Al-Hajj M, Clarke MF.. Self-renewal and solid tumor stem cells. Oncogene 23: 7274-7282

University of Michigan Medical School, CCGC Room 4410, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor 48109-0936, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 10/2004; 23(43):7274-82. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1207947
Source: PubMed


Solid tumors arise in organs that contain stem cell populations. The tumors in these tissues consist of heterogeneous populations of cancer cells that differ markedly in their ability to proliferate and form new tumors. In both breast cancers and central nervous system tumors, cancer cells differ in their ability to form tumors. While the majority of the cancer cells have a limited ability to divide, a population of cancer stem cells that has the exclusive ability to extensively proliferate and form new tumors can be identified based on marker expression. Growing evidence suggests that pathways that regulate the self-renewal of normal stem cells are deregulated in cancer stem cells resulting in the continuous expansion of self-renewing cancer cells and tumor formation. This suggests that agents that target the defective self-renewal pathways in cancer cells might lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these diseases.

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    • "and tumor-initiating potentials [14]. Thus, it is possible that inhibition of CSC properties by CHIP could result in a favorable prognosis for patients with breast cancer with higher CHIP expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have several distinctive characteristics, including high metastatic potential, tumor-initiating potential, and properties that resemble normal stem cells such as self-renewal, differentiation, and drug efflux. Because of these characteristics, CSC is regarded to be responsible for cancer progression and patient prognosis. In our previous study, we showed that a ubiquitin E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) suppressed breast cancer malignancy. Moreover, a recent clinical study reported that CHIP expression levels were associated with favorable prognostic parameters of patients with breast cancer. Here we show that CHIP suppresses CSC properties in a population of breast cancer cells. CHIP depletion resulted in an increased proportion of CSCs among breast cancers when using several assays to assess CSC properties. From our results, we propose that inhibition of CSC properties may be one of the functions of CHIP as a suppressor of cancer progression.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    • "Uncontrolled self-renewal is proposed to be an important mechanism in carcinogenesis [1]. On the basis of the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, a tumor may be sustained by a subset of cancer cells with stem cell-like features that have the ability for self-renewal and pluripotency [2, 3]. These CSCs have tumorigenic potential and proliferate indistinctly [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled self-renewal plays a direct function in the progression of different types of carcinomas. The same molecular pathway that manages self-renewal in normal stem cells also seems to manage cancer stem cells. Here, we examine the expressions of self-renewal regulatory factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, nucleostemin, Zfx, Esrrb, Tcl1, Tbx3, and Dppa4 in tissue samples of colon, prostate, and bladder carcinomas as well as cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, HT-1376, LNCaP, and HepG2. We used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to examine expressions of the above mentioned regulatory factors in cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, HT-1376, LNCaP, and HepG2 and in 20 tumor tissue samples. Total RNA was isolated by the ISOGEN method. RNA integrity was checked by agarose gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. Expressions of Oct4 and nucleostemin at the protein level were determined by immunocytochemistry. A significant relationship was found between tumor grade and self-renewal gene expression. Expressions of stem cell specific marker genes were detected in all examined cancer cell lines, in 40% to 100% of bladder cancer samples, and in 60% to 100% of colon and prostate cancer samples. Oct4 expressed in 100% of tumor tissue samples. Our data show that stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, nucleostemin, Bmi, Zfx, Esrrb, Tcl1, Tbx3, and Dppa4 significantly express in cancer cell lines and cancer tissues. Hence, these markers might be useful as potential tumor markers in the diagnosis and/or prognosis of tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Anatomy & cell biology
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    • "Recent evidence in several systems suggest that tumors contain a small subpopulation of cells, called cancer stem cells (CSC), which exhibit self-renewal capacity, proliferate infrequently, and are responsible for tumor maintenance and metastasis [2]. Moreover, it has been proposed that these “slow cycling” cells are not impacted by anti-cancer agents that kill rapidly growing tumor cells [3]. Since the cancer stem cells are thought to give rise to other cells in the tumor, eliminating the stem cell population may be necessary to halt tumor formation [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is among the most common cancers in humans. These tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of cells that display varying potential for proliferation and differentiation. An important goal is identifying cells from this population that drive tumor formation. To enrich for tumor-forming cells, cancer cells were grown as spheroids in non-attached conditions. We show that spheroid-selected cells form faster growing and larger tumors in immune-compromised mice as compared to non-selected cells. Moreover, spheroid-selected cells gave rise to tumors following injection of as few as one hundred cells, suggesting these cells have enhanced tumor-forming potential. Cells isolated from spheroid-selected tumors retain an enhanced ability to grow as spheroids when grown in non-attached culture conditions. Thus, these tumor-forming cells retain their phenotype following in vivo passage as tumors. Detailed analysis reveals that spheroid-selected cultures are highly enriched for expression of epidermal stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, keratin 15, CD200, keratin 19, Oct4, Bmi-1, Ezh2 and trimethylated histone H3. These studies indicate that a subpopulation of cells that possess stem cell-like properties and express stem cell markers can be derived from human epidermal cancer cells and that these cells display enhanced ability to drive tumor formation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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