ArticleLiterature Review

Does Stretching Improve Performance?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The purpose of this article was to evaluate the clinical and basic science evidence surrounding the hypothesis that stretching improves performance. MEDLINE and Sport Discus were searched using MeSH and textwords for English-language and French-language articles related to stretching and performance (or performance tests). Additional references were reviewed from the bibliographies and from citation searches on key articles. All articles related to stretching and performance (or performance tests) were reviewed. Of the 23 articles examining the effects of an acute bout of stretching, 22 articles suggested that there was no benefit for the outcomes isometric force, isokinetic torque, or jumping height. There was 1 article that suggested improved running economy. Of 4 articles examining running speed, 1 suggested that stretching was beneficial, 1 suggested that it was detrimental, and 2 had equivocal results. Of the 9 studies examining the effects of regular stretching, 7 suggested that it was beneficial, and the 2 showing no effect examined only the performance test of running economy. There were none that suggested that it was detrimental. An acute bout of stretching does not improve force or jump height, and the results for running speed are contradictory. Regular stretching improves force, jump height, and speed, although there is no evidence that it improves running economy.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Stretching exercises are commonly integrated into warm-up routines before athletic competition and exercise training sessions in hope to improve physical performance (38). Conventionally, stretching is performed to decrease muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness and increase joint range of motion (ROM), which are believed to enhance physical performance and increase resilience to musculoskeletal injuries (6). ...
... Conventionally, stretching is performed to decrease muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness and increase joint range of motion (ROM), which are believed to enhance physical performance and increase resilience to musculoskeletal injuries (6). However, recent studies do not support the efficacy of static stretching in improving physical performance or decreasing injury incidence (4,38). Several studies have reported preexercise static stretching decreases muscle strength, power, and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance (5,7,29,34,38). ...
... However, recent studies do not support the efficacy of static stretching in improving physical performance or decreasing injury incidence (4,38). Several studies have reported preexercise static stretching decreases muscle strength, power, and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance (5,7,29,34,38). The mechanism underpinning the stretchinduced performance impairment is hypothesized to be caused by neurophysiological factors including diminished stretch reflex sensitivity, electromechanical coupling and central motor drive, and mechanical factors including decreased MTU stiffness and stretch-induced fatigue (5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gesel, FJ, Morenz, EK, Cleary, CJ, and LaRoche, DP. Acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on muscle-tendon unit stiffness, work absorption, strength, power, and vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of static and ballistic stretching on muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness, work absorption (WA), strength, power, and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance. Using a within-subject design, 22 subjects performed 3 separate experimental conditions: no-stretching, ballistic stretching, and static stretching for the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteus, and plantarflexor muscle groups. After each condition, plantarflexor MTU stiffness, WA, isometric strength, and power were measured, followed by a CMJ on a force plate to obtain peak center of mass velocity, peak power, rate of force development, peak force, work, and vertical jump height. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests were used to detect differences between conditions for plantarflexor and CMJ measures. An acute bout of static stretching significantly reduced WA by 12% (p 5 0.049) and isokinetic power by 8% (p 5 0.047) compared with the control condition but ballistic stretching did not (p 5 0.624, p 5 0.692, respectively). Significant positive correlations existed between MTU stiffness, WA, strength, and power (r = 0.64-0.77, p < 0.001). Despite significant positive correlations between MTU stiffness, WA, and CMJ performance measures (r = 0.40-0.72, p < 0.001), neither static nor ballistic stretching affected CMJ performance (p. 0.05). These data show that stiffer MTU that absorb more work (energy) are associated with greater muscle force, power, and CMJ performance. Although an acute bout of static stretching impaired MTU passive-elastic properties and power production, neither static nor ballistic stretching impaired isometric strength or CMJ performance.
... No entanto, observam-se resultados divergentes que denotam ou não incremento de força após protocolos de TF 6,9 , já que a resposta do tecido muscular ao alongamento ocorre em função da elevação da temperatura corporal 10 . Os mecanismos que favorecem o incremento de força, em função do treinamento de flexibilidade, não estão elucidados, mas sugere-se que, em longo prazo, ocorram mudanças estruturais no músculo, como por exemplo, aumento da área de secção transversa o que pode contribuir para aumento na força e velocidade de contração 11,12 . Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . ...
... Os mecanismos que favorecem o incremento de força, em função do treinamento de flexibilidade, não estão elucidados, mas sugere-se que, em longo prazo, ocorram mudanças estruturais no músculo, como por exemplo, aumento da área de secção transversa o que pode contribuir para aumento na força e velocidade de contração 11,12 . Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . Destarte, investigações realizadas com atletas e praticantes recreativos destacam que um programa regular de TF, principalmente para membros inferiores (com alvo nos músculos isquiotibiais, quadríceps e flexores plantares), com duração de três ou quatro semanas parece afetar apenas a tolerância ao alongamento, otimizar ganhos de força e contribuir para melhor desempenho 6,8,12 . ...
... Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . Destarte, investigações realizadas com atletas e praticantes recreativos destacam que um programa regular de TF, principalmente para membros inferiores (com alvo nos músculos isquiotibiais, quadríceps e flexores plantares), com duração de três ou quatro semanas parece afetar apenas a tolerância ao alongamento, otimizar ganhos de força e contribuir para melhor desempenho 6,8,12 . ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO A investigação das possíveis influências entre o treinamento de flexibilidade e o desempenho de força muscular pode contribuir para a compreensão do treinamento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito de três semanas de treinamento de flexibilidade no torque e potência muscular. Dez adultos, divididos em Grupo Alongamento (GA, N=5) e Controle (GC, N=5) foram avaliados antes e após a intervenção. A intervenção foi realizada pelo GA e consistiu em um protocolo de alongamento estático passivo para os músculos posteriores da coxa, realizados em três por semana e durante três semanas. O torque e potência da extensão e flexão dos joelhos foram avaliados utilizando dinamômetro isocinético em três velocidades (60, 180 e 360º/s). A amplitude de movimento (ADM) foi avaliada pelo teste de sentar e alcançar. Houve incremento de ADM (pré: 23,0±5,6cm; pós: 30,1±6,58cm; p=0,033) do GA, mas não foram observadas diferenças entre e intra-grupos para as demais variáveis (p>0,05). Houveram correlações da ADM apenas para o torque da flexão (r=0,664; p=0,036) e potência da extensão (r=0,638; p=0,047) do joelho esquerdo a 60º/s. Conclui-se que três semanas de treinamento de flexibilidade com método estático passivo promoveu ganhos significativos de ADM, mas não possibilitou incrementos de torque e potência. Palavras-chave: Amplitude de movimento articular. Força Muscular. Dinamômetro de força muscular. Desempenho. ABSTRACT Investigation about influences between stretching training and muscle strength performance can contribute to the understanding of training. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of three weeks of stretching training on muscle torque and power. Ten adults, divided into Stretching Group (GA, N = 5) and Control Group (CG, N = 5) were evaluated pre and post intervention. The intervention was performed by GA and consisted of a passive static stretching protocol for the posterior thigh muscles, performed three times a week and during three weeks. The torque and power of the knee extension and flexion were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer at three speeds (60, 180 and 360º/s). Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using the sit and reach test. There was an increase in ROM (pre: 23.0 ± 5.6 cm; post: 30.1 ± 6.58 cm; p = 0.033) of GA, but there were no differences between and within groups for the other variables (p> 0.05). There were correlations of the ROM only for the flexion torque (r = 0.664; p = 0.036) and power of the extension (r = 0.638; p = 0.047) of the left knee at 60º/s. It was concluded that three weeks of static stretching training promoted significant gains in ROM, but did not allow increases in torque and power. Introdução Força e flexibilidade são capacidades físicas importantes à realização das atividades de vida diárias e gestos motores 1. Estudos investigaram as possíveis inter-relações entre as manifestações de flexibilidade e força 2-4 , reportando contribuições para incrementos de amplitudes de movimento (ADM) 3,5. Não obstante, em relação à influência do treinamento de flexibilidade (TF) no desempenho de força, observam-se efeitos agudos ou crônicos 5,6. O efeito agudo está relacionado a prejuízos na manifestação de força muscular na ordem de 4,5-28% para contrações isotônicas e isométricas e de 3,2-7,3% para o desempenho de saltos quando precedidos por alongamentos 7,8. Por sua vez, o efeito crônico tem sido observado em investigações que conduziram TF regulares (2-3 vezes por semana) 6 em amostra de indivíduos
... No entanto, observam-se resultados divergentes que denotam ou não incremento de força após protocolos de TF 6,9 , já que a resposta do tecido muscular ao alongamento ocorre em função da elevação da temperatura corporal 10 . Os mecanismos que favorecem o incremento de força, em função do treinamento de flexibilidade, não estão elucidados, mas sugere-se que, em longo prazo, ocorram mudanças estruturais no músculo, como por exemplo, aumento da área de secção transversa o que pode contribuir para aumento na força e velocidade de contração 11,12 . Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . ...
... Os mecanismos que favorecem o incremento de força, em função do treinamento de flexibilidade, não estão elucidados, mas sugere-se que, em longo prazo, ocorram mudanças estruturais no músculo, como por exemplo, aumento da área de secção transversa o que pode contribuir para aumento na força e velocidade de contração 11,12 . Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . Destarte, investigações realizadas com atletas e praticantes recreativos destacam que um programa regular de TF, principalmente para membros inferiores (com alvo nos músculos isquiotibiais, quadríceps e flexores plantares), com duração de três ou quatro semanas parece afetar apenas a tolerância ao alongamento, otimizar ganhos de força e contribuir para melhor desempenho 6,8,12 . ...
