## No full-text available

To read the full-text of this research,

you can request a copy directly from the author.

Latent growth models estimated developmental trajectories for adolescents' math and English self-perceptions (perceived talent, success expectancies), values (intrinsic, utility) and task perceptions (task difficulty, effort required). A longitudinal cohort-sequential study included 1,323 participants spanning Grades 7 to 11, with Occasion 1 mean ages 13.19, 12.36, and 14.41, respectively, for Cohorts 1, 2, and 3. Self-perceptions and values declined through adolescence, and ratings about difficulty and effort required increased. Gender differences favored boys for math and girls for English, with little evidence for gender intensification or gender convergence hypotheses. Explanations reference socialization and social-cognitive developmental theories and features of the curricula, with domain-specific patterns implying domain-specific explanations. Existing research is extended by modeling a broadened set of social-cognitive constructs within the Australian context.

To read the full-text of this research,

you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Moreover, research suggests gender differences in students' motivation (Petersen & Hyde, 2014;Jiang et al., 2020) and that variation exists in the ways these disparities develop over time (Spinath & Steinmayr, 2008). In this regard, performance for boys and girls declines as a consequence of students developing more realistic views of their competence over the course of elementary (Spinath & Steinmayr, 2008) or secondary schooling (Jacobs et al., 2002;Jiang et al., 2020;Watt, 2004). Therefore, students may develop less positive ability self-concepts, expectations, and intrinsic values over time (Arens et al., 2019;González-Nuevo et al., 2023;Spinath & Steinmayr, 2008). ...

... Hypothesis 2. As a part of students' adaptation to the new study environment, the associations between the different dimensions of motivation in social sciences will momentarily decline during the transition to high school education (Bailey et al., 2020;Jacobs et al., 2002;Jiang et al., 2020;Spinath & Steinmyer, 2008;Wang & Degol, 2013). Hypothesis 3. Males and students from higher SES backgrounds and with high academic performance at the beginning of the study will experience higher intrinsic value, self-concept, and expectations in social sciences than females and students from lower SES families and with a lower level of performance (Wang & Degol, 2013;Watt, 2004). ...

... The results of this study confirm previous research conducted with domains other than social sciences and during earlier educational stages (Arens et al., 2019;Aunola et al., 2004;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 2020;Zee et al., 2021). In this study, three factors of the expectancy component (students' present self-perception of ability, future expectations about their ability, and intrinsic value) identified by the EVT were examined. ...

The present four-wave longitudinal study examines the cross-lagged associations between adolescent students’ intrinsic value, self-concept of ability, and expectations in social sciences during and after the transition from compulsory secondary education to the Spanish high school. 2.032 students enrolled in the last three years of secondary school and the second year of high school education participated. The analyses showed that the associations between the different motivational dimensions declined during the transition to high school education. In addition, students’ self-concept of ability strongly predicted the other two aspects of motivation. Moreover, males and students from higher SES backgrounds and with high academic performance at the beginning of the study experienced higher intrinsic value, self-concept, and expectations in social sciences than females and students from lower SES families and with a lower level of performance. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of their theoretical and practical implications related to youth motivation and career planning.

... Given the evidence that teaching mathematics through a problem-solving approach has the potential to improve students' attitudes and ultimately outcomes in mathematics, the current study sought to understand the extent to which students who were identified by their teacher as underachieving in mathematics viewed mathematics as problem solving. Previous research into how students' attitudes to learning mathematics changes across the years of schooling has generally involved heterogeneous groups of students, adopting either cross-sectional (Deieso & Fraser, 2019;Mason, 2003;Thomson et al., 2004), or longitudinal (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004;Wilkins & Ma, 2003) study designs. By contrast, the current study examines how attitudes towards mathematics differ across the primary and secondary years of schooling amongst a cohort of students identified by their teachers as underachieving. ...

... Similar results have been revealed in a study involving Australian students. Watt (2004), also adopting a longitudinal cohort-sequential design in a study involving over 1,300 Australian secondary students (Year 7-11), found that student selfperceptions with regards to their own mathematical talent declined in a linear fashion over time, whereas their intrinsic valuing of mathematics declined more steeply initially before stabilizing in the upper secondary years. ...

... Specifically, we in fact found that secondary students reported coping better with mathematics than primary students, whereas there was no relationship between valuing mathematics and stage of schooling. This latter finding is consistent with the more ambiguous and nuanced relationship between valuing of mathematics and stage of schooling reported in the literature (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Mullis et al., 2012;Watt, 2004). It is noteworthy then that our study involving a group of students specifically identified as underachieving in mathematics produced a pattern of results of attitudes towards mathematics across schooling that was not dissimilar to other studies involving a broader cross-section of the student population (e.g., TIMMS; Mullis et al., 2012). ...

Students enjoy mathematics less as they move through their schooling and this may be reflective of more negative attitudes towards learning mathematics in general; although not necessarily less valuing of mathematics as a discipline. However, little is known about how stage of schooling influences the relationship between viewing mathematics as problem solving and student attitudes towards mathematics. To address this gap, 123 Australian primary and secondary students identified by their teachers as underachieving in mathematics completed a questionnaire exploring their attitudes towards, and views of, mathematics. We found that although attitudes towards mathematics became more negative as year level increased, this was entirely driven by students enjoying mathematics less; neither their valuing of mathematics, nor their ability to cope with mathematics declined. Similarly, the extent to which students held a problem-solving view of mathematics was unrelated to stage of schooling. Interestingly, however, we also found that students who viewed mathematics as being fundamentally about problem solving were more likely to value mathematics as a discipline, and that this was particularly the case for secondary school students. We discuss how providing opportunities for secondary school students, including underachieving students, to engage with open-ended problem-solving tasks may lead to perceptions of mathematics as useful, purposeful, and important.

... The present work focused on two key facets of mathematics teachers' motivation, namely educational interest (i.e., interest in the pedagogical aspect of teaching such as having an impact on students' social behavior) and relational goals (i.e., striving to achieve close and caring relationships with students), and their contributions to student reports of instructional quality, which in turn are assumed to affect students' interest in the domain of mathematics. There is ample evidence that students' interest in mathematics steadily declines during adolescence (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004). Hence, it is of great practical importance to identify teachers' motivational characteristics that contribute to instructional practices directed at maintaining or even increasing students' mathematics interest, in particular at the secondary school level (Jacobs et al., 2002). ...

... As the dependent variable, we focused on students' subject interest because there is substantial evidence of its positive associations with students' quality of learning (for a review, see Schiefele, 2009), level of achievement (Köller et al., 2001), and other adaptive outcomes, such as students' academic choices (Bong, 2001;Köller et al., 2001;Lapan et al., 1996). Moreover, students' interest in mathematics and science has been found to decrease in particular during adolescence (Frenzel et al., 2010;Potvin & Hasni, 2014;Watt, 2004). Hence, it is of great importance to identify those teacher motivational beliefs and related instructional practices that contribute to preventing the decline of students' subject matter interest. ...

... As such, teachers' educational interest might be beneficial for reducing the strong trend of declining mathematics interest in adolescent students (cf. Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004). Therefore, it seems advisable to emphasize educational interest as an integral part of teacher trainings. ...

... Additional to students' interest loss and heightened perceptions of mathematics as difficult through secondary schooling (Beswick et al., 2006;Watt, 2004), their selfconcepts and valuing of mathematics as useful are important influences on their subsequent mathematical enrolments and mathematics-related career aspirations (Watt et al., 2012). These also decline through adolescence, although boys rate their self-concepts and interest higher, and difficulty of mathematics lower, despite similar measured achievement (Watt, 2004). ...

... Additional to students' interest loss and heightened perceptions of mathematics as difficult through secondary schooling (Beswick et al., 2006;Watt, 2004), their selfconcepts and valuing of mathematics as useful are important influences on their subsequent mathematical enrolments and mathematics-related career aspirations (Watt et al., 2012). These also decline through adolescence, although boys rate their self-concepts and interest higher, and difficulty of mathematics lower, despite similar measured achievement (Watt, 2004). More recently, negative 'cost' values have been empirically examined as deterrents to mathematics engagement. ...

... Fielding et al. (2022) found prospective teachers' perceptions of costs important to understanding their decisions to engage with challenging mathematics tasks. Multidimensional measures of effort cost, psychological cost, and social cost were included by Watt et al. (2019) alongside the positive expectancy-value constructs of perceived talent (akin to ability beliefs; see Bornholt, et al., 1994;Watt, 2004), intrinsic and utility values for each of mathematics and science. Measured potential antecedents were dimensions of perceived classroom environment; assessed potential outcomes were achievement striving, STEM career aspirations, and psychological wellbeing in terms of depression, anxiety, and stress. ...

This study examined the extent to which boys fell into clusters comprised of different levels of motivations and costs. In turn, the antecedents of these clusters and associations with engagement and wellbeing outcomes were considered. Based on survey responses from 168 students across Years 5, 7 and 9 from an all-boys' school in Sydney, Australia, three clusters were identified: Positively Engaged, Disengaged , and Struggling Ambitious . Performance-approach and avoidance achievement goals, mastery classroom goal structure, perceived peer valuing of mathematics and teacher enthusiasm differentially predicted profile membership. Clusters were also found to differ in terms of both wellbeing and engagement, such that students within maladaptive profiles evidenced the most negative outcomes. The study reaffirms prior work, holds implications for addressing student motivation in mathematics, and adds to understanding of the interplay of individual and classroom goal structures in relation to students’ mathematics expectancies, values and resultant outcomes.

... Musik Anderhag et al., 2016;Daniels, 2008;Ferdinand, 2014;Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Gottfried, Fleming & Gottfried, 2001;Häußler & Hoffmann, 1995;Potvin & Hasni, 2014;Potvin, Hasni, Sy & Riopel, 2020;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 1997), sodass stetig nach Erklärungen für die Interessenabnahme sowie nach Förderungsmöglichkeiten des Interesses von Schülerinnen und Schülern gesucht wird (vgl. u.a. ...

... u.a. Daniels, 2008;Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Gottfried et al., 2001;Häußler & Hoffmann, 1995;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 1997). Folglich werden Erklärungsansätze für die Interessenverringerung sowie Möglichkeiten zur Förderung des Interesses von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Schulkontext dringend gesucht (vgl. ...

... u.a. Anderhag et al., 2016;Daniels, 2008;Ferdinand, 2014;Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Frenzel et al., 2010;Gottfried et al., 2001;Häußler & Hoffmann, 1995;Hoffmann et al., 1998;Hoffmann & Lehrke, 1986;Jacobs, Lanza, Osgood, Eccles & Wigfield, 2002;Köller, Baumert & Schnabel, 2001;Potvin & Hasni, 2014;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 1997). In Abhängigkeit des Fachgebiets sowie der analysierten Altersstufe ergeben sich diesbezüglich jedoch differenzielle Ergebnisse (vgl. ...

... Research suggests that although girls attach more weight (than boys) to educational goals they are generally less confident that they can attain them (Massey et al., 2009). Moreover, studies have found that expectations and perceived self-efficacy are lower in female students across a number of subjects including Maths (Huang, 2013;Mozahem et al., 2020;Watt, 2004). In addition, female students report greater anxiety regarding exams (Sung et al., 2016). ...

