Article

Mesenchymal progenitor cells in the human umbilical cord

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Annals of Hematology (Impact Factor: 2.63). 01/2005; 83(12):733-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00277-004-0918-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal progenitor or stem cells (MPCs) isolated from fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow are a population of multipotential cells that can proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal tissues including bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament, tendon, fat, and stroma. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize MPCs in the human umbilical cord. The suspensions of endothelial and subendothelial cells in cord vein were collected and cultured in M199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of 50 umbilical cord samples, 3 had numerous fibroblastoid cells morphologically distinguishable from endothelial cells. Fibroblastic cells displayed lack of expression of vWF, Flk-1, and PECAM-1, indicating the endothelial cell-specific marker. To investigate the differentiation potentials, the cells were cultured in adipogenic or osteogenic medium for 2 weeks. Fibroblast-like cells treated with adipogenic supplementation showed Oil red O-positive staining and expressed adipsin, FABP4, LPL, and PPARgamma2 genes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In osteogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium accumulation were detected. RT-PCR studies determined that Cx43, osteopontin, and Runx2 genes were expressed in the osteogenic cultures. Among three cell lines cultured continuously for passage 10, two had normal karyotypes; however, one retained a karyotype of mos 46,XY[19]/47,XY,+mar[3]. These observations suggest that MPCs are present in human umbilical cord and possess several typical traits of MPCs.

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    • "MSC were initially isolated from the bone marrow [5, 19, 20]. Thereafter, many other tissues were found to contain MSC, such as umbilical cord [9, 21, 22], placenta [23], adipose tissue [10, 24], skeletal muscle [25, 26] and dental pulp [27]. The relatively abundant tissue sources and easy isolation procedures make MSC an excellent option of stem cells for autologous and allogeneic application in treating diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have become a promising tool for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. They are readily available, demonstrate powerful differentiation capabilities and present immunosuppressive properties that aid them in surviving from host immune rejection for its great potential use in allograft. Currently clinical trials are underway using MSC, both culture-expanded allogeneic and autologous, for the treatment of a range of diseases not treatable by conventional therapies. A vast array of studies has dedicated towards the use of MSC for treating corneal diseases with very promising outcomes. MSC have successfully differentiated into keratocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and corneal epithelial cells in vitro, but it is uncertain if MSC can assume corneal epithelial cells in vivo. However, to date few studies have unequivocally established the efficacy of MSC for treating corneal endothelial defects. Currently, the diversity in protocols of the isolation and expansion of MSC are hindering to the assessment of cell treatment ability and the further development of treatment regimens. Therefore, future studies should develop international standards for MSC isolation and characterization. In this review, we discuss recent advances in MSC for treating ocular surface diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · BMC Ophthalmology
    • "Therefore , the use of adult stem cells, alone or in combination with scaffold materials, have gained substantial interest as an alternative treatment modality (Dawson et al., 2014). Adult mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from various tissues, including adipose (Lin et al., 2007), umbilical cord (Kim et al., 2004), periodontal ligament (Seo et al., 2004), articular cartilage (Dowthwaite et al., 2004) and tendon (Bi et al., 2007; Salingcarnboriboon et al., 2003; Tempfer et al., 2009). Although most stromal cell fractions isolated from these tissues have been shown to exhibit osteo-chondro-adipogenic differentiation and to share common stem cell-like characteristics, tissue-specific properties, and hence potentially functional differences, have been demonstrated (Yoshimura et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite significant advancements in bone tissue-engineering applications, the clinical impact of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of large osseous defects remains limited. Therefore, other cell sources are under investigation for their osteogenic potential to repair bone. In this study, tendon-derived stromal cells (TDSCs) were evaluated in comparison to BMSCs to support the functional repair of a 5 mm critical-sized, segmental defect in the rat femur. Analysis of the trilineage differentiation capacity of TDSCs and BMSCs cultured on collagen sponges revealed impaired osteogenic differentiation and mineral deposition of TDSCs in vitro, whereas chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation was evident for both cell types. Radiographic assessment demonstrated that neither cell type significantly improved the healing rate of a challenging 5 mm segmental femoral defect. Transplanted TDSCs and BMSCs both led to the formation of only small amounts of bone in the defect area, and histological evaluation revealed non-mineralized, collagen-rich scar tissue to be present within the defect area. Newly formed lamellar bone was restricted to the defect margins, resulting in closure of the medullary cavity. Interestingly, in comparison to BMSCs, significantly more TDSC-derived cells were present at the osteotomy gap up to 8 weeks after transplantation and were also found to be located within newly formed lamellar bone, suggesting their capacity to directly contribute to de novo bone formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the in vivo capacity of TDSCs to regenerate a critical-sized defect in the rat femur. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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    • "First was a standard keratocyte medium (KM), [17,46] consisting of DMEM (Gibco, Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), supplemented with 10% vol/vol heat-inactivated FBS (Fisher Scientific), 0.02 μg/ml gentamicin, 0.5 ng/ml amphotericin B (Gibco), 4.5 μg/ml insulin, human recombinant (Gibco), and 0.5% vol/vol DMSO (Sigma Aldrich). The second was a medium previously shown to support the expansion of MSCs [15,61-63] (MM), consisting of M199 medium (Sigma) supplemented with 20% vol/vol heat-inactivated FBS, 2.5 μg/ml antibiotic solution, Plasmocin (Autogen Bioclear, Wiltshire, UK), 0.02 μg/ml gentamicin, 0.5 ng/ml amphotericin B (Gibco), and 1.59 mM L-glutamine (Sigma Aldrich). "
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    ABSTRACT: The corneal stroma is being increasingly recognized as a repository for stem cells. Like the limbal and endothelial niches, stromal stem cells often reside in the peripheral cornea and limbus. These peripheral and limbal corneal stromal cells (PLCSC) are known to produce mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Recently, a common corneal stromal and epithelial progenitor has been hinted at. This study aims to examine the stem cell potential of corneal stromal cells and to investigate their epithelial transdifferentiation ability. PLCSC were grown in traditional Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)-based keratocyte culture medium and an M199-based medium and analysed for a profile of cell surface markers using flow cytometry and differentiated into mesenchymal phenotypes analysed by qPCR and histological staining. PLCSC in M199 were subsequently divided into subpopulations based on CD34 and CD105 expression using fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Subpopulations were characterized by marker profile and mesenchymal differentiation ability. Both whole PLCSC and subpopulations were also cultured for epithelial transdifferentiation. Cells cultured in M199 demonstrated a more stem-like cell surface marker profile and the keratocyte marker CD34 was retained for several passages but absent in cells cultured in DMEM. Cells cultured in M199 also exhibited a greater mesenchymal differentiation potential, compared with DMEM. PLCSC could be divided into CD34+CD105+, CD34-CD105+ and CD34-CD105- subpopulations, of which CD34+CD105+ cells were the most stem-like with regard to marker expression and mesenchymal differentiation potential. Subpopulations of PLCSC exhibited differing abilities to transdifferentiate into epithelial phenotypes. Cells that were initially CD34+CD105+ showed greatest differentiation potential producing CK3+ and CK19+ cells, and expressed a range of both epithelial progenitor (HES1, FRZB1, DCT, SOD2, ABCG2, CDH1, KRT19) and terminally differentiated (DSG3, KRT3, KRT12, KRT24) genes. Culture medium has a significant effect on the phenotype and differentiation capacity of PLCSC. The stroma contains a heterogeneous cell population in which we have identified CD34+ cells as a stem cell population with a capacity for mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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