... Adicionalmente, o TF pode promover maior tolerância ao alongamento, sem alteração na viscoelasticidade, rigidez dos tendões e consequentemente, sem prejuízo na capacidade de transmissão de força 12,13 . Destarte, investigações realizadas com atletas e praticantes recreativos destacam que um programa regular de TF, principalmente para membros inferiores (com alvo nos músculos isquiotibiais, quadríceps e flexores plantares), com duração de três ou quatro semanas parece afetar apenas a tolerância ao alongamento, otimizar ganhos de força e contribuir para melhor desempenho 6,8,12 . ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO A investigação das possíveis influências entre o treinamento de flexibilidade e o desempenho de força muscular pode contribuir para a compreensão do treinamento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito de três semanas de treinamento de flexibilidade no torque e potência muscular. Dez adultos, divididos em Grupo Alongamento (GA, N=5) e Controle (GC, N=5) foram avaliados antes e após a intervenção. A intervenção foi realizada pelo GA e consistiu em um protocolo de alongamento estático passivo para os músculos posteriores da coxa, realizados em três por semana e durante três semanas. O torque e potência da extensão e flexão dos joelhos foram avaliados utilizando dinamômetro isocinético em três velocidades (60, 180 e 360º/s). A amplitude de movimento (ADM) foi avaliada pelo teste de sentar e alcançar. Houve incremento de ADM (pré: 23,0±5,6cm; pós: 30,1±6,58cm; p=0,033) do GA, mas não foram observadas diferenças entre e intra-grupos para as demais variáveis (p>0,05). Houveram correlações da ADM apenas para o torque da flexão (r=0,664; p=0,036) e potência da extensão (r=0,638; p=0,047) do joelho esquerdo a 60º/s. Conclui-se que três semanas de treinamento de flexibilidade com método estático passivo promoveu ganhos significativos de ADM, mas não possibilitou incrementos de torque e potência. Palavras-chave: Amplitude de movimento articular. Força Muscular. Dinamômetro de força muscular. Desempenho. ABSTRACT Investigation about influences between stretching training and muscle strength performance can contribute to the understanding of training. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of three weeks of stretching training on muscle torque and power. Ten adults, divided into Stretching Group (GA, N = 5) and Control Group (CG, N = 5) were evaluated pre and post intervention. The intervention was performed by GA and consisted of a passive static stretching protocol for the posterior thigh muscles, performed three times a week and during three weeks. The torque and power of the knee extension and flexion were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer at three speeds (60, 180 and 360º/s). Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using the sit and reach test. There was an increase in ROM (pre: 23.0 ± 5.6 cm; post: 30.1 ± 6.58 cm; p = 0.033) of GA, but there were no differences between and within groups for the other variables (p> 0.05). There were correlations of the ROM only for the flexion torque (r = 0.664; p = 0.036) and power of the extension (r = 0.638; p = 0.047) of the left knee at 60º/s. It was concluded that three weeks of static stretching training promoted significant gains in ROM, but did not allow increases in torque and power. Introdução Força e flexibilidade são capacidades físicas importantes à realização das atividades de vida diárias e gestos motores 1. Estudos investigaram as possíveis inter-relações entre as manifestações de flexibilidade e força 2-4 , reportando contribuições para incrementos de amplitudes de movimento (ADM) 3,5. Não obstante, em relação à influência do treinamento de flexibilidade (TF) no desempenho de força, observam-se efeitos agudos ou crônicos 5,6. O efeito agudo está relacionado a prejuízos na manifestação de força muscular na ordem de 4,5-28% para contrações isotônicas e isométricas e de 3,2-7,3% para o desempenho de saltos quando precedidos por alongamentos 7,8. Por sua vez, o efeito crônico tem sido observado em investigações que conduziram TF regulares (2-3 vezes por semana) 6 em amostra de indivíduos
... This was mainly substantiated by the thought that greater ROM reduces resistance to movement and improves movement economy (Behm, 2018). However, since the late 1990s up to early 2000s, researchers have started discussing the potential harmful effects of StS on subsequent strength-and power-related activities (Behm et al., 2001;Cornwell et al., 2002;Shrier, 2004a;Wallmann et al., 2005;Young et al., 2006;Cramer et al., 2007;Kay and Blazevich, 2008;McHugh and Nesse, 2008;Behm, 2018;Opplert and Babault, 2018). As a result, it has been widely recommended to avoid performing prolonged StS before strength-and power-related tasks (Magnusson and Renström, 2006;Garber et al., 2011;Simic et al., 2013) and to favor dynamic stretching exercises instead (Behm, 2018). ...
... Pre-exercise StS for the purpose of strength and power performance improvements has widely been criticized (Pope et al., 2000;Shrier, 2004a,b;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013). In fact, a large body of scientific evidence has recommended not to use StS immediately before the performance of strength-and power-related activities (Shrier, 2004a;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Simic et al., 2013;Peck et al., 2014). This is based on evidence showing acute stretch-related declines in muscle strength and power. ...
... The same authors reported significant decrements in jump height (∆3.5%), irrespective of the applied StS intensity. In a systematic literature review, Shrier (2004a) concluded that StS could be harmful to subsequent strength and power actions. In another systematic review, Behm and Chaouachi (2011) suggested that StS has to be implemented with caution if high-speed, power-related activities are required from high-performance athletes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of static stretching (StS) on subsequent strength and power activities has been one of the most debated topics in sport science literature over the past decades. The aim of this review is (1) to summarize previous and current findings on the acute effects of StS on muscle strength and power performances; (2) to update readers’ knowledge related to previous caveats; and (3) to discuss the underlying physiological mechanisms of short-duration StS when performed as single-mode treatment or when integrated into a full warm-up routine. Over the last two decades, StS has been considered harmful to subsequent strength and power performances. Accordingly, it has been recommended not to apply StS before strength- and power-related activities. More recent evidence suggests that when performed as a single-mode treatment or when integrated within a full warm-up routine including aerobic activity, dynamic-stretching, and sport-specific activities, short-duration StS (≤60 s per muscle group) trivially impairs subsequent strength and power activities (∆1–2%). Yet, longer StS durations (>60 s per muscle group) appear to induce substantial and practically relevant declines in strength and power performances (∆4.0–7.5%). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that when included in a full warm-up routine, short-duration StS may even contribute to lower the risk of sustaining musculotendinous injuries especially with high-intensity activities (e.g., sprint running and change of direction speed). It seems that during short-duration StS, neuromuscular activation and musculotendinous stiffness appear not to be affected compared with long-duration StS. Among other factors, this could be due to an elevated muscle temperature induced by a dynamic warm-up program. More specifically, elevated muscle temperature leads to increased muscle fiber conduction-velocity and improved binding of contractile proteins (actin, myosin). Therefore, our previous understanding of harmful StS effects on subsequent strength and power activities has to be updated. In fact, short-duration StS should be included as an important warm-up component before the uptake of recreational sports activities due to its potential positive effect on flexibility and musculotendinous injury prevention. However, in high-performance athletes, short-duration StS has to be applied with caution due to its negligible but still prevalent negative effects on subsequent strength and power performances, which could have an impact on performance during competition.
... Despite the lack of a specific number of exercises, it is also recommended that 2 to 4 sets of stretching should be performed, where a given position should be held for 10 to 30 seconds until the point of slight discomfort, accumulating 60 seconds for each exercise. Thus, the in the viscoelastic properties of the muscle (Marek et al., 2005;Shrier, 2004). ...
... The detrimental effects of acute stretching have been consistently shown in some forms of muscle strength manifestation, such as jumping power (Pinto, Wilhelm, Tricoli, Pinto, & Blazevich, 2014), peak torque (Babault, Bazine, Deley, Paizis, & Lattier, 2015), sprinting speed (Paradisis et al., 2014) and 1-RM (Gergley, 2013). In fact, meta-analysis data support the ergolytic effects of stretching, with mean decrements of 10 to 30% in strength performance (Shrier, 2004). It is speculated that both mechanical and neural factors might be contributing to the loss of force induced by stretching. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stretching may promote detrimental effects on power output and maximal strength, but its direct effect on strength endurance remains unclear, as well as the influence of stretching duration. Objective: we aimed to evaluate the direct effect of static stretching of quadriceps muscle, as well as the stretching duration, on the strength endurance during an unilateral knee extension exercise. Methods: Fifteen strength-trained men (age: 28±3 y; height: 1.70±0.09 m; body mass: 70±5 kg; training experience: 5±1 y) took part in a randomized counterbalanced cross-over study. Participants' total number of repetitions was assessed during strength endurance tests (four sets until failure at 70% of one-repetition maximum) performed under three different conditions in separate days: Control - No Stretching (CON), Short-Duration Stretching (SDS) and Long-Duration Stretching (LDS). Three stretching exercises, with 3 sets lasting 30 seconds each, were performed during SDS, while the number of sets during LDS was doubled. Data were analyzed using mixed models and magnitude-based inferences (MBI). Results: Despite of a significant decrease in the number of repetitions performed during the strength endurance test across the exercise sets (Main 'Set' Effect: p < .001), neither the number of repetitions in each set (Main 'Condition' Effect: p = .95) nor the total number of repetitions (Main 'Condition' Effect: p = .86) were significantly different between the conditions. MBI analysis revealed that changes in the total number of repetitions after SDS and LDS were mainly 'trivial' compared to CON. Conclusions: Regardless of its duration, an acute session of static stretching did not influence strength endurance.
... Regular stretching practice can be beneficial in maximum voluntary contraction, and running speed 27 . Our findings reveal that static stretching causes changes in the entire postsynaptic neuromuscular structure, and probably in its function. ...