... Similar declines in PSE for mathematics have been observed by other researchers, especially in female students (e.g. Watt, 2004;Mozahem et al., 2020). Huang (2013) found no gender differences (in mathematics PSE) until the age of 15, by which point female students reported lower PSE for mathematics than males. ...

... Perceived competence in mathematics appears to decline in middle school, particularly amongst female students (Falco, 2019;Watt, 2004). However, in the very first year of secondary school (or middle school in the US), perceived self-efficacy (PSE) in mathematics appears to be relatively high and females feel no less confident in their mathematical abilities than males (Huang, 2013). ...

Perceived goal attainability (PGA) is a crucial variable in education, influencing students’ goal commitment, goal pursuit and psychological wellbeing. Asking students to generate multiple means of goal attainment is thought to have a positive effect on PGA. And yet research on the “availability” heuristic suggests that difficulty in generating means of goal attainment may have a negative effect on PGA. The present study is the first to examine the matter in a real-world middle and high school context. In three experiments female students aged 11–15 were asked to generate many/few means of goal attainment. An inconsistent mediation model was hypothesised in which the “many means” condition has a negative indirect effect on perceived goal attainability through difficulty-in-generation (DIG) but a positive direct effect on the same variable. It was also hypothesised that these effects are greater in students with low baseline PGA. This moderated mediation hypothesis was supported statistically by tests of interaction in Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 3, which involved the youngest students with the highest baseline PGA, difficulty-in-generation and the “Think of many” manipulation appeared to have much less effect, again suggesting that DIG (and “Think of many”) exert less of an influence when students’ baseline PGA is high. Results have important implications for schools, students and educators alike.

... Tyrimai, kuriais buvo stengiamasi išsiaiškinti, kodėl merginų ir vaikinų skaičius STEM studijų programose yra neproporcingas, nustato mergaičių ir berniukų įsitikinimų apie savo matematinius gebėjimus skirtumų tendencijas. Ir senesnių, ir naujesnių tyrimų duomenys liudija, jog berniukai savo matematinius gebėjimus paprastai vertina geriau nei mergaitės, net jei realūs jų pasiekimai mokykloje ir nesiskiria (Crombie et al., 2005;Gladstone et al., 2018;Eccles et al., 1993;Watt, 2004) ar netgi jei mergaitės metiniais pažymiais lenkia berniukus (Jacobs, 1991). Kita vertus, tyrimai, ieškoję subjektyvios matematikos vertės skirtumų tarp lyčių, rodo nevienareikšmius rezultatus. ...

... Kalbant apie vienodus matematikos pasiekimus turinčių mergaičių ir berniukų bei jų tėvų įsitikinimų apie matematiką skirtumus, pirmiausia norisi pabrėžti žemesnį šiame tyrime dalyvavusių mergaičių savo matematinių gebėjimų vertinimą. Tai, jog mergaitės savo matematiniais gebėjimais pasitiki mažiau nei berniukai, nors realiais pasiekimais jos jiems nenusileidžia, randama ir daugelyje kitų tyrimų (Eccles et al., 1993;Watt, 2004;Gladstone et al., 2018). Negana to, mergaitės šiame tyrime atsiliepė prasčiau ir apie matematikos dalyko teigiamą vertę. ...

Straipsnyje pristatomos 7–8 klasių mokinių bei jų tėvų įsitikinimų apie matematinius gebėjimus ir matematikos vertę sąsajos bei šių įsitikinimų palyginimas lyties atžvilgiu. Nustatyta, kad vaikų motyvuojantys įsitikinimai yra susiję su jų tėvų įsitikinimais apie matematiką. Mergaitės apie savo matematinius gebėjimus ir matematikos dalyką atsiliepė prasčiau nei tuos pačius matematikos pasiekimus turintys berniukai, tačiau jų tėvų įsitikinimai apie matematiką lyties atžvilgiu nesiskyrė.

... based on samples of elementary and secondary school students (Wilgenbusch & Merrell, 1999) and also in more recent studies (e.g., Marsh & Ayotte, 2003;Watt, 2004). In addition, based on limited available research, more positive self-evaluations in musical competence (e.g., Kessels, 2005;Neto, Ruiz & Furnham, 2008) and overall artistic abilities (Lapan, Adams, Turner, & Hinkelman, 2000;Whitehead, 1996) were observed in girls than boys. ...

... Girls are more likely than boys to place higher value on overall school success (e.g., Lam et al., 2012;M. Wang, Willett, &Eccles, 2011), reading andwriting (Eurydice Network, 2010;Marsh & Ayotte, 2003;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 1997), and music and the arts (e.g., Andre, Whigham, Hendrickson, & Chambers, 1999;E. M. Evans, Schweingruber, & Stevenson, 2002;Kessels, 2005;Lapan et al., 2000;Simpkins et al., 2012). ...

This chapter presents contemporary theory and research on children's gender development from a social-cognitive perspective. The author first examines contemporary social-cognitive theories and conceptual models pertinent to the study of gender development. These include cognitive-developmental, information-processing, intergroup, and motivational approaches. Second, he summarizes the development of children's gender cognitions and examines their ramifications for a variety of areas, including gender stereotyping, attitudes, prejudice, self-concepts, and gender as a social identity. Third, he considers possible causes and consequences of gender-typed play. In the fourth section, the author reviews research on gender similarities and differences in children's competencies in academic achievement (including verbal, spatial, mathematical, science, and artistic domains), athletic achievement, interpersonal competence, and intrapersonal competence, among others. Fifth, he highlights some of the individual and social-relational influences on gender-related variations in performance and achievement. The chapter closes by advocating for future work that offers more theory-bridging and replications of prior empirical research.

... Empirical research consistently shows that male students on average report higher math and science ability beliefs and interest values (Gaspard et al., 2015;Guo et al., 2015;Nagy et al., 2008). Findings on gender differences in math and science utility and attainment values do not show a consistent pattern favoring either male or female students (Gaspard et al., 2017;Watt, 2004). Female students, on the other hand, report higher ability beliefs and STV in verbal domains (Gaspard et al., 2017;Watt, 2004). ...

... Findings on gender differences in math and science utility and attainment values do not show a consistent pattern favoring either male or female students (Gaspard et al., 2017;Watt, 2004). Female students, on the other hand, report higher ability beliefs and STV in verbal domains (Gaspard et al., 2017;Watt, 2004). Far less research has focused on potential differences in SEVT components by other background characteristics, such as first-generation status. ...

In college, students often encounter situations in which they struggle to meet their academic goals in difficult courses. We integrate the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development and Situated Expectancy-Value Theory to investigate how motivational beliefs and experiences in a difficult course predict the use of goal engagement oriented and goal adjustment oriented control strategies that can help students stay engaged in challenging courses. We used survey data collected in two academic quarters at a public university in the U.S. ( N = 231). Students who perceived their midterm exam as more difficult than expected and students with higher course-specific subjective task values reported using more goal engagement oriented and goal adjustment oriented control strategies. Students with higher course-specific ability beliefs were less likely to use goal adjustment strategies. Results further showed that students planned to use control strategies depending on their experienced setbacks or success in exams. Findings provide important insights into how motivational orientations and course experiences relate to adaptive and goal-oriented behavior in college courses.

... The trajectories are typically curvilinear, with sharper declines in the earlier years of downward trends (Anderhag et al., 2016;Frenzel et al., 2010;Krapp et al., 1992;Krapp & Prenzel, 2011). Similar trajectories have been observed for interest-related constructs such as academic intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, and instrinsic value (e.g., Gottfried et al., 2001;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004;Wigfield & Cambria, 2010). ...

... However, compared to within-class variability, these differences were relatively small but significant. Finally, rank-order stability of class-level interest was low from Grade 5 to 6 and high from Grade 6 to 7. Our findings on the mean interest trajectory are consistent with previous results on interest in STEM subjects (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Frenzel et al., 2012;Krapp & Prenzel, 2011;Potvin & Hasni, 2014), indicating a curvilinear trajectory of decline in interest (see Frenzel et al., 2010;Jacobs et al., 2002;Kim et al., 2015;Watt, 2004). Hence, our results underscore the notion that the lower grades of secondary school represent a relatively critical phase for the development of student interest Tröbst et al., 2016) and complement the current body of longitudinal research on interest development in science focusing on the later school years (e.g., Wang & Hazari, 2018). ...

Although promoting student interest is a pivotal educational goal, student interest in science, and particularly in physics, declines substantially during secondary school. This study focused on the long‐term development of interest in physics at the lower secondary level (grades 5–7) and examined the role of teaching and teaching quality on the development. In particular, the study investigated the role of whether or not physics was taught in class and the role of perceived teaching quality for classes' interest trajectories. The results provide evidence of declining interest in physics from Grade 5 to 7, with stronger declines from Grade 5 to 6. Whether classes participated in physics teaching or not neither notably reduced nor increased interest in physics. However, several dimensions of perceived teaching quality (in particular, cognitive activation and cognitive support) mitigated the decline in interest.

... They are typically in a more demanding and highly subject-dominant learning environment (Kiuru et al., 2020;Salmela-Aro, 2020). Thus, it is likely that those adolescents acknowledge the usefulness of language studies, but also know their own potentially limited competencies when studying (Nurmi, 1993;Watt, 2004). The disassociation between intrinsic value and cost also resonates with prior research that most Finnish students in high schools were either not engaged or not burned out (Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2020). ...

... Moreover, math is typically one of the most challenging subjects at school, students report most exhaustion experiences in math (Salmela-Aro, 2020). Therefore, math expectancies should have a less pronounced association with achievement, as 9 th grade is typically one of the years in which students show the lowest level of motivation (Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 2015). For math networks in Germany, an inversed ushaped trend in global strength was observed where 7 th and 8 th grades had stronger interconnections among motivation (particularly the expectancies, utility value, intrinsic value, and cost) than the 6 th and 9 th grades. ...

In their recently renamed theory, Situated Expectancy-Value Theory (SEVT), Eccles and Wigfield (2020) emphasized the importance of situations in influencing individuals’ motivational beliefs and academic choices. Adopting a novel approach—network analysis, this study aimed to examine how situations may impact the associations among expectancies, subjective task values, and achievement from a holistic perspective. In this study, situations were operationalized as grade levels (i.e., 6th -9th grade), subject domains (i.e., language arts and math), and countries (i.e., Finland and Germany). Adolescents from Finland (N = 4,062) and Germany (N = 449) were included in the study. Results showed that, overall, the networks are mostly subject-bound, yearly-varied, and country-specific, supporting the situative nature of SEVT. We also found that expectancies were consistently the closest motivational beliefs to achievement, whereas utility values were the least close ones, implying that expectancies, not utility, might be the most desirable intervention targets for achievement improvement.

... Follow-up interviews in the second qualitative part of this study will further clarify student responses to these questions. This section was followed by 31 items gathering students' perceived expectancy and value (utility, attainment, intrinsic) beliefs, which were sourced from Eccles' Expectancy Value measures (Eccles, 2005;Eccles & Wigfield, 1995), with grammatical and contextualising modifications for the Australian sample developed and psychometrically validated in Australia (see Watt, 2004). Examples of some items are: "How well do you expect to do in your next maths task?" to measure expectancy for success or self-efficacy, "How useful do you think maths is in the everyday world?" to tap on utility value, "Being someone who is good at maths is important to me" to tap on attainment value, and "How enjoyable do you find maths?" to tap on intrinsic value. ...

