 48 and 96 h, the following positive tests were observed: nickel sulfate 5% pet. ++; p-phenylenediamine 1% pet. +++; p-toluenediamine 1% pet. +++; ammonium thioglycolate 2.5% pet. +++; permanent wave liquid 20% water +++; lavender shampoo 5% water +++. The lavender shampoo was the one she used several times a day. Although we could not obtain its composition from the manufacturer, she was patch tested some weeks later with lavender oil (1% ethanol) and several formaldehyde releaser preservatives. A strong positive reaction (+++) to lavender oil was observed.