... This area's increase has a functional consequence of decreasing peripheral muscle fatigue during high-intensity muscle contractions 17 . However, this area's reduction does not imply that the motor neuron's innervation in the muscle fibers is restricted since the postsynaptic potential usually has an amplitude that significantly exceeds the necessary to obtain a postsynaptic action potential30 .Although evidence suggests that stretching before exercise decreases the results of performance tests that require muscle strength or power27 , data on stretching in other perspectives are limited, mainly its influence on the postsynaptic responses. Regarding resistance training on a vertical ladder, Deschenes et al. 31 presented data on young and elderly animals, where there were adaptations only in the postsynaptic components of the NMJ, as is evident in our RT data. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This investigation revealed the postsynaptic morphological adaptations in static stretching, resistance training, and their association in adult male Wistar rats. We processed the soleus and plantaris muscle for histochemical (muscle hypertrophy) and postsynaptic region imaging techniques. We observed muscle hypertrophy in both groups submitted to resistance training, even though the cross-section area is larger when there is no previous static stretching. The soleus postsynaptic region revealed an increase in compactness and fragmentation index in combined exercise. The resistance training promotes high adaptations in the postsynaptic area of plantaris; moreover, the previous static stretching decreased this area. In conclusion, the neuromuscular system’s components respond according to the myofiber type even though it is the same physical exercise. Besides, static stretching (isolated or combined) plays a crucial role in neuromuscular adaptations.
... Previous literature indicated that runners with a good RE use less energy and, therefore, less oxygen uptake at the same velocity, than runners with a poor RE [43]. In the present study, recreational runners showed significant RE improvements following both SS and DS stretching exercises within the warm-up, indicating that an acute bout of pre-exercise stretching, prior to an endurance exercise, can significantly ameliorate the energy cost of running, which is probably thanks to its effects on muscle-tendon stiffness [44]. However, the current literature shows unclear results about the effects of stretching on running economy, showing a negative impact [3,11] or reporting no significant changes [15,20]. ...
... Previous literature indicated that runners with a good RE use less energy and, therefore, less oxygen uptake at the same velocity, than runners with a poor RE [43]. In the present study, recreational runners showed significant RE improvements following both SS and DS stretching exercises within the warm-up, indicating that an acute bout of pre-exercise stretching, prior to an endurance exercise, can significantly ameliorate the energy cost of running, which is probably thanks to its effects on muscletendon stiffness [44]. However, the current literature shows unclear results about the effects of stretching on running economy, showing a negative impact [3,11] or reporting no significant changes [15,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This randomized crossover counterbalanced study investigated, in recreational runners, the acute effects of pre-exercise stretching on physiological and metabolic responses, endurance performance, and perception of effort. Eight male endurance runners (age 36 ± 11 years) performed three running-until-exhaustion tests, preceded by three warm-ups, including the following different stretching protocols: static (SS), dynamic (DS), and no-stretching (NS). During the SS and DS sessions, the warm-up consisted of 10 min of running plus 5 min of SS or DS, respectively, while during the NS session, the warm-up consisted of 15 min of running. Physiological and metabolic responses, and endurance running performance parameters, were evaluated. The perception of effort was derived from the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Running economy significantly improved after SS (p < 0.05) and DS (p < 0.01), and RPE values were significantly lower in SS (p < 0.05) and DS (p < 0.01), compared to NS. No differences in physiological and metabolic responses among the sessions were found. This study showed that including SS and DS within the warm-up ameliorated running economy and decreased the perception of effort during a running-until-exhaustion test, highlighting the benefits of stretching on endurance performance. These results should encourage recreational runners to insert stretching during warm-up, to optimize the running energy costs, reducing the perception of effort and making the training sessions more enjoyable.
... Apesar dos decréscimos na ADM articular com a idade das evidências estabelecidas entre pouca flexibilidade, mobilidade e independência física, ainda há poucos estudos que documentem ou comparem os efeitos de exercícios específicos de ADM sobre os resultados de flexibilidade em idosos populações (5) . Há, portanto, lacunas que podem ser estudadas a respeito da melhora da amplitude de movimento com o desempenho funcional de sujeitos idosos fisicamente ativos (6,7) . ...
... Em relação ao CAO, disfunções como dor e limitação da ADM podem acometer estas articulações e impactar diretamente na qualidade de vida do indivíduo, ao passo que a função de ombro é fundamental na realização de diversas atividades de vida diária (6) . ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to compare the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder joint complex (SJC) and the perception of pain between participants of the Elderly Health Program (PSI) of a Basic Health Unit (UBS) and non-participants of physical activity promotion programs. The sample of 20 elderly women was divided into two groups: 12-week PSI participant (GP) and non-PSI participant (CG). Two types of data collection were performed, one through the shoulder pain and disability index questionnaire - SPADI-Brasil, to verify the level of pain and disability of the SJC and pain perception and the other through the assessment of the SJC ROM. by goniometry. For statistical analysis, Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to test the normal distribution of data, Levene to test for variance homogeneity, T-tests (Student’s t-test) to test the differences between means. The level of statistical significance adopted was 5% (P≤0.05). Statistically significant differences were found in participants’ weight and pain scale. In the goniometric evaluation, the findings revealed statistically significant differences for the flexion, abduction and internal rotation movements of the shoulder in the participant group, where the GP group presented less ROM compared to the CG. The proposed exercise program possibly promoted an increase in musculotendinous stiffness. Keywords: Elderly; Physical exercises; Range of motion; Shoulder Joint Complex
... In a review by Thacker et al. (2004), it was concluded that stretching had neither benefits nor detriments in terms of injury prevention. However, Shrier (2004) noted that stretching had detrimental effects on power and force production performances when conducted immediately before exercise, but long-term, regular stretching may reduce the risk of injury. Thus, stretching should perhaps be performed not during warm-up sessions, but rather after exercises, or as a separate session of its own (Shrier, 2004). ...
... However, Shrier (2004) noted that stretching had detrimental effects on power and force production performances when conducted immediately before exercise, but long-term, regular stretching may reduce the risk of injury. Thus, stretching should perhaps be performed not during warm-up sessions, but rather after exercises, or as a separate session of its own (Shrier, 2004). On the contrary, 82.2% of respondents reportedly perform specific warm-up exercises to prevent injuries during soccer, complying to evidence-based recommendations (Hübscher et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
In injury prevention practice, high emphasis has been directed to the implementation and maintenance of evidence-based injury prevention measures into training routines. Despite scientific backing, compliance to injury prevention exercise programs has been observed to be suboptimal in many teams. Thus, understanding the soccer players' beliefs, knowledge, attitude, and behaviors toward injury prevention exercise programs may unlock some insight toward better player education and compliance of injury prevention approaches implemented in their teams. In this study, we aim to gather preliminary data on Malaysian elite soccer players' perceptions on injury risk and mechanisms, its means of prevention, and their current practice in prevention of injuries during training and matches. Active players from four elite soccer and amateur leagues (Super League, Premier League, President's Cup, and Youth Cup) in Malaysia were invited to participate. Forty-five (n = 45) male elite players returned their responses. The most perceived risk factors for injury are muscle impairments and fatigue (91.1%), followed by coordination (88.9%), physical condition (84.4%), and previous injury (77.8%). As per our findings, over 50% of respondents feel adequately informed about injury prevention. However, as a practice, players seem to employ a combination of injury prevention measures that may or may not be supported by comprehensive, evidence-based literature. The findings suggest that there may be conflicting information among the players with regard to the efficacy of one injury prevention practice in comparison to the other. This may be regarded as a call for injury risk and prevention education among players, as well as increase the promotion of evidence-based injury prevention programs in Malaysian professional soccer.
... However, there is a growing confusion with regards to the effect of stretching exercises (static or dynamic) on physical fitness performance in elite athletes. The misperception has arisen perhaps since several studies suggested that acute, hamstring pre-competition/trial stretching, diminished muscle force output [4] and deteriorated the peak force development during isometric contraction [5]. However, in the above studies, an acute stretching protocol was employed for examining the effect of stretching on strength and muscular explosiveness in a single predominantly trial. ...
... b) Reducing the series of elastic-component stiffness which contributes in enhancing the utilization of elastic strain energy and therefore muscle contraction [8,9]. c) Increasing muscle hypertrophy which, in turn, may donate in enhancing muscular force and contraction velocity [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing confusion of whether stretching training (static or dynamic) affect athletes’ performance. Studies suggested that acute pre-competition stretching, may diminish maximum speed and muscular explosiveness performance in very short but powerful athletic trails/events. Similarly, studies suggested that by increasing the range of motion, with flexibility training, may negatively influence performance in long-distance runners. However, how safe is for soccer scientists/coaches to generalize results from studies that did not utilize soccer players and without taking into consideration the demands, needs, environment and the nature of soccer as a sport? In this opinion, we will focus specifically on the effect of sit-and-reach flexibility levels on elite young and mature/professional soccer-players’ physical fitness performance. Studies from our laboratory observed positive results of the effect of “good” levels of sit-and-reach flexibility on elite soccer players’ physical fitness performance. Keywords: Flexibility training; Physical fitness performance; Elite soccer players
... Although for many years static stretching was the preferred equipment-free method to increase ROM before physical activity; several studies have demonstrated negative repercussions for muscle performance measures and force production immediately after static stretching (Thacker et al., 2004;Shrier, 2004;Behm et al., 2001). Marek at al. (2005) suggest that stretching may affect the length-tension relationship and plastic elements of connective tissues, which in turn might compromise the ability of the stretched muscles to produce force. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been an increase in the use of neurolymphatic reflex (NLR) stimulation (also known as Chapman's reflex stimulation) in the athletic world; however, most evidence remains anecdotal at best. As well as discussing the origins of this technique in Applied Kinesiology, this paper also draws from neighbouring literature in the realms of myofascial chains, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, myofascial release, and trigger point therapy to a suggest proposed mechanisms behind the hypothesised effectiveness of NLR stimulation. A research strategy to address the gaps in the literature is also proposed.
... En el ámbito del deporte, mejoras en la Flexibilidad podrían relacionarse con aumentos en la capacidad para aplicar fuerza muscular y lograr acciones más potentes (Kokkonen et al., 2007(Kokkonen et al., y 2010Shrier, 2004). ...