... Correlations between the expectancies and values dimensions echoed that of comparable previous studies of secondary students' mathematics motivations using EVT (e.g. Watt, 2004). The highest correlation between these positive factors were between intrinsic value and attainment value (r = 0.80), followed by correlations between utility value and attainment value (r = 0.68) and between expectancy for success and intrinsic value (r = 0.66). ...

... Die wichtige Rolle des Geschlechts für die motivationale Entwicklung von Schüler*innen in den Domänen Mathematik und Sprachen wurde weitgehend belegt . Insgesamt haben Schüler tendenziell höhere intrinsische Wertüberzeugungen in Mathematik, während Schülerinnen tendenziell höhere intrinsische Wertüberzeugungen in den sprachlichen Domänen berichten, obwohl das Ausmaß dieser Geschlechtsunterschiede und ihre Entwicklung im Laufe der Zeit in verschiedenen nationalen Kontexten erheblich variieren kann (Frenzel et al. 2010;Jacobs et al. 2002;Watt 2004). In einer Studie aus den Vereinigten Staaten gaben Schülerinnen beispielsweise an, dass sie Englisch als Unterrichtsfach deutlich höher bewerten als Schüler, was sich nicht nur positiv auf ihre Berufsaspirationen im Bereich Personaldienstleistungen auswirkte, sondern auch negativ auf ihr Interesse an mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Berufen (Lauermann et al. 2015). ...

... Eine große Anzahl von Studien aus verschiedenen Ländern beschreiben eine graduelle Abnahme der intrinsischen Wertüberzeugungen für verschiedene Unterrichtsfächer über die Schulzeit hinweg (siehe Scherrer und Preckel, 2019 für eine Übersicht). Teilweise werden kurvenförmige Trends berichtet, mit stärkerem Rückgang in den ersten Jahren und einer Abflachung in der späten Adoleszenz (Jacobs et al. 2002;Watt 2004). Eine Erklärung dafür ist, dass die Interessen der Schüler*innen mit dem Alter sowohl spezifischer als auch stabiler werden (Krapp 2002;Schiefele 2009). ...

Zusammenfassung
In dieser Längsschnittstudie wurden unterschiedliche Verläufe in der Entwicklung der intrinsischen Wertüberzeugungen in den Unterrichtsfächern Mathematik und Französisch in den Schuljahren 9 bis 11 und deren Zusammenhänge mit Berufsaspirationen untersucht. Bei 850 Schüler*innen von Deutschschweizer Gymnasien (54 % weiblich, Alter T1: 15,6 Jahre) wurden in einem bivariaten Wachstumsmodell fünf Wachstumsklassen identifiziert. Zwei dieser Klassen zeigten eine klare Differenzierung in den Wertüberzeugungen zwischen den beiden Fächern und eine stabile Entwicklung im bevorzugten Fach. Die anderen drei Klassen waren durch Mittelwertunterschiede (hohe, mittlere, niedrige intrinsische Wertüberzeugungen) gekennzeichnet und zeigten moderate Abnahmen über die Zeit in beiden Fächern. Die fünf Wachstumsklassen gingen mit unterschiedlichen Berufsorientierungen am Ende des 11. Schuljahres einher, wobei Berufsorientierungen bezüglich eines Fachs besonders hoch ausgeprägt waren, wenn die Wertüberzeugung bezüglich des anderen Faches niedrig war. Geschlechterunterschiede in den Berufsorientierungen konnten vollständig über die Zugehörigkeit der Geschlechter zu den fünf Wachstumsklassen erklärt werden.

... Además, el mostrar consistentemente menor autoconcepto y autoeficacia (Eccles et al., 1993;Fredricks y Eccles, 2002) y encontrar menor valor al trabajo en matemáticas (e.g. Jacobs et al., 2002;Nagy et al., 2006;Watt, 2004) se traduce en menores aspiraciones en el área (Buschor, et al., 2014;Nagy et al., 2006). ...

This paper explores the relationship between students’ perceptions of the type of teaching they experience in mathematics [more or less student centred] and their reported emotions, self-concept and disposition. It also addresses the question of whether there are differences in this relationship for girls and boys. It uses survey data from almost 300 year 7 Chilean students, clustered in 8 different classrooms. A correlational analysis suggests that there is a positive significant association between how student centred the teaching is perceived to be and students’ more positive attitudes. Nevertheless, this effect was independent of sex, suggesting that more student-centred teching do not necessarily offer an advantage for girls, but are positive for both, boys and girls.

... Attitudes are key determinants of motivation, decision-making, and behavior [19,20]. By and large, numerous studies demonstrate that females compared to males report more negative attitudes toward math and science [7,9,[21][22][23][24][25]. Furthermore, math and science attitudes have been shown to be related to STEM choices and achievement [26][27][28][29][30]. ...

Despite societal efforts toward enhancing gender equality, females are still underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics). Prominent explanations draw on gender differences in attitudes about STEM (with females holding more negative attitudes than males), which result from the gender stereotype that STEM is a male domain. While a lot of research has focused on explicit attitudes, little is known about implicit attitudes toward STEM. The present research sought to examine implicit attitudes among adolescents, and how they relate to other STEM cognitions. We measured implicit attitudes about the STEM concept as a whole, and about math in particular. For this purpose, we developed two Brief Implicit Associations Tests (BIATs) and administered them online in a sample of adolescents (N = 517). We additionally measured a variety of self-reported motivational and social-psychological variables (interest, aspiration, self-concept of ability, and sense of belonging to the math and STEM community, respectively), which previous research has identified as factors contributing to the gender gap in STEM participation. Our findings confirm the reliability and validity of both the STEM BIAT and the Math BIAT. Moreover, implicit STEM attitudes predicted interest in and aspiration for STEM, self-concept of STEM ability, and sense of belonging to the STEM community. Similarly, implicit math attitudes predicted interest in and aspiration for math, and sense of belonging to the math community (but not self-concept of math ability). Our findings confirm that our novel online BIATs are efficient measurement tools of implicit attitudes in adolescents. Moreover, our findings underscore the significance of implicit attitudes in the STEM domain.

... Up until now, an important amount of work on these perceptions focused on how they develop and operate. Regarding the first line of work, research has shown that these perceptions tend to deteriorate as students advance in school (Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004), although this is not what systematically happens. The evolution of these perceptions may indeed vary as a function of individual or school-related experiences. ...

This study was interested in the level of correspondence between high school students’ self-perceptions of academic competence and achievement. The objectives were to (a) identify different profiles of students in terms of correspondence between perceptions of general academic competence and achievement in language arts and mathematics, (b) describe the personal and family characteristics of the students in these profiles, and (c) associate personality traits defined by the Big-Five with these profiles. A latent class analysis and a multinominal logistic regression were conducted on the data collected from 309 ninth and tenth graders. Among the most salient results, five profiles of students were identified, three of which with competence perceptions corresponding with achievement (i.e., high achievers with high self-perceived competence (SPC), average achievers with average SPC, and low achievers with lower SPC) and two with competence perceptions showing no or little correspondence with achievement (i.e., low achievers with higher SPC and average achievers with lower SPC). Also, students scoring high on openness to experience and conscientiousness were more likely to belong to the profile of high achievers with high SPC. These findings contribute to the literature on the possible reasons why students hold accurate or biased self-perceptions of competence.

... For instance, Ganley and Lubienski (2016) found existing gender differences in elementary school children's interest in mathematics by grade 3 in favor of boys, but found no further change in the size of these gender differences between grades 3 and 8. With regard to language arts, the research literature is less consistent: A number of longitudinal studies report that existing gender differences in adolescents' language arts interest in favor of girls widened (Gaspard et al., 2017;Gaspard et al., 2022;Jacobs et al., 2002), while other studies find that gender differences in language arts remained stable in secondary school (Watt, 2004). Few studies have examined the stability of gender differences in language arts interest in elementary school. ...

Although gender differences in students' domain-specific interest are well-documented, little is known about the stability of such gender differences among young age groups in elementary school. Moreover, few studies have considered differences within gender groups. The present study examines the development of gender differences in students' interest in mathematics and language arts and the role of students' migration and socio-economic background for changes in girls' and boys' domain-specific interests. The sample included 2316 students (48.2 % female; Mage = 9.30 years; 76.4 % born in Germany) assessed at three measurement times in elementary school. Linear growth models revealed stable differences by gender. Interaction effects of gender and migration background as well as gender and socio-economic background were found for interest in language arts, but not for mathematics. Results underline the importance of considering several social categories as well as their interactions when aiming to understand students' subject-specific level of interest and their interest development.
Online access:
https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1hS7W3irP4DCPl

... Some studies reveal that boys showed higher confidence level than girls in problem-solving tasks (Eseryel et al., 2014;Nuutila et al., 2021), displayed more experience and skills during the game (Dindar, 2018) and showed higher level of interest in science than girls (Glory & Ihenko, 2017;Petersen & Hyde, 2014). Other studies show that girls experienced more difficulty than boys while performing computational tasks (Watt, 2004) and so they tend to require longer time to reach certain game levels and oftentimes play more frequently than boys (Dindar, 2018). Furthermore, no significant gender-related differences have been established in terms of academic performance (Glory & Ihenko, 2017) and problem-solving skills (Singh & Gopalkrishnan, 2017). ...

Academic interest, despite its complex construct, has been the focus of many empirical studies because of its direct relationship with learning (Dopatka et al., 2020) and the reason behind the development of various learning materials, such as educational games. Some studies attempted to construct instruments in various formats (Permatasari et al., 2019), mostly survey-questionnaires, to measure students' interest in different ways, such as classroom activities and students' personal experiences (Kaur & Zhao, 2017; Lavonen et al., 2010; Eseryel et al., 2014; Maison et al., 2020). The present study started with the creation of a game-based instrument featuring the Physics behind stunt actions in movies. In an attempt to contribute additional empirical evidence to a limited number of studies relating gameplay and problem-solving skills (Eseryel et al., 2014; Kailani et al., 2019), the game was designed to simulate stunt actions through problem-solving questions taken from Physics lessons. The game contains problem-solving questions, grouped into three levels of difficulty, and was assessed for its gender-related impact on students' interest and problem-solving skills. Unlike other researches, the present study measured the academic interest of 125 secondary students (49 female, 31 male) through actualized knowledge using an educational game, instead of survey questionnaires. Results show that the game had a significant influence on students’ interest. No significant gender-related differences on students' interest was found and no statistically significant influence on the level of interest of the students towards the game has been caused by the two-way interaction of gender and the game. Playing the game showed a significant influence on the problem-solving skills of the students and accounted for 57% of their level of problem-solving abilities.

... Three intrinsic value items were written to capture the extent to which a respondent liked mathematics and enjoyed mathematics tasks, as well as having a level of interest in mathematics generally (IV1, IV2, IV5). These items were adapted from Watt (2004) and Wigfield and Eccles (2000). Two additional items were adapted from one of the questions in the study by Trautwein et al., (2012) to capture the evidence of enjoyment in tasks through engagement (IV3, IV4). ...