Article
El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los resultados de la implementación de un programa para el desarrollo de la Flexibilidad en atletas de Boxeo y Muay Thai, sobre la ROM articulares y la producción de Velocidad de los golpes rectos de puño. Se utilizó una metodología cuantitativa con un diseño de investigación preexperimental de corte longitudinal. A partir de la evaluación de la Flexibilidad en 10 atletas de Boxeo y Muay Thai utilizando el método Flexitest, y tras evidenciar los niveles más bajos de esta capacidad en las zonas de tobillo, hombro y muñeca, se desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento de 6 semanas de duración utilizando los métodos dinámico, estático y FNP para el entrenamiento de estas zonas. También se evaluaron las Velocidades pico alcanzadas por los participantes en golpes de puño rectos lanzados al aire. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los rangos articulares pre y post programa de entrenamiento de la Flexibilidad en las articulaciones de tobillo y hombro (p=0.006 y p=0.005, respectivamente). Con respecto a la Velocidad no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguno de los gestos evaluados. La fuerza de asociación resultó de baja a nula al correlacionar la Flexibilidad y producción de Velocidad de los gestos. Si bien se mejoró la Flexibilidad de hombros y tobillos, la Velocidad de los gestos de golpeo no se vio modificada y no se pudo considerar una asociación entre ambas variables.
... The elite jockeys in this study reported that just over half the athlete population warm up before racing (54.1%) with static stretching the most commonly used warm-up practice. Although further research is required on individual components of a warm up, it is understood that static stretching may not be the optimal preparation strategy for events which require maximal exertion due to negative decrements in power (27,35). ...
Article
Kiely, M, Warrington, G, McGoldrick, A, and Cullen, S. Physical preparation strategies of professional jockeys. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Professional horse racing is a physically demanding sport. The aim of the study was to examine the physical preparation strategies of jockeys for racing. A questionnaire was developed and validated which comprised of 4 sections; (a) background information, (b) making weight and current associated exercise habits, (c) current physical activity practices, and (d) jockey perceptions of strength and conditioning (S&C) and current practices. Eighty-five jockeys (n = 38 professional flat, n = 47 professional jump) completed the questionnaire in race course weighing rooms representing 80% of the professional athlete population. In total, 77.6% of jockeys participate in physical activity outside of riding. Jockeys that participated in S&C (42.4%) reported their most frequent type of S&C practice; cardio (52.8%), high-intensity interval training (33.3%), flexibility and mobility training (8.3%), resistance training (5.6%). There was no significant difference in S&C participation between total flat and total jump licenses (p = 0.530; [PHI] = 0.068). Difficulty making weight was reported by 55.3% of jockeys. Exercise alone was used by 29.4% of jockeys to rapidly reduce weight. There was no significant difference (p = 0.201, [PHI] = 0.357) between the frequency of rapid weight loss per month for total flat (1.7 ± 1.7) and total jump jockeys (1.6 ± 0.5). This study represents the only published data on the physical preparation strategies of jockeys. Jockeys do not partake in physical activity, which mimics the repeated high-intensity demands of racing. Future research is required to examine the effects of specific S&C interventions on riding performance.
... Kelentukan yang optimal selain dapat meningkatkan kualitas gerak dapat pula mengurangi terjadinya resiko cedera saat bergerak. Shrier (2004) menyatakan bahwa peningkatan kelentukan juga dapat memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan komponen fisik yang lain diantaranya kecepatan, kelincahan, dan tinggi lompatan. ...
Article
Full-text available
The level of physical condition can directly affect the team's success in winning the match. The purpose of this study is to implement sport-specific test and measurement related to basketball to investigate the level of fitness for basketball athletes in Central Java highschool basketball team (PPLOP). The total of 13 athletes were signed for this study. Methods used to collect data were test and measurement containing of the following 60-m sprint test, sprint fatigue test, maximum push up, one minute push up, beep test and V-sit. These are sequentially intended to measure speed, anaerobic endurance, upper extremity muscular endurance, abdominal muscular endurance, aerobic endurance, and flexibility. In addition, a different test was conducted using ANOVA technique to determine differences in physical conditions between starters and reserve players. The results suggested that generally the level of physical condition of PPLOP players is in good condition. However, the muscular endurance of the arms and shoulders requires an increase because the results are categorized as less. The significant difference in physical capacity between starters and reserve players was recorded only in the number of push ups (p <0.05) recorded. This research can be used as a reference for trainers in creating training programs and adopting the types of tests and measurements selected in this study as guidelines for physical measurement for basketball athletes.
... Kas esnekliğinde azalma sadece fonksiyonel seviye-yi azaltmakla kalmaz, aynı zamanda kas-iskelet sisteminin aşırı kullanımına bağlı hasara neden olur. Shrier (2004) ve Rubini ve ark. (2007) bu performans göstergeleriyle ilgili literatürü sistematik olarak gözden geçirmiştir. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
İçindekiler Giriş Kriz Yönetimi, Karar Verme ve Özgüven Kavramları.............91 2.1. Kriz Yönetimi.......................................................................91 2.1.1. Yönetim, Spor Yönetimi, Kriz ve Sporda Kriz Yönetimi Kavramları............................................................91 2.1.2. Krizin Evreleri.............................................................92 2.2. Karar Verme...................................................................94 2.2.1. Sporda Karar Verme...................................................95 2.2.2. Karar Verme Süreci Dönemleri................................96 2.3. Özgüven................................................................................97 2.3.1. Sporda Özgüven..........................................................98 3. Yöntem.........................................................................................100 3.1. Araştırma Modeli..............................................................100 3.2. Araştırmanın Evreni ve Örneklemi................................100 3.3. Veri Toplama Araçları.......................................................101 3.3.1. Kriz Yönetimi Ölçeği................................................102 3.3.2. Melbourne Karar Verme Ölçeği..............................103 3.3.3. Öz-güven Ölçeği.......................................................104 3.4. Verilerin Toplanması.........................................................105 3.5. Verilerin Analizi................................................................105 3.6. Bulgular...............................................................................105 4. Sonuç, Tartışma ve Öneriler.....................................................118
... Similar to active static stretching, passive static stretching induces a slight acute impairment of performance in respect to strength, speed, and agility; however, the chronic effects on strength might be positive (Shrier, 2004). This concurs with our argument that static stretching is but a form of isometric strength training: one where a specific group of muscles works isometrically in a shortened position, while their antagonists work isometrically in a lengthened position. ...
Article
Flexibility is a measurable physical capacity considered as a key component of physical fitness. Poor flexibility is usually attributed to excessive tension exerted by the antagonist muscles of the movement and, supported by weak scientific evidence, passive stretching is considered as the most effective intervention in the promotion of the muscle extensibility, in attempting to improve mobility. The proposal of this paper is a review of the effects of static stretching in human movement and a presentation of strength training as a more robust alternative based on scientific evidence. First, we try to define which factors influence the ability of the human body to move into their functional safety range of motion. Second, we present a critical scientific literature review of the effects of static stretching in the promotion of range of motion, injury prevention, and sports performance. Third, we propose alternatives to static stretching such as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic stretching, and especially strength/resistance training, in the promotion of a better range of motion. Finally, we conclude that perhaps problems of flexibility/mobility should not be addressed with static processes, but with movement.
... Actual changes in muscular output should be investigated in future studies to see if strength is affected in any way after this technique is applied, or if acute strength deficits occur as has been observed with static stretching. [69][70][71][72] While the outcomes of MFD may be considered clinically relevant, there were limitations to this study. It could be argued the treatments were provided at sub-therapeutic doses and the interventions could be more effective if treatment dose were maximized. ...
Article
Background: Myofascial decompression (MFD), or cupping, and self-myofascial release (SMR) are common techniques utilized to treat soft tissue injuries and increase flexibility. MFD is a negative pressure soft tissue treatment technique using suction to manipulate the skin and underlying soft tissues. One method of SMR is a foam roller, where a patient rolls his/her bodyweight over a dense foam cylinder in a self-massaging fashion to mobilize soft tissues for the body part treated. Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects on hamstring flexibility and patient-rated outcome measures comparing two soft tissue treatments, 1) MFD, and 2) a moist heat pack with SMR using a foam roller in patients with diagnosed hamstring pathology. Study design: Pilot randomized controlled trial study. Methods: Seventeen collegiate athletes [13 males (20.6+/- years; 184.9+/-cm; 90.8+/-kg) and 4 females (20.5+/-years; 167.1+/-cm; 62.7+/-kg)] with diagnosed hamstring pathology (mild strain and/or symptoms of tightness, pain, decreased strength, and decreased flexibility) were randomly assigned to receive MFD or SMR. The MFD group (n = 9) received three minutes of static treatment using six plastic-valve suction cups along the hamstrings followed by 20 repetitions of active movement with cups in place. SMR (n = 8) received 10 minutes of heat treatment over the hamstrings followed by 60 seconds of general mobilization over the entire hamstring area, and 90 seconds of targeted foam rolling on the area of most perceived tightness. Passive hamstring flexibility (ROM) and a patient-rated outcome measure [Perceived Functional Ability Questionnaire (PFAQ)] were assessed before and immediately after treatment. The Global Rating of Change measure (GROC) was administered post-intervention. Results: Passive ROM and subjective PFAQ measures for overall flexibility and flexibility of the hamstrings were significantly different from pre- to post-intervention measurements regardless of the treatment received. A significant difference was found in favor of the MFD group for the GROC values. Conclusion: The findings suggest that both treatments are beneficial in increasing hamstring length. Patients though felt an enhanced treatment effect using MFD over SMR for perceived benefits to hamstring flexibility. Levels of evidence: Level 2.
... However, some authors have questioned the role of SS in reducing injuries and improving athletic performance [1,2] . Recent studies have found SS an ineffective way to reduce injury rates [9,10] , and may actually inhibit athletic performance [11] . Although used as a part of preactivity preparation, Murphy argued that the nature of SS is passive and does nothing to warm a muscle [12] . ...
... However, there are also studies that suggest both types of stretching should be performed, in addition to aerobic running, for improving flexibility (15). Some studies have reported that DS increases agility, speed and strength (8,15), whereas some other studies report that SS negatively affects the performance (2,8,14,16,17). Kurt and Fırtın (15) suggest that professional athletes may avoid SS before training or competitions to prevent a decrease in anaerobic performance. ...
... Kas esnekliğinde azalma sadece fonksiyonel seviye-yi azaltmakla kalmaz, aynı zamanda kas-iskelet sisteminin aşırı kullanımına bağlı hasara neden olur. Shrier (2004) ve Rubini ve ark. (2007) bu performans göstergeleriyle ilgili literatürü sistematik olarak gözden geçirmiştir. ...
Presentation
DİRENÇ ANTRENMANLARININ TEMELİ, EGZERSİZ REÇETELENDİRİLMESİ ve SÜRECİ
... In the literature, there are many different stretching techniques [9], which are both active and passive, and they are generally classified as static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) exercises [8]. Although SS exercise is the first ranked and preferred technique because it's easy and safe implementation for individuals [10], it is stated that SS might impair performance [2,[11][12][13]. Recently there has +Model SCISPO-3472; No. of Pages 7 Chronic effects of stretching techniques 3 been a tendency towards DS exercises [2] as it was stated that DS methods have the same effects on flexibility as SS techniques and they may not adversely affect performance [2,[14][15][16]. ...
Article
Objectives There are many stretching exercises in the clinical practice as static and dynamic. However, it is not known precisely which is more effective for flexibility, and whether not have any effects on performance. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of the active isolated stretching, ballistic stretching and static stretching exercises on hamstring flexibility and performance. Equipment and methods Fifty six healthy participants were assigned randomly in active isolated stretching (n: 14), ballistic stretching (n: 14), static stretching (n: 14) and control (n: 14) groups. Group-specific stretching exercises were applied 3 times a week during 6 weeks to both of the stretching groups and no intervention was performed for the control group during the time of study. Hamstring flexibility measurement was performed with digital inclinometer, and performance with the vertical jump test. Assessments were evaluated before and 6 weeks after the stretching protocol. 4 × 2 mixed ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results As a results of the assessments, for the hamstring flexibility, there was significant main time effect (F [1, 52]: 85,313, P < 0.001) and time-group interaction (F [3, 52]: 11,559, P < 0.001) indicating flexibility increase in all stretching groups. When the stretching groups were compared, the flexibility increase in the Active Isolated Stretching (P < 0.001) and Ballistic Stretching (P: 0.036) were higher than the Static Stretching group. In vertical jump performance, there was no significant main time effect (F [1, 52]: 3.778, P: 0.057) and time-group interaction (F [3, 52]: 1.192, P: 0.322). Conclusion Long-term stretching programs applied to healthy individuals increase the hamstring flexibility especially in the Active Isolated Stretching and Ballistic Stretching groups but showed no effect on vertical jump performance. According to the results of this research, dynamic stretching techniques may be preferred to Static Stretching for improving flexibility in long term. Résumé Objectifs Il existe de nombreux exercices d’étirement dans la pratique clinique, statiques et dynamiques. Cependant, on ne sait pas précisément lequel est le plus efficace pour la flexibilité et n’a aucun effet sur les performances. Le but de cette étude est de comparer les effets des exercices actifs d’étirement isolé, étirement balistique et étirement statique sur la flexibilité et la performance des ischio-jambiers. Matériels et méthodes Cinquante-six participants en bonne santé ont été assignés de manière aléatoire aux groupes d’étirement actif isolé (n : 14), d’étirement balistique (n : 14), d’étirement statique (n : 14) et de contrôle (n : 14). Des exercices d’étirement spécifiques à un groupe ont été appliqués 3 fois par semaine pendant 6 semaines aux deux groupes d’étirement et aucune intervention n’a été réalisée pour le groupe témoin pendant la durée de l’étude. La mesure de la flexibilité des ischio-jambiers a été réalisée avec un inclinomètre numérique et les performances avec le test de saut vertical. Les évaluations ont été évaluées avant et six semaines après le protocole d’étirement. Une ANOVA mixte 4 × 2 a été utilisée pour analyser les données. Résultats Les évaluations ont montré que, pour la flexibilité des ischio-jambiers, il y avait un effet temporel principal significatif (F [1, 52] : 85 313, p < 0,001) et une interaction entre les groupes de temps (F [3, 52] : 11 559, p < 0,001) indiquant une augmentation de la flexibilité dans tous les groupes d’étirement. Lorsque les groupes d’étirements ont été comparés, l’augmentation de la flexibilité dans les groupes d’étirements actifs isolés (p < 0,001) et d’étirements balistiques (p : 0,036) était plus élevée que dans le groupe d’étirements statiques. Dans la performance de saut vertical, il n’y a pas eu d’effet temporel principal significatif (F [1, 52] : 3,778, p : 0,057) et d’interaction entre les groupes de temps (F [3, 52] : 1,192, p : 0,322). Conclusion Les programmes d’étirement à long terme appliqués à des individus en bonne santé augmentent la flexibilité des ischio-jambiers, en particulier dans les groupes d’étirement actif isolé et d’étirement balistique, mais ne montrent aucun effet sur les performances de saut vertical. Selon les résultats de cette recherche, les techniques d’étirement dynamique peuvent être préférées à l’étirement statique pour améliorer la flexibilité à long terme. Keywords FlexibilityDynamic stretchingStatic stretchingVertical jumpPerformance Mots clés FlexibilitéÉtirement dynamiqueÉtirement statiqueSaut verticalPerformance
... Schleip y Müller (2013) estiman que para una persona de 70 kg a velocidad de 4.5 m s ˉ¹, el tendón de Aquiles almacena cerca de 35 J y los arcos plantares cerca de 17 J. Otros investigadores continúan recabando sobre la contribución de los tejidos conectivos en cuanto al ahorro de E E, como formas de mejora de la performance y cuidados preventivos para los tejidos conectivos y todo el sistema miofascial (Magnusson, Langberg y Kjaer, 2010;Shrier, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN La locomoción con miembros implica diferentes desafíos de tipo mecánico: en cada ciclo los segmentos tienen que ser reposicionados anatómicamente, con fases de aceleración y deceleración, con la consiguiente elevación y descenso del centro de masa. Dentro de la locomoción humana la marcha y la carrera son actividades fundamentales en todo el ciclo vital de las personas. En específico la carrera es una actividad muy estudiada por las ciencias del deporte, medicina, fisioterapia o kinesiología, ingeniería y biólogos, por el alto impacto articular y muscular que genera, ya que esto trae consigo lesiones y alteraciones en el rendimiento de los pacientes y deportistas. El constante estudio de la locomoción a reconocido diferentes desafíos de tipo fisiológico y mecánico tanto en la explicación de fenómenos como en el análisis de estos. Este artículo busca aclarar conceptos a través de textos clásicos, que se consideran básicos e importantes para entender las investigaciones posteriores. Además, se explican diferentes parámetros que sirven para comprender la locomoción, tanto en estudios con humanos como en animales. El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una revisión de la literatura, que se enfoca en los aspectos mecánicos, energéticos, el efecto del tamaño y los diferentes patrones de la locomoción, PENSAR EN MOVIMIENTO. Artículo descargado de www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/pem/ para uso personal únicamente. Este manuscrito Recién Horneado es la versión aceptada para publicación previa a diagramación y correcciones; habrá algunas diferencias con la versión final. Por favor citar como: Massimo Biancardi, C., Bona, R.L., y Lagos Hausheer, L. Locomoción humana: modelos y variables biomecánicas. PensarMov (2020).
... Where some studies that apply stretching protocols find increased muscle strength in the elongated musculature, others, however, find a decrease. In acute protocols (when a single stretching intervention is applied), stretching diminishes muscle performance (Shrier, 2004) and this reduction can be more prominent for protocols that keep stretching for ≥60 seconds (Rubini et al, 2007). However, Worrell et al (1994) reported an increase in the peak of eccentric and concentric torque after a 3-week intervention, suggesting that a period of stretch training may have a positive influence on strength (Lima et al, 2015). ...
Article
Background/aims Studies have shown the efficacy of stretching to increase the hip flexion range of motion but studies regarding its effects are not unanimous about the most efficient technique. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two stretching techniques on the neuromuscular properties of the hamstring muscles. Methods A total of 18 women (aged 24 ± 2.52 years old) participated, and were divided into three groups: a control group, a passive static stretching group and a propioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching group. Evaluations of variables of the hamstring muscles were performed before and after the training period. The intervention was carried out for 30 seconds, three times a week for a total of 4 weeks. Results A significant difference was found in the range of motion in the passive static stretching group (pre=80.8° [±11.0] and post=94.5° [±10.2]; t(5)=−3.755; P=0.013) and in concentric torque (passive static stretching group – pre=66.3 Nm [±12.9] and post=70.0 Nm [±8.1]; t(5)=−1.267; P=0.023; propioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching group – pre=79.1 Nm [±12.7] and post=83.5 Nm [±11.6]; t(5)=−1.917; P=0.014; control group – pre=71.1 Nm [±10.1] and post=74.1 Nm [±14.6]; t(5)=−1.275; P=0.003). Conclusions Passive static stretching was superior to propioceptive neuromuscular facilitation when comparing the increase range of motion in hip flexion, even without neural and structural changes in hamstring muscles after a 4-week period.
... No estudo realizado por Shrier et al. [8], foi investigado se o alongamento proporciona melhorias no desempenho. Foram analisados 23 artigos, dos quais 22 deles indicaram que não houve nenhum benefício para a força isométrica, torque isocinético, e no salto em altura. ...
Article
O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar na literatura a influência dos diferentes tipos de alongamento sobre a força muscular. Para a presente investigação foram selecionados 47 artigos específicos sobre o referido assunto. Os resultados demonstram que os protocolos de alongamento estático e passivo e facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP) apresentaram interferência negativa sobre a força em sua grande maioria, já os protocolos de alongamento dinâmico mostraram respostas positivas sobre a força. De acordo com a literatura revisada, sugere-se que o alongamento sendo realizado precedendo uma atividade de força muscular acarreta em queda da força, isso pode variar de acordo com a intensidade e volume imposto e também o protocolo utilizado.Palavras-chave: efeitos agudos, flexibilidade, força, desempenho.