Higher-level mathematics courses in upper secondary school serve as a critical filter to future educational courses and careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). However, the percentage of senior school students in Australia undertaking higher-level mathematics courses is decreasing. Given that these courses provide students with skills and knowledge integral to STEM disciplines, it is important to discover factors that serve to encourage or detract students in choosing higher-level mathematics courses. Considering that educational and career choices are influenced by personal interests, values, and expectations, the purpose of this study was to design and validate a bipolar format survey instrument to investigate motivational factors on mathematics course choices of Year 10 Australian school students based upon Situated Expectancy-Value Theory (SEVT). A 25-item survey instrument using a bipolar format was developed to measure: Expectancy for success (operationalized as Competence-beliefs); Intrinsic value; Attainment value; Utility value; and Cost in relation to mathematics. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of data collected from Year 10 students (n = 886) revealed a four-factor model consisting of well-defined factors of Competence-beliefs, Intrinsic value, Attainment value, and Utility value. Unexpectedly, the items designed to measure the Cost factor dispersed variously into the factors of Competence-beliefs, Intrinsic value, and Utility value, and conceptually plausible explanations are offered for this finding. This survey represents a promising instrument for measuring predictors of mathematics course choices in senior school students. The study findings also suggest interrelationships between specific cost dimensions and other factors relevant to the measurement of SEVT constructs more generally.

... Robb-Hagg (2021) karma yöntem olarak tasarladığı çalışmasında öğrencilerin "Math Talks" kullanarak matematiksel güvenlerini geliştirdiklerine ilişkin nicel ve nitel bulgular elde etmiştir. Bununla beraber matematiksel güveni öğrencilerin demografik özelliklerine göre inceleyen çok sayıda araştırma, kızların matematik yeteneklerine olan güveninin erkeklere göre daha az olduğunu belirlemiştir (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Herbert & Stipek, 2005;Hyde et al., 1990;Marsh & Yeung, 1998;Watt, 2004). Heaverlo (2011) çalışmasında ders dışı STEM katılımı ve matematik öğretmeni etkisinin 6-12. ...

Many studies have emphasized that students with high mathematical confidence can be more successful in mathematics in general and in problem solving in particular. For this reason, studies to examine mathematical confidence are considered important. However, when the literature is examined, it has been determined that the studies on mathematical confidence have started to intensify in the international literature in recent years, and this intensity is not reflected enough in the national literature. The reason for this situation may be the lack of quantitative measurement tools that can measure students' mathematical confidence in the national literature, although more quantitative methods are used in research on mathematical confidence. For this reason, it is expected that the mathematical confidence scale to be developed in this study, which aims to develop a mathematical confidence scale for secondary school students, will contribute to the
literature and be a pioneer for research. In the research, scanning model, one of the quantitative research designs, was used. In the study, two-stage sample selection was made. In the first, 359 middle school students participated and exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the structure of the scale with the data obtained from these students. In the second, 145 middle school students participated and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the obtained data and the structure of the scale was verified. As a result of the study, a valid and reliable
measurement tool consisting of 10 items was developed that can determine the mathematical confidence levels of secondary school students.

... Robb-Hagg (2021) karma yöntem olarak tasarladığı çalışmasında öğrencilerin "Math Talks" kullanarak matematiksel güvenlerini geliştirdiklerine ilişkin nicel ve nitel bulgular elde etmiştir. Bununla beraber matematiksel güveni öğrencilerin demografik özelliklerine göre inceleyen çok sayıda araştırma, kızların matematik yeteneklerine olan güveninin erkeklere göre daha az olduğunu belirlemiştir (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Herbert & Stipek, 2005;Hyde et al., 1990;Marsh & Yeung, 1998;Watt, 2004). Heaverlo (2011) çalışmasında ders dışı STEM katılımı ve matematik öğretmeni etkisinin 6-12. ...

Yapılan araştırmalar matematiksel güveni yüksek olan öğrencilerin genelde matematikte, özelde ise problem çözmede daha başarılı olabileceğini vurgulamıştır. Bu nedenle matematiksel güveni incelemeye yönelik yapılacak araştırmalar önemli görülmektedir. Ancak alan yazın incelendiğinde matematiksel güvene yönelik yapılan çalışmaların uluslararası alan yazında son yıllarda yoğunlaşmaya başladığı, bu yoğunluğun ise ulusal alan yazına yeterince yansımadığı belirlenmiştir. Bu durumun nedeni matematiksel güvene yönelik yapılan araştırmalarda daha çok nicel yöntemler kullanılmasına karşın ulusal alan yazında öğrencilerin matematiksel güvenlerini ölçebilecek nicel ölçme araçlarının bulunmaması olabilir. Bu nedenle ortaokul öğrencileri için matematiksel güven ölçeğinin geliştirilmesinin amaçlandığı bu çalışmada, geliştirilecek olan matematiksel güven ölçeğinin alan yazına katkı sağlaması ve araştırmalar için öncü olması beklenmektedir. Araştırmada nicel araştırma desenlerinden tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada iki aşamalı örneklem seçimi yapılmıştır. İlkinde 359 ortaokul öğrencisi katılmış ve bu öğrencilerden elde edilen verilerle ölçeğin yapısını belirlemek üzere açımlayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. İkincisinde 145 ortaokul öğrencisi katılmış ve elde edilen verilere doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanarak ölçeğin yapısının doğrulaması yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda ortaokul öğrencilerinin matematiksel güven düzeylerini belirleyebilecek 10 maddeden oluşan geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirilmiştir.

... Women have a lower degree of math-related self-concept and a study found that there is a reciprocal relationship between self-concept and math anxiety [31][32], that is, lower self-concept leads to higher math anxiety [33].Secondly, women tend to have a more negative attitude toward math than men and there is a positive correlation between math anxiety and negative attitude [34][35][36]. The higher the negative level, the higher the math anxiety level. ...

Nowadays, mathematics anxiety of adolescents is a common problem in the field of education, but serious mathematics anxiety will have a negative impact on the physical and mental development and academic progress of adolescents . Therefore, this study will analyze and summarize relevant literature on math anxiety, and explore the influencing factors and intervention measures of math anxiety from the aspects of individuals, families and schools. In terms of influencing factors, individuals (gender difference, learning style and personal motivation), families (parent-child relationship and parenting style) and schools (internal school atmosphere and teachers' teaching strategies) will have an impact on math anxiety. Then, this study put forward the corresponding intervention measures for the influencing factors mentioned above. Firstly, in the aspect of individual, cognitive behavioral therapy, intensive breathing training and expressive writing can be used to effectively interfere with teenagers' mathematical anxiety. Secondly, for the math anxiety caused by family reasons, by carrying out math practice activities based on father-son relationship, parents can give their children more full academic support, which can effectively reduce the math anxiety level. Thirdly, from the point of view of schools and teachers, we can effectively intervene the math anxiety level of teenagers by changing the learning environment of students. Finally, the paper also points out the shortcomings and limitations of the existing research, which provides sufficient theoretical support and help for the future comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the overall structure of mathematical anxiety and effective improvement of mathematical anxiety.

... Pour autant, un constat général est la tendance de ces deux variables à décliner à travers le temps. Ces déclins sont particulièrement saillants lors de l'importante transition du primaire au secondaire, où une diminution du rendement scolaire est aussi souvent observée (Benner, 2011 ;Benner et Graham 2009 ;Chouinard et al., 2017 ;Duchesne et al., 2012 ;Labranche et al., 2021 ;Watt, 2004 ;Wigfield et al., 2015). Ces déclins ont conduit des chercheurs à s'interroger sur la nature et la direction des liens entre la motivation, la perception de compétence et le rendement scolaire. ...

Si plusieurs théories avancent que la perception de compétence tient un rôle central dans la motivation et le rendement scolaires, la direction de leurs relations n'est pas consensuelle. Cette étude longitudinale couvrant la transition primaire-secondaire examine cette question. Dès la 5 e année du primaire et une fois l'an durant les 4 années suivantes, 830 élèves ont répondu à un questionnaire sur leur perception de compétence et leur motivation, alors que leurs enseignants ont rapporté leur rendement. Une fois la contribution du sexe et des habiletés mentales des élèves, et la scolarité des parents contrôlées, les résultats indiquent une association bidirectionnelle entre la perception de compétence et le rendement. La perception de compétence prédit systématiquement la motivation, mais pas l'inverse, et il existe aussi peu de liens entre la motivation et Perception de compétence, motivation et rendement 2 Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation www.cje-rce.ca le rendement. La discussion met l'accent sur l'importance du développement d'une perception de compétence positive dans le fonctionnement scolaire. Abstract Although several theories suggest that the perception of competence plays a central role in motivation and academic performance, there is no consensus on the direction of their relationship. This longitudinal study covering the primary-secondary transition examines this question. From the 5 th year of primary school and once a year during the following 4 years, 830 pupils answered a questionnaire on their perception of competence and their motivation. Their performance was reported by their teachers. Controlling for the effect

... Indeed, there is strong evidence that student attitudes towards mathematics become more negative as students move through their schooling (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Ma & Cartwright, 2003;Watt, 2004). In one of the more comprehensive examinations into how attitudes towards learning mathematics change over time, Fredricks and Eccles (2002) employed a longitudinal cohort-sequential design involving approximately 500 students (Grades 1-12) to examine changes in mathematics interest, mathematics competence and valuing of mathematics. ...

There is evidence that student attitudes towards mathematics become more negative as students move through their schooling. However, less is known about the different factors that shape student attitudes at various stages. This qualitative study sought to shed light on this issue and consider how stage of schooling influenced self-perceived supports for what helped underperforming students to learn mathematics. One hundred and seventy-nine students in Grades 2/3 and 5/6 completed a questionnaire before they participated in a mathematics intervention program, targeting students who had fallen behind in mathematics. Participating students were asked to complete the sentence stem. The best thing about learning mathematics in my classroom is … and answered the question: What helps you learn mathematics in the classroom? Thematic analysis revealed that the majority of younger students emphasized specific tasks (e.g. games) and mathematical content areas (e.g. counting) when describing the best thing about learning mathematics at school and were twice as likely to highlight such aspects compared with older students. By contrast, older students were far more likely to indicate the importance of being supported directly by their teacher or peers when learning mathematics, compared with younger students.

... Specifically, cross-sectional findings suggest that high school boys' math competence-related beliefs are higher than girls' beliefs (Else-Quest et al., 2013Skaalvik & Rankin, 1994;Marsh et al., 2021;Watt et al., 2012). Parallel patterns favoring boys have emerged in most longitudinal studies (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Graham & Morales-Chicas, 2015;Jiang et al., 2020;Nagy et al., 2010;Umarji et al., 2021;Watt, 2004). Also, a meta-analysis of 176 studies demonstrated gender differences favoring boys in students' math expectancies for success (Parker et al., 2020). ...

In this replication study, we examined gender differences in students' math competence-related beliefs from 9th to 12th grade and tested gender differences within four racial/ethnic groups. In order to test the potential historical changes in these patterns and to counteract the replication crisis in psychology, this study employed six U.S. datasets collected from the 1980s to 2010s. Using a total sample of 24,290 students (49.5% male students; 11% African-, 9% Asian-; 30% Latinx-and 50% European-Americans), we found gender differences in students' math competence-related beliefs favoring boys at all grade levels. By comparing effect sizes across datasets, we found no evidence that these gender differences varied by dataset or by historical time. The results across race/ethnicity with a subsample of 23,070 students indicated meaningful gender differences in students' math competence-related beliefs favoring boys at all grade levels among Asian-, European-, and Latinx-Americans, but not among African-Americans where differences favored girls in 12th grade. Overall, our findings provide no evidence of historical changes concerning gender differences in students' math competence-related beliefs across datasets. Our findings illustrate the importance of replicating empirical findings across datasets and using an intersectional lens to investigate math motivation.

... Gender differences in STEM interest may also account for the career discrepancy. For example, studies have found that boys report higher levels of math interest than girls do, and that girls' interest in math decreases over time, while boys' interest in math remains constant throughout adolescence (Frenzel et al., 2010;Koller et al., 2001;Watt, 2004). Female adolescents' lower interest in STEM may contribute to the lack of women in STEM careers because it is associated with their enrollment in math and science courses in high school and their math-related career aspirations (Bergeron & Gordon, 2017;Joyce & Farenga, 2000;Niederle & Vesterkybd, 2007). ...

This study examined the association between elementary students' ( N = 1627; 51.3% girls, ages 4–12) engineering‐related ability beliefs (competence), task‐value beliefs (interest, importance), and career aspirations. Findings suggest that mean levels of children's engineering‐related beliefs did not vary by gender. High levels of competence, interest, and importance beliefs were related to higher engineering‐related career aspirations. Findings also revealed that the association of competence and interest with career aspirations was stronger for girls than boys; whereas, the association of importance with career aspirations was stronger for boys than girls. Last, results provide evidence of importance as a moderator of the link between competence and career aspirations, suggesting that there was a stronger positive association between competence and career aspirations under high levels of importance. Against the backdrop of the increasing urgency to teach engineering in elementary schools, this study highlighted the salience of examining children's engineering‐related motivational beliefs. The study has practical implications for teachers and school psychologists on promoting inclusive instruction in elementary schools. Specifically, the implications of the results for instructional strategies as well as assessments and interventions in elementary schools are discussed.

... Secondary school represents a particular challenging period in students' experience that is marked by increased stress and a decline in self-esteem, perceived ability, school engagement, and academic achievement (Fredricks et al., 2004;Jacobs et al., 2002;Watt, 2004;Wigfield et al., 1996). This normative developmental phase becomes a relevant specific stimulating period given the possibility of shaping and producing significant changes in the way students perceive their personal abilities, whether academic, emotional, or social. ...

This study examined and compared how the trajectories of two types of implicit theories (IT; general intelligence and emotional intelligence EI) evolve over the 3-year period of the Portuguese secondary school period. The effects of students’ gender, academic achievement, and EI on the developmental path of IT were also explored. Two hundred twenty-two students participated in a 3-wave study from 10th to 12th grade, were aged 14 to 18 years old (Mage= 15.4; SD = 0.63) in the first round of data collection, and were mostly female (58.6%). The findings indicate the stability of students’ implicit beliefs of intelligence over secondary school and, in turn, the continuous evolution of students’ incremental IT of EI. Students’ gender and previous levels of trait EI influenced the IT’s change patterns. The findings are discussed based on the relevance of the educational context to foster incremental beliefs about school-related attributes for all students.

... Pour autant, un constat général est la tendance de ces deux variables à décliner à travers le temps. Ces déclins sont particulièrement saillants lors de l'importante transition du primaire au secondaire, où une diminution du rendement scolaire est aussi souvent observée (Benner, 2011 ;Benner et Graham 2009 ;Chouinard et al., 2017 ;Duchesne et al., 2012 ;Labranche et al., 2021 ;Watt, 2004 ;Wigfield et al., 2015). Ces déclins ont conduit des chercheurs à s'interroger sur la nature et la direction des liens entre la motivation, la perception de compétence et le rendement scolaire. ...

Si plusieurs théories avancent que la perception de compétence tient un rôle central dans la motivation et le rendement scolaires, la direction de leurs relations n’est pas consensuelle. Cette étude longitudinale couvrant la transition primaire-secondaire examine cette question. Dès la 5e année du primaire et une fois l’an durant les 4 années suivantes, 830 élèves ont répondu à un questionnaire sur leur perception de compétence et leur motivation, alors que leurs enseignants ont rapporté leur rendement. Une fois la contribution du sexe et des habiletés mentales des élèves, et la scolarité des parents contrôlées, les résultats indiquent une association bidirectionnelle entre la perception de compétence et le rendement. La perception de compétence prédit systématiquement la motivation, mais pas l’inverse, et il existe aussi peu de liens entre la motivation et le rendement. La discussion met l’accent sur l’importance du développement d’une perception de compétence positive dans le fonctionnement scolaire.

... However, some studies report that the indicators of mathematics motivation rise before they decline (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Jacobs et al., 2002). These results demonstrate that students' mathematics motivation may develop in a mixed pattern (Chouinard & Roy, 2008;Watt, 2004). ...

Student motivation and engagement have been complex issues in basic mathematics education. Based on the theory of Motivation and Engagement Wheel, this study examined the relationships among student motivation, engagement, and mathematics achievement. A sample of 1,538 Chinese primary school students participated in the survey, and motivation and engagement were assessed through their responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale. The results largely confirmed the hypothesized relationships between motivation, engagement, and mathematics achievement. Some consistent patterns of individual differences related to gender and grade level were also revealed. Cluster analysis revealed that the category of ''struggling students'' showed high levels of adaptive engagement in learning, but their mathematics scores were still low, which may be correlated to their high level of maladaptive motivation and engagement. These findings provide implications for developing a more comprehensive knowledge of the nature of students' mathematics learning motivation and improving their engagement in mathematic learning.

... In addition, the sample consisted largely of women. Consequently, some participants may have been biased through self-stereotyping when assessing their learning performance as bad mathematical ability is wrongly but commonly associated with the female gender (Watt, 2004;Burkley and Blanton, 2009). Interestingly, the overall underestimation of performance also contradicts research on the hard-easy effect which describes a well-documented bias in confidence ratings (Juslin et al., 2000;Moore and Healy, 2008). ...

Several studies highlight the importance of the order of different instructional methods when designing learning environments. Correct but also erroneous worked examples are frequently used methods to foster students’ learning performance, especially in problem-solving. However, so far no study examined how the order of these example types affects learning. While the expertise reversal effect would suggest presenting correct examples first, the productive failure approach hypothesizes the reversed order to be learning-facilitating. In addition, congruency of subsequent exemplified problems was tested as a moderator of the effect of order on learning. For example, with arithmetic tasks, congruent problems target exactly the same calculation while incongruent problems refer to different calculations. Following cascade theory, a model of cognitive skill acquisition, presenting correct examples first should be more effective when the subsequent exemplified problems are different. To test the (conflicting) hypotheses, 83 university students were assigned to one of the four conditions in a 2 (correct vs. erroneous example first) × 2 (same vs. different exemplified problems) between-subject design. Learners navigated through a slideshow on the topic of Vedic mathematics consisting of explicit instruction, worked examples differing in terms of the experimental condition, and transfer problems. Although no main or interaction effects were found regarding students’ learning performance, mediational analysis offered support for the expertise reversal effect, as it indicated that there is a significant indirect effect of order via mental load on learning. Presenting correct examples first and erroneous examples second resulted in a lower mental load, which in turn was associated with better learning performance. In contrast, presenting erroneous examples first and correct examples second resulted in a more accurate self-assessment of learning performance. These findings offer first insights into the question of how the presentation order of different example types impacts learning and provide practical recommendations for the design of educational media. Results are discussed in light of the ongoing debate regarding the question if less guided instructional methods should precede or succeed more guided methods.

... Moreover, the present study examines the subject of mathematics. This choice was made owing to the academic importance of mathematics (OECD, 2020), its strong representation in past and current motivational research (e.g., Trautwein et al., 2006), and the fact that students' mathematics interest declines substantially throughout secondary school (Watt, 2004). ...

... The notion that access to quality career education is a capacity-building equity strategy that can enhance student aspirations and increase engagement with STEM trajectories is not new (Watt et al., 2012). An awareness of the usefulness of subjects to future careers has also previously been found as predictive of students' motivation to engage in STEM subjects (Lazarides & Watt, 2015;Watt, 2004;Watt et al., 2012). ...

The capacity to aspire for young people is significant, as they cannot choose to be what they cannot experience or imagine becoming. Student exchange programmes that expand experiences of STEM may increase opportunities, interests, and participation for rural young people in the STEM subject field. This paper creates a cartography with data created from self-reported Year 10 students’ affective responses to experiences undergone during a three-week rural exchange (RE) programme. Students reported increased feelings of belonging to both school and STEM subjects during and after participating in the RE programme. The data created with students during this study provided a deep insight into the positive affective impact of the experiences undergone. Students’ increased aspirations and motivation to continue in STEM fields were reported as sustained on return to their home rural school.

... Multivariate analysis of variance, as well as hierarchical logistic regression, revealed grade point average, plans for college, resiliency, family income, mother's educational level, and mother's educational task values were the best predictors for full-time college attendance. Watt (2004) constructed growth models which estimated the developmental trajectories of adolescents' perceived talent, expectancies for success, interest value, utility value, task difficulty, and effort required to complete a task in different academic domains. The researcher analyzed data from students spanning seventh-to eleventh-grade in Australian schools (n = 1,323). ...

... In fact, only one undergone a (positive) change, namely their interest in learning. These results, which do not coincide with the usual declining pattern, [3][4][5][6] suggested that, when adolescents were allowed to reintegrate school after a prolonged home confinement, they were potentially relieved and even satisfied of being given the opportunity to interact in person again. As a result, they might have shown more enthusiasm toward school activities than usual. ...

We previously shared results suggesting that the academic motivation of a sample of French-Canadian adolescents remained stable from few weeks before the first wave to the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We here examine if this pattern persisted using data collected at a third time point.

... Intrinsic and utility value were assessed using Eccles and colleagues' measures (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995), adapted by Watt (2004) for the Australian context. There are three items each measuring intrinsic value (e.g., "how interesting do you find science?") and utility value (e.g., "how useful do you believe science is?"), and responses are on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (extremely). ...

Introduction:
Researchers note a consistent decline in adolescents' motivation and participation in science. It is important to examine factors vital to students' motivation in science, such as teacher-student relationships (TSRs). Limited research in science has examined TSRs from a multidimensional or person-centered perspective. The present investigation adopts Ang's tripartite relational framework to examine three dimensions of TSRs: socio-emotional support, instrumental help, and conflict. Such research is needed to better understand the diversity of relationships that exist within a science classroom and their impact on science motivation.
Methods:
This study examined N = 2669 Australian high school students (66% girls; Mage = 15.11 years; SD = 0.69). Data were collected via online sampling in the final quarter of 2020. The data are cross-sectional. Latent profile analysis was used to (1) determine if distinct student profiles based on the three dimensions of TSRs existed and (2) the extent to which these profiles were associated with varying levels of science motivation: self-efficacy, intrinsic value, utility value, and cost.
Results:
Four distinct profiles were identified: Positive, Complicated, Distant, and Negative. Students in the Negative TSR profile reported the lowest adaptive motivation and highest cost. The associations between profile membership and motivation were more varied for the Positive, Complicated, and Distant TSR profiles.
Conclusions:
Findings indicate that dichotomous perspectives (positive vs. negative) may be insufficient to describe the diversity of relationships within science classrooms. Results also suggest that concurrent attendance to all dimensions of TSRs is needed to improve relationships.