... However, their data also indicate a lower incidence of thigh muscle strains (80%: 10 versus 2 injuries with stretch training group) and ankle joint injuries (30%: 27 versus 19 injuries in the stretch trained group) within the cohort. These were not specifically (independently) submitted to statistical analysis within the study but were reflected in several reviews (35,42) that reported a lack of significant reduction in all-cause injury risk in response to chronic stretching. Consistent with these specific data, Amako et al. (43) compared military personnel who performed pre-exercise SS of 18 muscle groups over a 3-month period and found no effect on all-cause injury risk but a significant reduction in musculotendinous injuries (and low back pain) in the SS group (13 injuries in 518 recruits in SS versus 22 injuries in 383 recruits in control). ...
Article
Evidence for the effectiveness of acute and chronic stretching for improving range of motion is extensive. Improved flexibility can positively impact performances in activities of daily living and both physical and mental health. However, less is known about the effects of stretching on other aspects of health such as injury incidence and balance. The objective of this review is to examine the existing literature in these areas. The review highlights that both pre-exercise and chronic stretching can reduce musculotendinous injury incidence, particularly in running-based sports, which may be related to the increased force available at longer muscle lengths (altered force-length relationship) or reduced active musculotendinous stiffness, among other factors. Evidence regarding the acute effects of stretching on balance is equivocal. Longer-term stretch training can improve balance, which may contribute to a decreased incidence of falls and associated injuries and may thus be recommended as an important exercise modality in those with balance deficits. Hence, both acute and chronic stretching seem to have positive effects on injury incidence and balance, but optimum training plans are yet to be defined.
... [1,[3][4][5][6] These mixed results have created confusion and debate among researchers, particularly around the association stretching has with subsequent explosive performance. [4,[7][8][9] To date, only a few researchers have explored the chronic effect of a stretching routine or flexibility intervention on rugby players. [10] Yoga is a combination of physical postures (Asana), breathing exercises (Pranayama), and meditation (Dhyana), which focuses on the physical and mental aspects of an individuals' movements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A Yoga-asana-based intervention has demonstrated its ability to improve flexibility of individuals, but has not been explored in rugby players. We hypothesized that a structured yoga intervention may have an effect on flexibility and sprint performance in male rugby union players. Methods: It was a controlled trial research design and players were assigned using random sampling to one of the two groups; a yoga group (n = 16) that practised yoga for 1 h 2 times a week for 8 weeks in addition to their normal rugby training and a control group (n = 15) with regular rugby training but no yoga intervention. Yoga intervention included 32 yoga postures to address both the upper and lower extremities of the body. Data were collected during preseason and mid-season on hamstring flexibility (sit and reach test), and sprint performance (measured at 5, 10, and 30 m). Results: One hundred and twenty participants were screened and thirty-one players volunteered for the study. Interactions between groups and differences between pre- and post-intervention scores were analyzed using analysis of variance using SPSS (version 24.0). Significance was set at an alpha level of P = 0.05. The yoga group showed a small nonsignificant decrease (-1.2% ± 21.4%, P = 0.05) in hamstring flexibility compared to the control group which demonstrated a large significant decrease (-14.8% ± 23.7%) (mean % change ± 95% confidence interval [CI], P < 0.05). The yoga group also showed minor nonsignificant improvements in sprint times -3.2% ± 10.4%, -0.7% ± 9.0% for the 5 and 10 m sprints, respectively, (mean % change ± 95% CI) compared to controls -0.4% ± 10.2%, 0.4% ± 7.9%. Conclusions: Findings suggest that completing a structured yoga intervention alongside normal rugby training during the rugby season, yoga helped rugby players maintain their hamstring flexibility but did little to improve sprint performance during the season.
... The decline in strength occurring following the static stretching exercises has been claimed to be due a decrease in the stiffness of both musculotendinous unit and muscle activation [21]. A number of studies reported that stretching has a positive effect on performance, it increases flexibility and reduces the risk of injury, decreases muscle stiffness, increases range of motion (ROM), alleviates pain, and improves athletic performance [21][22][23][24][25]. Previous studies showed that acute dynamic stretching exercises have positive effects on sprint performance, strength and jump height [26][27][28][29], while other studies in the literature reported that dynamic stretching exercises have no effect on performance [30][31][32]. Up to date coaches, Athletic trainers, and physiotherapists, still having argument about the benefits of static stretching, and its influence on athletic performance [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Back ground There have been rather controversial reports that some sport performances are negatively affected by stretching. It is widely believed that pre-exercise static stretching reduces the risk of injury and enhances performance. Several studies reported that pre-exercise static stretching decreases maximal force production, jump height and speed. (Does static stretching has a negative influence on balance and/ or athletic performance?) Aim of study: To determine the effect of static stretching (SS) on static and dynamic balance (DB) and its influence on the performance of the Saudi recreational football players. Material & methods: 40 healthy male Saudi recreational football players, their mean age was 21 years old. Participants were randomly divided into two groups A (n=20) started dynamic balance first then the static balance, while group B (n=20) started the static balance test first and Intervention: Participants at each group were asked to preform static stretching exercises for each muscle group (hamstring, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius) three times. Holding period of SS was 30 seconds with 10 seconds rest. The static balanced (SB) test was measured using “Balance Master System”, while Modified Star Excursion Balance Tests was used to measure the DB. Group A started SB test first and group B started DB test first. Results: The results indicated statistically significant effect for groups (P= 0.017) and for the interaction between group and time (P= 0.001). However, the main effect for time was not significant (P= 0.533). Group B significantly showed better mean score of SB compared to group A in both period (P= 0.017). group B demonstrated slightly lower mean score immediately post stretching which, indicate an improvement of the SB while, group A demonstrated an increase in the mean score of the SB indicating low SB. Conclusion: Static stretching has an immediate (acute) positive effect on the static and dynamic balance of recreational football players. This effect decreased over time.
... The current literature suggests that low-intensity muscle stretching does not seem to respond significantly to muscle hypertrophy; however, high-intensity stretching can cause possible adaptations that are still limited. 42 The practical implication of not performing the previous stretching is a shorter duration of the training sessions, improving adherence to exercise. 43,44 In this study, changes in the postsynaptic region regarding static stretching and resistance training provided new data of plasticity in the peripheral nervous systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The morphology of the neuromuscular junction adapts according to changes in its pattern of use, especially at the postsynaptic region according to the myofibrillar type and physical exercise. This investigation revealed the morphological adaptations of the postsynaptic region after static stretching, resistance training, and their association in adult male Wistar rats. We processed the soleus and plantaris muscles for histochemical (muscle fibers) and postsynaptic region imaging techniques. We observed muscle hypertrophy in both groups submitted to resistance training, even though the cross-section area is larger when there is no previous static stretching. The soleus postsynaptic region revealed higher compactness and fragmentation index in the combined exercise. The resistance training promoted higher adaptations in the postsynaptic area of plantaris; moreover, the previous static stretching decreased this area. In conclusion, the neuromuscular system's components responded according to the myofiber type even though it is the same physical exercise. Besides, static stretching (isolated or combined) plays a crucial role in neuromuscular adaptations.
... Regarding stretching habits specifically, around 20% of participants reported to stretch before parkour training or during the warm-up. Such time for stretching is not recommended for plyometric performance (Behm & Kibele, 2007;Shrier, 2004), even if its integral part of the warm-up (Winchester, Nelson, Landin, Young, & Schexnayder, 2008). Similarly, it is not recommended to perform too much stretching exercise after an intensive plyometric and/or eccentric training, as it is the main component of parkour training (Grosprêtre & Lepers, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkour consists of overcoming obstacles mostly in an urban landscape. Little is known regarding usual training habits and injury risks of traceurs, i.e. , parkour practitioners. In this study, a 20-min survey have been fulfilled by a population of traceurs regarding training load, habits (type of warm up, physical conditioning, stretching), type of footwear, and number and type of ankle- and knee-injuries during their career. A total of 180 responses were analyzed (24.4 ± 5.9 years old, 21.7% female, 6.0 ± 3.9 years of experience). Participants reported to train 1 to 7 times per week for a mean duration of 2.2 h. 76% practiced stretching exercises. 75.6% practiced physical conditioning in addition to their parkour training (weightlifting, functional exercises). Injury rate was 1.7 per 1000 h of training, mostly ankle sprains and knee contusions. Number of injury and training load were positively correlated. The lack of physical conditioning was also a factor of injury. Knee injuries have been more frequent on participants wearing minimalist shoes. Although training appears well auto-organized and the injury rate quite low some pitfalls require attention, notably in training planning, warm-up, stretching and conditioning. Building training and coaching methods specific to parkour appears essential.
... Verbunden mit den negativen Effekten des statischen Dehnens auf nachfolgende Maximalund Schnellkraftleistungen (z. B. Reduktion der Sprunghöhe, längere Sprintzeiten) (Shrier 2004;Taylor et al. 2009) wandelte sich das Meinungsbild in ein "pro dynamisches" und "contra statisches" Dehnen (Power et al. 2004;Wiemann und Klee 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Im Vergleich zu den konditionellen Fähigkeiten Kraft und Ausdauer sowie der Schnelligkeit (konditionell-koordinativ) widmet man sich in Wissenschaft und Praxis deutlich seltener den Leistungs-/Fitnesskomponenten „Koordination“ und „Beweglichkeit“. Dabei gehen die Auffassungen darüber, was (a) Koordination/koordinative Fähigkeiten und Beweglichkeit überhaupt sind, (b) wie deren Training gestaltet werden sollte und (c) welche physischen und psychischen Wirkungen dieses Training auf den Menschen hat, deutlich häufiger auseinander. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen kurzen Einblick zum aktuellen Wissensstand zur Koordination und Beweglichkeit. Neben der Begriffsklärung werden praktikable motorische Tests im Kindes- und Jugendalter vorgestellt, die Bedeutung eines Koordinations- und Beweglichkeitstrainings für diese Zielgruppe dargelegt und allgemeine Empfehlungen zur Trainingsgestaltung gegeben.
... However, the practice of static stretching has been demonstrated to have a potentially negative impact on performance that directly follows the stretching [48,49]. In contrast, dynamic stretching has been shown to have a positive effect on performance; it has recently been endorsed as a replacement for static stretching [50,51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Although innovations and improvements in towing systems have been available, tow-training method has not been considered favored in the training context. Tow-training may enable high stride frequency if hamstring injuries do not occur. The purpose of this study was to prevent hamstring injuries during supramaximal running and to optimize tow-training. (2) Methods: We investigated the relationship between the number of hamstring injuries that occurred during supramaximal running and the contents of the prevention programs that have been implemented, i.e., 4 years of the baseline programs and 12 years of the intervention. (3) Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per 1000 sprinters was 57.5 for baseline and 6.7 for intervention. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury between the different combinations of prevention programs (p < 0.01). (4) Conclusions: Tow-training was optimized by (1) preventing hamstring injuries by combination of strength, agility, and flexibility training programs and (2) advising the sprinters to press the leg onto the ground as fast as possible to increase stride frequency and to prevent stride lengthening.
... Insgesamt wurden 1342 (71 %) männliche und 545 (29 %) weibliche Proband*innen identifiziert. In der bisherigen Literatur wird nicht angenommen, dass es einen Geschlechterunterscheid bei den akuten Auswirkungen von Stretching gibt (Kallerud & Gleeson, 2013;Shrier, 2004;Simic et al., 2013), wobei dieses Ergebnis auf Basis nur weniger Studien getroffen wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit sind fünf Studien inkludiert, die einen direkten Vergleich zwischen männlichen und weiblichen Teilnehmer*innen vornehmen (Christensen & Nordstrom, 2008;Fjerstad et al., 2018;Heuser & Pincivero, 2010;Knudson & Noffal, 2005) Teilnehmer*innen als "recreational" oder Ausgleichs-/Hobby-Sportler*innen. ...
Thesis
Kurzzusammenfassung Ziele: Statisches Dehnen unterlag immer wieder starken Schwankungen in der Popularität. Im Raum stehen und standen die Fragen nach den Auswirkungen auf Verletzungsrisiko und Leistung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird darauf eingegangen, welche Auswirkung statisches Dehnen direkt vor sportlicher Leistungserbringung im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit hat. Methoden: Diese Arbeit wurde nach den PRISMA-Regeln für systematische Reviews erstellt. Randomisierte kontrollierte Studien in englischer und deutscher Sprache wurden über die Datenbanken PubMed, Sportdiscus und Cochrane CENTRAL gesucht und nach vordefinierten Inklusionskriterien ausgewählt. Die Ergebnisse wurden nach Dehnmethode, Belastungsparameter der Intervention und nach Outcome-Parametern im Bereich Kraft, Schnellkraft und Schnelligkeit aufgeschlüsselt und analysiert. Ergebnisse: Es konnten 88 Studien identifiziert werden, die den Einschlusskriterien genügen. Die Qualität der Studien wurde nach der PEDro-Skala bewertet. Die meisten Studien erreichten einen Gesamtscore von 4/10 Punkten. Die Dehninterventionen in den Primärstudien können als sehr heterogen beschrieben werden. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass statisches Dehnen einen kurzfristigen adversen Effekt auf sportliche Leistungsfähigkeit haben kann (bis zu-15 %). Längere Dehnung, multiple Serien und kürzere Abstände zwischen Dehnung und Leistungserbringung verstärken diesen Effekt. Kürzere Dehnung (10s-30s), einzelne Serien, aktive Pausen bis zur Testung (≥ 10min) sowie Voraktivierungen negieren den negativen Effekt. Zusammengefasst kann statisches Dehnen vor komplexen Bewegungsaufgaben eingesetzt werden, wenn weitere Aufwärmstrategien vor der Leistungserbringung folgen. Bei hochspezifischen, singulären sportlichen Aufgaben, wie häufig in der Leichtathletik oder im Kraftsport, sollte wenn möglich auf statisches Dehnen kurz vorher verzichtet werden. Die Entscheidung für oder gegen Dehnen sollte auf individueller Ebene und auf Ebene der Sportartenanalyse getroffen werden. Abstract Aims: There is an ongoing debate about the use of static stretching before sports and exercise. Part of the debate is if static stretching could potentially change the risk of injury and performance in a relevant way. This thesis looks at the direct, acute effects of static stretching on sports performance concerning strength, explosiveness, and speed. Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Only randomized, controlled studies got included in English and German language and searched via PubMed, Sportdiscus and Cochrane CENTRAL. The predefined inclusion criteria were used to identify the studies. The results were analyzed separately for stretching methods, loading and outcome parameters within strength, explosiveness, and speed. Results: 88 studies got included. The quality of the studies was analyzed using the PEDro scale. Most investigations hit a score of 4/10 possible points. The stretching interventions can be described as heterogenous. In summary, static stretching may provide short term adverse effects on performance (up to-15 %). Longer stretches, multiple series and a short timeframe between the stretching and testing increases this effect. Brief stretching interventions (10s-30s), single-sets, active rest (≥ 10min) and preactivation can nullify the adverse effects. It can be concluded that short passive stretching can be implemented prior to complex sporting tasks if additional warm-up strategies are. For specific sporting tasks, like in track and field or strength-sports, passive stretching should be avoided right before the tasks. The decision around the use of passive stretching should be made on an individual and sport-specific basis.
... Muscle stretching is one of the most used strategies before the practice of recreational physical exercises, training, and sports competitions 4,5 . This is because, promoting a range of motion (ROM) and increased soft tissue mobility 6 , could improve athletic performance and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injury 7 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Aim: Several health professionals prescribe static stretching exercises (SS) as essential for those that practice physical exercises, for injury prevention and performance improvement, although there is still no consensus. There are few studies on the effects of SS use on warming up. Thus study aimed to compare the effects of the inclusion of SS in general warming up procedures on muscle strength in Brazilian army personnel. Methods: Thirty-two young military men were selected. They were subjected to anthropometric evaluation and performed knee extension and flexion in an isokinetic digital dynamometer, at a speed of 60°/s. Then, they were divided into two randomized and counterbalanced groups, Traditional Group (TG) and Experimental Group (EG). The TG performed the lower limbs warm-up protocol provided for military physical training (MPT) and immediately after, performed the isokinetic muscle strength test. The EG performed the same protocol, performing the SS in the hamstrings and quadriceps, before warming up. Results: An increase was found in the peak isokinetic torque in the knee extension of the EG (Pre: 209.80 ± 21.36 vs Post: 243.98 ± 30.35; p = 0.001) and flexion (Pre: 130.86 ± 18.63 vs Post: 142.41 ± 25.92; p = 0.006). In the TG, significant differences were found in the extension of the knee, but not in flexion (Pre: 209.14 ± 34.27 vs. Post: 239.38 ± 36.17; p = 0.001 and Pre: 129.23 ± 18.43 vs Post: 133.66 ± 13.20; p = 0.297, respectively). Conclusion: The inclusion of SS in general warming up did not harm and even improved muscle strength performance in knee extension and flexion in Brazilian Army military personnel.
... S ohledem na dobu, kterou má být sval protažen, zjistili Bandy a Iron (1994), že třicetivteřinové protažení dvouhlavého svalu stehenního mělo stejný efekt jako protažení minutové. Dostupné výzkumy však poukazují na odlišné efekty různých forem rozcvičení na sportovní výkon (Shrier, 2004). V některých případech působilo rozcvičení na výkon negativně a v jiných pozitivně. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bugünün dünyasında her şey hızla değişmektedir. Farkında olunan veya olunmayan, görülebilen veya görülemeyen, bilinen veya bilinmeyen tüm varlıklar değişim içerisindedir. Günümüzde değişim belli sistematiği olan bir süreç olarak görülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın da konusu olan değişim mühendisliği, değişimi sistemik bir sürece dönüştürmektedir. Örgütsel yönetim penceresinden bakıldığında değişim ve bu doğrultuda meydana getirilmeye çalışılan hedefler şüphesiz bir oluşum etkinliğidir. Kuruluş ve örgütlerin içinde bulunduğu çevreyle uyumunu devam ettirebilmek doğrultusunda, gereksinim bulunduğu durum ve zamanlarda, alakalı piyasa politikalarını ürün yelpazesini, üretim şekil ve yöntemlerini ve örgütsel yapısını değiştirebilmesi gerekmektedir. Örgüt ve kuruluşlar değişim kavramını bir yaşam biçimi olarak benimsedikleri takdirde başarıya ulaşabilmektedirler. Sporun , kendisine duyulan ilgi ve sevgiden dolayı bir endüstri haline gelmesi, spor örgütlerini ağır rekabet şartları içinde ayakta kalabilmeleri ve belirledikleri hedeflere ulaşabilmeleri doğrultusunda büyük kuruluşlar gibi yönetilmesi gereksinimi doğurmuştur. Günümüz şartlarının yönetim yaklaşımını benimseyemeyen spor örgütleri bugünün dünyasında kendilerine yer bulamamakta ve varlıklarını büyük bir tehlikeye atmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma kapsamında değişim mühendisliğinin Türk spor yönetimi açısından uygulanabilirliği üzerinde durulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda; başlangıçta değişim felsefesi üzerinde durularak değişim mühendisliğinin gerekliliğine bir ön değerlendirme yapılmaya çalışılmış ve ardından değişim mühendisliğinin kavramsal çerçevesi, amacı, özellikleri ve süreci ele alınarak konu ile ilgili bir bütünsel bir bakış açısı ortaya konulmaya çalışılacaktır. Son olarak yukarıda bahsi geçen durumlardan dolayı değişimin spor örgütlerinde de kaçınılmaz bir gereksinim olduğuna değinilerek Türk spor örgüt yönetimlerinde değişim mühendisliğinin uygulanabilirliğinin üzerinde durulmaya çalışılacaktır.