... The affect component of the men-STEM stereotypes refers to the belief that boys and men tend to have a more positive emotional, attitudinal, or affective relationship with STEM than girls or women. Its presence is recognized by research into parents' and teachers' gender-divergent appraisals of learners' emotional engagement with STEM, particularly studies building on the expectancy-value models (Eccles, 2014;McGeown & Warhurst, 2019;Pajares & Valiante, 2001;Watt, 2004). For example, when being prompted to describe successful math learners, elementary school teachers in America relying on stereotypes insisted that successful boys must have had more fun in learning math than girls with the same level of achievement (Fennema et al., 1990). ...

Academic gender stereotypes contribute to observed gender differences in educational enrollment and attainment. Investigating parents’ stereotypes among 907 families in China, this study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to uncover four latent factors: boys-Math, boys-Sciences, girls-Chinese, and girls-Liberal Arts stereotypes. The former two depicted boys as more gifted, enthusiastic, and higher-achieving learners in Math and Sciences, and the latter two favored girls in Chinese and Liberal Arts. This four-factor structure was invariant across parents with sons and daughters after accounting for the nonindependence of parents within families. The boys-Math and boys-Sciences stereotypes were found to be stronger than the other two stereotypes. Further analyses revealed nuances concerning the boys-Math stereotype: it was more pronounced among mothers than fathers in families with daughters, fathers with sons than daughters, and girls’ mothers without college degrees than those with degrees. Within the same family, mothers more commonly held stereotype-consistent perceptions concerning Math and Chinese than fathers, but there was a general agreement over gendered perceptions of all four achievement domains regardless of child gender. The findings highlight the need for family-based awareness-raising programs targeting parents’ gender stereotypes to create gender-fair and gender-inclusive learning environments.

... More specifically, we focus on students at the end of elementary school, right before they transition to (lower) secondary school, or junior high school. This will help to capture the transition period associated with significant changes in motivational beliefs (Watt, 2004) and offer new insights on the meaningful time frames in students' motivational belief development and its association with gender and important educational outcomes. ...

To better understand the gender gap in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) aspiration, the article examines the critical role of domain-specific motivation (i.e., expectancy and task values). Using longitudinal data from 5th and 6th grade (∼11–12-year-old) students (n = 360, 55% girls), person-oriented analyses was applied to understand the gendered motivational profiles and their longitudinal influence on achievement and STEM aspiration. Specifically, we aimed to (1) derive motivational belief profiles regarding science, mathematics, and language (Finnish), (2) analyze the stability and change in the profiles between the 5th and 6th grade, (3) assess the relationship between motivational profiles and achievement and STEM aspiration, and (4) test for gender differences. We derived four motivational profiles for both years: high motivation in all subjects (∼21%), high mathematics motivation (∼46%), low mathematics motivation (∼11%), and low motivation in all subjects (∼8%). Latent transition analysis revealed that most students remained in the same profile throughout the 2 years. We found evidence of gendered differences in the motivational profiles and the chance of transitioning between profiles. More girls are characterized by low math motivation, while boys are more likely to transition to higher math motivation in 6th grade. The motivational difference is reflected in their achievement, although not strongly coupled with their STEM aspiration. The findings suggest that at this developmental stage, Finnish students have not developed a strong association between (gendered) STEM aspiration and their domain-specific motivation, although their motivation may have influenced their achievement. Interpretation and practical implications are discussed.

... While there is a large number of impactful studies on many aspects of the expectancy value theory in Education, its situation-specific aspects have only recently become a focus of interest (Dietrich, Moeller, Guo, Viljaranta, & Kracke, 2019;Dietrich, Viljaranta, Moeller, & Kracke, 2017;Kiuru et al., 2020;Moeller, Viljaranta, Kracke, & Dietrich, 2020;Parrisius, Gaspard, Zitzmann, Trautwein, & Nagengast, 2020;Tanaka & Murayama, 2014). Most previous longitudinal studies examined long-time development across weeks, months, or years (e.g., Watt, 2004), using situation-unspecific measures of task values and success expectancies that require participants to aggregate in their minds how they typically feel (e.g., I find solving math problems to be enjoyable; Eccles-Parsons, 1983). Therefore, little is known about the short-term development and short-term inter-dependencies among expectancy-value components from one learning situation to the next. ...

This article introduces a new theoretical and psychometric framework describing moment-to-moment development and inter-dependencies of achievement motivation in terms of the situated expectancy-value theory, by introducing dynamical systems concepts into this line of research. As a first empirical example of a study using this framework, we examined whether task values, costs, and success expectancies measured in a learning situation (time point t) predicted themselves and each other at the next situation (t + 1; 27 min later) within a weekly university lecture.
Situational task values, expectancies, and costs were assessed using the experience sampling method in 155 university teacher training students during weekly lectures for one semester, with three surveys during each weekly lesson. Data were analyzed with multilevel cross-lagged structural equation models.
There were significant auto-regressions from one learning situation to the next in success expectancies and effort costs, but not in intrinsic, utility, or attainment value nor emotional or opportunity costs. There were no significant cross-lagged effects from one situation to the next in any of the measured situated expectancy-value components.
As a framework to integrate dynamical systems concepts into the research on situated learning motivation, we expect the proposed DYNAMICS framework to have a substantial impact on further theory development.

... In the home environment, parents and other significant adults provide science experiences that may stimulate learning and shape children's attitudes toward science. Parents may also serve as role models and influence children by their own attitudes toward science (Jacobs & Bleeker, 2004;Luttenberger, Wimmer, & Paechter, 2018;Rodriguez-Planas & Nollenberger, 2018;Watt, 2004;Watt, Bucich, & Dacosta, 2019). Factors such as parents' and the wider family's attitudes towards and competencies in science, parents' occupations, their expectations for their children, the availability of networks of adults who work in STEM fields, and available science resources comprise what has been described as a child's science capital (Archer et al., 2012). ...

Educators and researchers have been struggling for decades to isolate and measure the factors that contribute to science career decisions. However, there are limited instruments available to measure these factors, particularly across different educational levels. This study describes the adaptation and characteristics of the middle school NextGen Scientist Survey as an assessment for elementary students. Internal validity of the survey was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Also, measurement invariance between the surveys for middle school and elementary students and across gender was examined. Confirmatory factor analyses found a 5-factor solution for both surveys. Partial scalar invariance across elementary and middle school students could be confirmed, i.e., the factor means can be compared across groups. Furthermore, full scalar invariance can be assumed for gender. Altogether, the NextGen Scientist Survey is a valid assessment that can be used across elementary and middle school educational levels.

... Similar results were exhibited in profiles of "self-improvement"; in both countries more male students engaged in mathematics for self-improvement than female learners. As a profile this shows connection to the affective concept of interest; these results are in line with findings from the literature that state that male students are more interested in mathematics than girls are (Eccles et al., 1983;Watt, 2004). In both countries, this learning orientation was perceived mostly in high-achieving students, whereas in Germany this profile is also experienced by average students. ...

... Learning mathematics represents one of the most difficult stages for students, whether during elementary or high school, and interest in this subject consistently declines over this period (Watt, 2004;Frenzel et al., 2010). In the specific case of Spatial Geometry, an important topic in mathematics and addressed in this work, the student does not always demonstrate a "geometric imagination" sufficient to solve the problems of geometry (Slezáková, 2011). ...

Objective: to present the SpaceGeo_AR application with augmented reality resources for teaching and learning spatial geometry aimed at deaf and non-deaf students. Methodology: the Heroku platform was used to program the application, a cloud system that allows the development of mobile applications through numerous resources of web technologies. Results: the application allows the registration of teachers and students, where the former has permissions to create, delete and edit classes and questionnaires, while the student is allowed access to the contents of Position Geometry (a chapter of Spatial Geometry), as well as how to answer questionnaires associated with this theme. Final considerations: applications to improve teaching and learning in the classroom have become a constant in an increasingly technological world, where augmented reality can help in this process, especially when considering Spatial Geometry, a topic strongly related to the three-dimensional. Another trend is the inclusion of people with disabilities in teaching processes, a feature that was also implemented in the application. With this, it is expected that the application can help deaf and non-deaf teachers and students with the learning of Position Geometry through the interactions that augmented reality allows to perform.

Students’ expectancy and value beliefs about math influence their academic choices and success in math-intensive study programs. Short-term declines in these motivational beliefs can serve as early warning signs of academic difficulties and dropout. However, such short-term motivational changes are underresearcherd. Based on Eccles et al.’s (2020) situated expectancy-value theory, this study analyzed within-person changes in the associations among students’ course-specific (summative) or week-specific (situated) expectancies and task values in gateway math courses for students in physics, math, or math teacher education majors (N = 773). Random intercept cross-lagged panel models showed increasing within-person alignment between students’ course-specific expected success and intrinsic/utility values (but not costs) over one semester. This alignment was linked to unidirectional spillover (i.e., cross-lagged) effects from expectancy to intrinsic/utility values. Students’ week-specific expectancy-value beliefs, reported at the beginning of the semester, showed no significant alignment and spillover effects. Differences in students’ course- or week-specific expectancy-value beliefs favored male and higher-achieving students and were largely time-invariant. Alignment between course-specific expectancy and value beliefs was higher for students who failed or dropped out of their math courses compared to those who succeeded. Greater motivational alignment can thus indicate greater disengagement from (math) coursework in challenging academic contexts. These findings highlight the importance of differentiating between-person and within-person motivational processes, suggest that summative versus situation-specific assessments of motivational beliefs may show different developmental patterns, and demonstrate that motivational alignment and spillover effects can be a sign of maladaptive motivational processes concerning students’ persistence in challenging STEM contexts.

Studies on utility value, metacognitive strategies, and achievement have usually examined these variables in a static manner. However, each of these variables changes across time and the relationships among them are dynamic. Hence, studies that examine changes in individual trajectories (change in each variable over time) and concurrent trajectories (how relationships among the variables change over time) are needed. The current study examined both the individual and concurrent trajectories of utility value, metacognitive strategies, and achievement using a three-wave longitudinal sample of 6,776 Hong Kong secondary students (Mean age at Time 1 = 13.23, SD = 1.06). Results of the latent growth models indicated that intrinsic utility value declined while achievement increased across three years. Multivariate latent growth modeling showed that students who started with higher levels of metacognitive strategy use experienced a slower decline in intrinsic utility value. Moreover, the faster metacognitive strategy use increased over the years, the slower intrinsic utility value declined and the faster achievement increased. This study suggests the importance of examining the dynamic relationships among motivation, strategy use, and achievement.

The present cross-sectional study examined changes in and differentiation of children's perceived utility value and interest in subjects in elementary and junior high school. Students attending a cram school (4th graders: 252 boys, 221 girls; 5th graders: 337 boys, 304 girls; 6th graders: 429 boys, 381 girls; 7th graders: 135 boys, 103 girls; 8th graders: 147 boys, 138 girls; 9th graders: 213 boys, 179 girls) completed questionnaires. Analysis of their responses revealed that, although the utility value of practice in English increased in the reports of the 7th-grade students, the reported value of other subjects tended to decrease with increasing grade level. Furthermore, the reported utility value of entrance examinations tended to increase in English and decrease in science and social studies with increasing grade level. Correlations were found in students' reported interest in subjects that are related, such as mathematics and science; this remained relevant in all grades. However, the correlation between unrelated subjects, such as mathematics and Japanese, weakened with increasing grade level. Although the correlation among the utility values tended to decrease, they remained relevant, but the trend for English differed from the other subjects.

Motivation to study mathematics and science is an important influencing factor of career aspirations in STEM fields which predicts STEM major choice in college and STEM careers after graduation. Using restricted data from a nationally representative sample HSLS:09, the current study identified U.S. high school students’ motivation profiles in mathematics and science courses in 9th and 11th grade, examined the stability of these profiles across the two time points, and studied the association between 11th grade motivation profiles and STEM career aspirations. Differences between male and female students in motivation profiles, profile stability and career aspirations were examined. The stability of STEM career aspirations between 9th grade and 11th grade and the consistency between 11th grade STEM career aspirations and STEM major choice in college were also investigated. Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct motivation profiles at both time points. Latent transition analysis found substantial stability in profiles: participants were most likely to stay in their original profiles than transition to another profile. Students in the High All profile in 11th grade were more likely to aspire for STEM careers and health occupations than those in other profiles. Students in the Higher Science profile were more likely to aspire for health occupations than those in the Higher Math profile. There were significant differences between male and female students in profile membership, transition probability, and STEM career aspirations. In general, male students were more likely to be in latent profiles characterized by higher math and science motivation and aspire for traditional STEM careers. Female students were more likely to be in profiles characterized by lower motivation and aspire for health occupations. Career aspirations remained relatively stable from 9th grade to 11th grade. About 70% of students had the same career aspirations in 11th grade as in 9th grade. About 62.5 % of the participants’ first major in college was consistent with their career aspirations in 11th grade. Implications of these results for research and interventions on math and science motivation and STEM career aspirations are discussed.

Introduction : Today’s adolescents are growing up in a unique sociocultural climate in which gender issues are highly prominent. Alongside new ways of understanding gender identity, there are persistent gender disparities in social, health and mental health outcomes despite increasingly egalitarian views and a significant public focus on sexual assault and gender-based violence. Given gender-differentiated outcomes emerge during adolescence, it is critical to revisit factors influencing adolescent gender development. It has been argued that gendered parenting, reflected in differences in parenting attitudes and behaviors directed towards boys and girls, influences gender development. While numerous studies have examined gendered parenting with children, there has been no previous synthesis of gendered parenting of adolescents. Method : The current narrative review presents an overview of research into gendered parenting of adolescents, including parental modelling, gendered environments, and specific parenting practices, and draws together the available research on how it impacts adolescents. Gendered parenting is also examined in the context of LGBTQI + and gender non-conforming adolescents. Results : There is limited research investigating the presence of gendered parenting of adolescents, and even less assessing its impact on adolescent psychosocial outcomes. The available literature suggests that there may be effects of gendered parenting on adolescents, particularly on their gender role attitudes and gender-typed behaviors. Conclusions : Future work is needed to better understand how gendered parenting of adolescents manifests in the family home. In addition, research is needed to examine the longitudinal impact of gendered parenting, particularly within non-traditional families, and across a range of sociocultural contexts.

A large and burgeoning literature has established that mastery goal orientations yield positive cognitive and behavioural educational outcomes. Less research has focused on the psychological antecedents of adopting mastery goals. The present study draws upon prominent psychological theories of achievement motivation, specifically the expectancy-value theory of Eccles, Wigfield and colleagues (Wigfield and Eccles 2002), to explore possible antecedents of students' mastery goals. Based on this theoretical framework, our study focused on children's perceptions of their competencies in English and maths and how these related to intrinsic value and mastery goals for English and maths. Questionnaires were used to gather data about Year 6 (N=60) participants' perceived competence, intrinsic value and mastery goal orientation, and correlational analyses established the direction and strength of the relationships between the perceptions. Participants were targeted for follow-up interviews (n=17) according to a matrix of low and high competence perceptions and mastery goals, with students selected from within each of six focal groups. Interview responses were reported according to emergent themes, from which we describe how the constructs under consideration relate to one another and highlight implications for educational practice.

Changes in student self- and task evaluations, subjective valuation, and achievement behavior in mathematics and English over the 1st year of junior high form the basis of this study. The transition to junior high has been found to negatively affect students' self-concept and subjective valuation in mathematics and English, but previous research has not addressed changes in task evaluations and achievement behaviors. Gender and level of academic achievement effects are also relevant to the nature of changes in student attitudes. The participants (N =400) were from 3 coeducational Australian government schools in metropolitan Sydney of comparable socioeconomic status. When changes in perceptions occurred, they were negative, and gender differences favored boys in mathematics and girls in English. However, the nature and extent of change was dependent on school and level of achievement.

We used structural modeling procedures to assess the influence of past math grades, math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions on the level of math anxiety reported in a sample of 7th- through 9th-grade students (
N = 250). A second set of analyses examined the relative influence of these performance, self-perception, and affect variables on students' subsequent grades and course enrollment intentions in mathematics. The findings indicated that math anxiety was most directly related to students' math ability perceptions, performance expectancies, and value perceptions. Students' performance expectancies predicted subsequent math grades, whereas their value perceptions predicted course enrollment intentions. Math anxiety did not have significant direct effects on either grades or intentions. The findings also suggested that the pattern of relations are similar for boys and girls. The results are discussed in relation to expectancy-value and self-efficacy theories of academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

In a longitudinal study of 1,329 students and the teachers they had for mathematics before and after the transition to junior high school, the relation between students' beliefs in mathematics and their teachers' sense of efficacy is examined. Using repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), we found that the rate of change within the school year in students' expectancies, perceived performance, and perceived task difficulty in math differed at Year 1 and 2, depending on teacher efficacy before and after the transition. Students who moved from high- to low-efficacy math teachers during the transition ended the junior high year with the lowest expectancies and perceived performance (even lower than students who had low efficacy teachers both years) and the highest perceptions of task difficulty. The differences in pre- and posttransition teachers' views of their efficacy had a stronger relationship to low-achieving than to high-achieving students' beliefs in mathematics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

200 students in Grades 8–10 were given the following attitudinal measures regarding both math and English: self-concept of ability, subjective task value, perceived task difficulty, and continuing motivation. In a follow-up, Ss" math course enrollment decisions were assessed each year through high school. 142 of the Ss also were exposed to 2 sets of trials: a number sequence set and an anagram set. Outcome was manipulated across trials (success, failure, success). For each series, Ss provided estimates of their ability, their expectations for continued success, and causal attributions. Their response time, persistence, and accuracy were recorded. Finally, teacher estimates of learned helplessness were obtained in Year 1 of the study for all Ss. Subjective task value emerged as the strongest mediator of sex differences in achievement-related behaviors and plans. There was little support for learned-helplessness models of sex differences in achievement. There was some evidence of sex differences in ability attributions, but these differences occurred only among low-expectancy Ss. Verbal and behavioral indexes of achievement beliefs were often inconsistent. Implications for general attribution theory and for sex-difference theory are discussed. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The authors assessed change over 3 years in elementary school children's competence beliefs and subjective task value in the domains of math, reading, instrumental music, and sports. The longitudinal sample consisted of approximately 615 mostly White, lower middle to middle-class children. Stability correlations indicated moderate to strong stability in children's beliefs, especially older children's competence beliefs. The relation of children's ratings of their competence in each domain to estimates of their competence in those domains provided by both parents and teachers increased over the early elementary grades. Children's competence beliefs and ratings of the usefulness and importance of each activity decreased over time. Children's interest in reading and instrumental music decreased, but their interest in sports and math did not. Gender differences in children's competence beliefs and subjective task values did not change over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Examined 1,850 school age children achievement self-perceptions in 4 activity domains (math, English, social activities, and sports) and self-esteem across the transition from elementary to junior high school. Self-esteem scores declined across the transition to junior high, but increased during 7th grade. Self-concepts of ability for math, English, and social activities declined after transition, but perceptions of social ability increased during 7th grade. Perceptions of sports ability declined across 6th and 7th grades. The liking of math and sports declined over time, whereas the liking of English and social activities declined immediately after transition but increased across 7th grade. Many of these changes are attributed to changes in the school and classroom environments encountered on entering junior high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

I consider Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model of achievement performance and choice from a developmental perspective, by examining how recent research on the development of young children's competence beliefs, expectancies for success, subjective task values, and achievement goals can be incorporated into the model. The kinds of change in children's achievement beliefs considered include change in the factor structure of children's competence beliefs and values; change across age in the mean level of those constructs; and change in children's conceptions of ability beliefs and subjective values. I also discuss how achievement goals are conceptualized in this model, and how goals are conceived by other current motivation researchers. Changes in the nature of relations among competence beliefs, subjective task values, achievement goals, and achievement behaviors also are considered.

The authors assessed the dimensionality of and relations between adolescents' achievement-related beliefs and self perceptions, focusing on subjective valuing of achievement. Beliefs derived from expectancy-value theory (adolescents' valuing of achievement activities, expectancies for success and ability perceptions, and perceptions of task difficulty) were assessed. Adolescents completed questionnaires once a year for 2 years. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that achievement-related beliefs separate into three task values factors (interest, perceived importance, and perceived utility), one expectancy/ability factor (comprising beliefs about one's competence, expectancies for success, and performance perceptions), and two task difficulty factors (perceptions of difficulty and perceptions of effort required to do well). Task values and ability perceptions factors were positively related to each other and negatively correlated to perceptions of task difficulty.

Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/42651/1/10649_2004_Article_BF00776739.pdf

I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.

Hierarchical linear models provide a conceptual orientation and a flexible set of analytic techniques for studying psychological change in repeated measures studies. The researcher first formulates a model for individual change over time, with each individual's development characterized by a unique set of parameters. These parameters are then viewed as varying randomly over the population of persons. The authors illustrate this approach with data on attitudes toward deviance during adolescence (S. W. Raudenbush and W. S. Chan, 1992), indicating how one may assess the psychometric properties of an instrument for studying change, compare the adequacy of linear and curvilinear growth models, control for time invariant and time-varying covariates, and link overlapping cohorts of data. Results suggest that prodeviant attitudes characteristically increase during early adolescence, achieving a peak between 17 and 18 yrs of age. The typical trajectories for male and female adolescents have the same shape, although female adolescents tend to be less deviant than male adolescents at each age. The authors briefly consider the statistical power of tests of cohort differences at the points where they overlap.

Women's educational and occupational achievements are crucial to the economic productivity and prosperity of the nation, as well as to the mental health of women and their families. In this article we review psychological research on motivation and on educational achievement, focusing on gender and the contributions that have been made by feminist researchers. Feminist psychologists noted the sex bias and methodological flaws in traditional research on achievement motivation and proposed vastly improved models, such as Eccles's expectancy x value model of achievement behavior. Contrary to stereotypes, gender similarities are typically found in areas such as mathematics performance. Policymakers should be concerned about gender bias in the SAT and about the Female Underprediction Effect. Additional threats to girls' and women's achievements include stereotype threat and peer sexual harassment in the schools.

It has been argued that there is an acceleration of gender-differential socialization during adolescence, perhaps at the onset of puberty or shortly after, and perhaps especially for girls. New domains may become the object of gender-differential socialization pressure and demands for conformity may increase in domains previously subject to such pressure. We shall refer to this argument as the Gender-Intensification Hypothesis. The hypothesis frequently is invoked to explain observed behavioral differences between adolescent boys and girls. Here we shall review information bearing upon the hypothesis and suggest some new points of departure for research related to it and to the study of gender-differential socialization during adolescence in general. We begin by considering some forms in which the hypothesis appears and then turn to our review and to its implications.

This article discusses students' comments about the experience of shifting from primary to secondary schooling, and of their first year of secondary school. The material was gathered from research carried out in three Victorian primary schools and four Victorian secondary schools in 1993 and 1994. This article discusses the meanings students give to their experience of transition against earlier research and policy documents which use different methodologies and which talk of different cultures of primary and secondary schools. It argues that student reactions are more complex than are indicated by methodologies which take comments at face value and that their concerns challenge some common assumptions about the problem of disruption in the break between primary and secondary. The article also notes widespread changes in students' lunchtime activities compared with primary school and discusses ways students assess the new curriculum and teaching styles of the secondary school.

This study of Australian students' perceptions of achievement argues for flexibility in gender stereotypes, varying with the frame of reference, and the multidimensionality of self-concepts. Students in the first 4 years of high school (N = 663) completed tests and questionnaires about mathematics and English. The systematic patterns of their responses depended on contrasting subject domains and the specific or general nature of aspects of their achievement. Gender differences in how well students thought they performed were at odds with similar performances on standardized tests. Two sources of gender stereotypes explain complex interactions of gender and subject domain for interrelated aspects of achievement-a tendency by males to overestimate specific task performance across domains, and traditional gender stereotypes about "natural talent" for females in English and for males in mathematics. The broad implications for ways we think about mathematics and gender require an understanding of discrete notions of ability and performance, and an acknowledgment of students' flexible self-categorizations.

This study investigates the conceptual issues, theoretical rationale, construct validity, psychometric properties, and empirical analysis of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1986). The scale was administered to 283 students (average age 13.1 years, 49% female) from 12 Year 7 classes in three non-selective systemic high schools. The scale assesses competence in 8 self-concept domains: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, romantic appeal, conduct/morality, close friendships, job competence and, in addition, global self-worth. Separate items relating to mathematics and English abilities were added. The internal consistencies were generally high. Results from factor analysis provided strong support for the a priori dimensions, the multidimensional conceptualisation of the self-concept, thereby confirming Harter's (1985a) model.

This study investigated the development of achievement-related expectancies. Based on the models of attribution and cognitive developmental theory and on past research, it was predicted that younger children would relate past history of outcomes to expectancies differently than older children, that sex differences in expectancies would not be present in the preschool-age group, and that older children would have the lowest expectancies. As predicted, success/failure experiences had a more systematic effect on school-age children's expectancies than on the expectancies of preschoolers, and older children consistently reported lower expectancies. In addition, the subject's sex in interaction with age influenced both initial expectancy and the use of outcome information.

Selected cognitive developments presumed to mediate the development of achievement motivation are described. 4 levels of reasoning or causal schemes involving the concepts of effort and ability were isolated and age trends from 5 to 13 years presented. The developments of capacity to infer ability required by tasks of different difficulty levels and the belief that more difficult tasks have greater incentive value of success were described. These achievements occurred at about the same time as the development of the second level of reasoning about effort and ability. It is suggested that these findings help account for certain developmental changes in achievement behavior. Perception of own academic attainment was less closely related to attainment in young children than older children. The age changes in perception of own attainment and causal schemes are held to be likely to contribute to age increases in the stability of individual differences in achievement behavior and academic attainment. The educational implications of the study are noted.

Occupational sex segregation continues to exist and the occupational career paths of women and men continue to differ. This article proposes a model to explain these persistent, gender-role linked trends, summarizes evidence to support the proposed mediating psychological mechanisms, and discusses the social experiences that shape gender differences on these mediators. In addition, the article reviews the economic and psychological costs often associated with the traditional female choices and proposes interventions aimed at achieving a more gender—fair social system that does not devalue traditionally female domains. The proposed model links occupational choices to expectations for success and subjective task value, which, in turn, are linked to gender-role socialization, self schemas, and anticipated role and task demands. The importance of subjective task value is stressed, as is the need to study women's achievement-related choices from the women's perspective.

Describes a learning orientation scale in which 5 dimensions are defined by an intrinsic and an extrinsic pole: preference for challenge vs preference for easy work, curiosity/interest vs teacher approval, independent mastery attempts vs dependence on the teacher, independent judgment vs reliance on the teacher's judgment, and internal vs external criteria for success/failure. The reliability and factorial validity of the scale have been adequately demonstrated. Additional validity studies with a total of 2,925 Ss in Grades 3–9 are reported. Higher-order factoring yielded 2 distinct clusters of subscales: The 1st 3 dimensions form 1 factor and are interpreted as more motivational in nature; the remaining 2 are viewed as more cognitive–informational in nature. Developmental data show that across Grades 3–9 there was a shift from intrinsic to extrinsic on the 1st motivational cluster. Conversely, there was a dramatic developmental shift from extrinsic to intrinsic on the cognitive–informational cluster. Interpretations for these developmental differences are advanced, and the educational implications are explored. The discussion focuses on the need to be precise in conceptualizing and operationalizing the term "intrinsic motivation." (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

self-esteem / gender difference / social contruction / social organization / self-image / attribution (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

This analysis of the 12,266 responses to the three Self Description Questionnaires, which measure multiple dimensions of self-concept in preadolescence (H. W. Marsh, 1988), early-to-middle adolescence (H. W. Marsh, in press), and late adolescence and early adulthood (H. W. Marsh, in press), examined (a) age and sex effects during preadolescence to early adulthood and (b) alternative operationalizations of Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton's (1976) proposal that self-concept becomes more differentiated with age. Responses to all three SDQ instruments were reliable and resulted in well-defined factor structures. Self-concept declined from early preadolescence to middle adolescence, then increased through early adulthood. Sex differences in specific areas of self-concept were generally consistent with sex stereotypes and relatively stable from preadolescence to early adulthood. There was little support for the increased differentiation of dimensions of self-concept beyond early preadolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

A sample of 194 3rd graders and 279 junior high school students completed questionnaires measuring achievement-related beliefs before and after they took a regularly scheduled mathematics exam. Girls rated their ability lower, expected to do less well, were less likely than boys to attribute success to high ability and failure to luck, and were more likely to attribute failure to low ability. Girls also reported less pride in their success and a stronger desire to hide their paper after failure and were less likely to believe that success could be achieved through effort. Further associations were observed between attributions and the belief that success could be achieved by effort on one hand and a desire to avoid math tasks and future performance expectations on the other. The results expand understanding of achievement-related beliefs that might explain gender differences in performance and in future course and occupational choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

discusses] gender differences in mathematics learning / sketch the broader educational environment over the past two centuries for females and males in three different western countries whose cultures have much in common: the United States, England, and Australia / evaluate more recent work on gender differences in mathematics education against a broader context
environmental variables / learner-related variables / cognitive variables (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

This article reports the complex results of meta-analyses of gender differences in attitudes and affect specific to mathematics. Overall, effect sizes were small and were similar in size to gender differences in mathematics performance. When differences exist, the pattern is for females to hold more negative attitudes. Gender differences in self-confidence and general mathematics attitudes are larger among high school and college students than among younger students. Effect sizes for mathematics anxiety differ depending upon the sample (highly selected or general). One exception to the general pattern is in stereotyping mathematics as a male domain, where males hold much more stereotyped attitudes (d= -.90). While affect and attitudes toward mathematics are not the only influences on the development of gender differences in mathematics performance, they are important, and both male and female affect and attitudes should be considered in conjunction with other social and political influences as explanations.

The relationship of math participation and success to self-esteem and career goals is examined in a sample of 64 women and 52 men college students at the end of their sophomore year. No gender differences were found in math anxiety or perceptions of the usefulness of mathematics, but women were less likely to select a math-related career goal. Among the men students, math participation and self-assessments of math ability were positively related to more general self-estimates of competence; among women, these variables were not related significantly. Women's choices for math-related careers were more closely associated with scholastic ability and math background than were men's career choices. These results are discussed in the context of societal pressures and supports for men and women in regard to math participation.

We examined the development of children's self- and task perceptions during the elementary school years. 865 first-, second-, and fourth-grade children (ages 7–10) completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of competence in, and valuing of, activities in several activity domains (math, reading, sports, and instrumental music). Factor analyses showed that even the first graders had differentiated self-beliefs for the various activities. These analyses also indicated that children's competence beliefs and subjective task values formed distinct factors. Analyses assessing age and gender differences in children's beliefs showed that for all the activities except sports, younger children's (particularly the first graders) perceptions of competence and subjective task values were more positive than the beliefs of the older children. Boys had more positive competence beliefs and values than did girls for sport activities, and more positive competence beliefs for mathematics. Girls had more positive competence beliefs and values than did boys for reading and music activities.

This study examined the effects of the normative school transition (n= 580) during early adolescence on the self-system and perceived school and peer social contexts of poor, black (n= 161), white (n= 146), and Latino (n= 273) youth in the public school systems of 3 eastern urban cities. The results revealed negative effects of the school transition on the affective and behavioral domains of the self-system. These declines in self-esteem, class preparation, and grade-point average (GPA) were common across race/ethnicity and gender. Concurrently, the school transition was perceived to be associated with changes in the school and peer contexts. Daily hassles with the school increased, while social support and extracurricular involvement decreased over the transition. Daily hassles with peers decreased, and peer values were perceived as more antisocial. These changes in the school and peer microsystems were also common across race/ethnicity and gender. In addition, transition-associated school and peer changes and, in particular, changes in daily hassles with the school were associated with changes in the academic dimensions of the self-system, that is, academic efficacy expectations, class preparation, and GPA. The results are discussed within a developmental mismatch framework.

This paper examines the relationships between a number of affective variables included in models explaining gender differences in mathematics learning and a range of classroom environment dimensions more likely to be associated with effective mathematics learning. A large sample of 12–13 year old grade 7 students participated in the study. The data were explored at the individual level, for whole class groupings of students, and by gender. For individuals, three of the classroom environment measures were found to be associated with a subset of the affective variables. The patterns of the relationships in classroom learning environments where teacher support emerged as irrelevant were not the same for males and females, however. For class groupings of students, the same three classroom environment measures were related to the affective variables but their salience was different for males and females.