Article
Full-text available
O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar como ocorre o uso de recursos ergogênicos farmacológicos por praticantes de musculação das academias da cidade de Santa Maria, RS. A amostra estratificada proporcional constituiu-se de 236 indivíduos, escolhidos aleatoriamente, de ambos os sexos, das academias de Santa Maria, RS. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário, previamente validado, composto por 22 questões sobre o uso de recursos ergogênicos farmacológicos, tipos mais utilizados, faixa etária, nível de escolaridade, renda, metodologia adotada para o treino, orientação, finalidade de uso, efeitos adversos e controle bioquímico. Os dados foram analisados através de percentuais, médias e desvios padrão. A média de idade da amostra foi de 24,4 ± 7,04 anos, sendo que a maioria dos pesquisados foi do sexo masculino (77,12%), com nível de escolaridade superior incompleto (36,44%) e sem renda própria (56,36%). Os resultados indicaram médio consumo de recursos ergogênicos (n = 10; 4,24%). Deca-Durabolin (60%), Durateston (50%) e Hemogenim (40%) foram as substâncias mais citadas, motivados pelo aumento no desempenho (60%) e de peso (50%), sendo que, 50% por vontade própria e 30% por indicação do professor da academia. A aquisição destes ocorreu em farmácias (50%) e através de professores (20%). A maioria dos usuários administrou a substância na forma injetável (50%) e oral (50%), com freqüência de uso diário (40%). Apesar de 80% dos entrevistados que utilizaram ergogênicos terem conhecimento dos possíveis efeitos adversos, somente 10% realizaram exames bioquímicos de controle das alterações hormonais. Os efeitos colaterais relatados foram irritação (50%), euforia e agressividade (40%); e a média do valor gasto mensalmente na aquisição de REF foi de R$ 236,50 ± 168,05.Palavras-chave: recursos ergogênicos, dopagem, musculação.
Article
This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach peer‐trainers to implement video feedback (Study 1) and evaluated the effectiveness of peer‐implemented video feedback to increase proper deadlifting form across 3 participants (Study 2). A nonconcurrent, multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate BST and peer implemented video feedback. Results demonstrate that BST was effective for teaching peer‐trainers to implement video feedback and video feedback led to improvement of deadlifting form across all participants.
Article
Full-text available
Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of massage and stretching in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 1189 unique publications screened, 11 were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias was assessed as high in eight of the studies and moderate in three of the studies, two of the latter indicating a decreased heart rate after massage. There was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of massage and stretching in sport and companion animals.
Book
Full-text available
Einleitung. Angesichts der großen Wettkampfdichte und hoher Trainingsbelastungen im Spitzensport wird eine schnelle und effektive Regeneration immer wichtiger, um konstant hohe Leistungen zu gewährleisten. Dies sehen auch die Spitzenverbände des deutschen Sports und ihr Dachverband, der Deutsche Olympische Sportbund (DOSB), so. Gleichzeitig besteht ein Defizit an wissenschaftlich fundierten Empfehlungen, nach denen sich Spitzenathletinnen und -athleten richten können. Angesichts des Unterstützungsbedarfes der Sportpraxis und der unzureichenden Befundlage fördert das Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp) von Oktober 2012 bis Ende 2016 das Verbundprojekt „Optimierung von Training und Wettkampf: Regenerationsmanagement im Spitzensport“ (REGman) (AZ 081901/2012-16). Das interdisziplinär ausgerichtete Projekt ist Bestandteil der Umsetzung des Forschungsprogramms für das Wissenschaftliche Verbundsystem im Leistungssport (WVL). Es wird von der Universität des Saarlandes geführt und von dem Sportmediziner Prof. Tim Meyer (Universität des Saarlandes), den Trainingswissenschaftlern Prof. Alexander Ferrauti (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) und Prof. Mark Pfeiffer (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) sowie dem Sportpsychologen Prof. Michael Kellmann (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) geleitet. In der vorliegenden Broschüre werden die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der bisherigen Projektarbeit vorgestellt. Sie ist damit wichtiger Bestandteil der umfassenden Transfermaßnahmen von REGman (weitere Informationen zum Projekt unter regman.org). Sie ist damit wichtiger Bestandteil der umfassenden Transfermaßnahmen von REGman und wurde noch vor Ende der Projektlaufzeit auf den Weg gebracht, um der Sportpraxis für die Vorbereitung auf die Olympischen Spiele 2016 in Rio de Janeiro fundierte Informationen zum Regenerationsmanagement zur Verfügung zu stellen.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study was done to investigate the effect of a period of stretch training on functional dynamic balance performance and range of motion in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: The population from which the sample of the study was selected included active older men with knee osteoarthritis in West Azerbaijan. 20 active man who were paid to exercise at least twice a week, were randomly divided into two groups of 10 patients. Subjects for 8 weeks, three times a week. To measure the functional dynamic balance three tests were used, and goniometer was used to measure the range of motion of the knee. To analyze the data, independent samples t-test was used for evaluating the between groups performance, and Paired samples t tests was used to check the within the group’s performance. Cohen’s d-test was used to estimate the effect size. Results: Results of the study showed that there were significant differences within groups, in Get Up and Go test (s) (p = 0.001), knee Range of motion, 30- Second Chair stand (the number) and Agility 8 foot time up and go for the elderly (s) (p = 0.0001). In between groups comparison also there were meaningful differences in Get Up and Go test (s) (p = 0.049), knee Range of motion, 30- Second Chair stand (the number) and Agility 8 foot time up and go for the elderly (s) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Stretch training can significantly improve functional dynamic balance and range of motion in active older men with knee osteoarthritis. Keywords: Stretch training, Functional dynamic balance, Knee Range of motion, Older men, Knee Osteoarthritis
Chapter
Ausreichend beweglich ist, wer seine/ihre (sportlichen) Tätigkeiten ökonomisch und (weitgehend) widerstandsfrei ausführen kann. Die Beweglichkeit als eine der fünf motorischen Hauptbeanspruchungsformen rückt demnach immer dann in den Aufmerksamkeitsfokus, wenn sie unzureichend ausgeprägt ist und bewegungslimitierend wirkt. Der Beweglichkeit sind durch Gelenk- und Bindegewebsstrukturen, Muskellängen und -massen sowie äußere Faktoren wie Temperatur und Tageszeit Grenzen gesetzt, die sich insbesondere hinsichtlich der Flexibilität oder Dehnfähigkeit von Muskulatur und Bindegewebe durch Training beeinflussen lassen. Wie mobil und/oder stabil Athleten in einzelnen Gelenksystemen sein müssen, wird durch die sportartspezifischen Anforderungen an die spezielle Beweglichkeit vorgegeben. Mobilität und Stabilität können konkurrierende Trainingsziele darstellen, die nicht immer unter dem Aspekt der langfristigen Athletengesundheit bedient werden (z. B. Rhythmische Sportgymnastik). Maßnahmen des Dehnens wirken kurz- und langfristig auf die Vergrößerung der möglichen Bewegungsradien, ohne jedoch den (durch die in den Sarkomeren liegenden Strukturproteine der Titinmoleküle induzierten) inneren Spannungswiderstand der Muskulatur nachhaltig zu beeinflussen. Dieser ist vom unwillkürlichen Spannungstonus aufgrund von reflektorischen Verschaltungen zu unterscheiden. Der unwillkürliche Spannungstonus ist neurogener Natur und kann unterschiedliche Ursachen (z. B. Schmerzen aufgrund von Entzündungen, Verletzungen etc.) haben. Das Erreichen größerer Gelenkwinkel nach dem Dehnen wird vorrangig auf eine kurz- und langfristige Adaptation der Schmerzrezeptoren zurückgeführt. Die Vielfalt der möglichen Dehninterventionen (statisches und dynamisches Dehnen, komplexe PNF-Methoden) bietet aufgrund spezifischer Anpassungseffekte adäquate Trainingsmethoden für kurz- (Wettkampfvorbereitung) und langfristige (Erreichen endgradiger Gelenkwinkel) Ziele. Langfristig gesehen wirken sämtliche Methoden ähnlich gut. Als Muskelkater- und Verletzungsprophylaxe ist alleiniges Dehnen ungeeignet, wichtiger sind Maßnahmen der aktiv-dynamischen Bewegungsanbahnung. Moderne Warm-up-Programme berücksichtigen die Funktionalität sportartspezifischer Bewegungsmuster zur Aktivierung, Mobilisierung und Stabilisierung.
Book
Full-text available
SPOR BİLİMLERİNDE GÜNCEL KONULAR VE ARAŞTIRMALAR-3 EDİTÖRLER Doç. Dr. Elif KARAGÜN Uzm. Ozan YILMAZ BÖLÜM 1: Doç. Dr. Elif KARAGÜN - Psikotarih Kavramına Bir Bakış; Spor Ortamlarında Psiko Tarihsel Uygulamalar İçin Öneriler – 7-23 BÖLÜM 2: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ezgi SAMAR & Arş. Gör. Cihan AYHAN & Prof. Dr. Fikret SOYER - Öğretmenlerde Zaman Yönetimi ve Yaşam Kalitesi Algısının İncelenmesi (Kocaeli İli Örneği) - 25-33 BÖLÜM 3: Arş. Gör. Ayşegül Funda ALP - Elit Sporcular İçin Destek Programları ve Uygulamaları: Bazı Avrupa Ülkeleri İle Türkiye Karşılaştırması - 35-45 BÖLÜM 4: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Gamze ÜNALDI - Türk Spor Yönetiminde Değişim Mühendisliğinin Uygulanabilirliği - 47-57 BÖLÜM 5: Arş. Gör. Gökhan ÇAKMAK - Dünyada ve Türkiye’de E-Spor Ekonomisi - 59-73 BÖLÜM 6: Arş. Gör. Ayşegül Funda ALP - E-Spor Alanında Toplumsal Cinsiyet - 75-90 BÖLÜM 7: Arş. Gör. Müge SARPER KAHVECİ - E-Spor’un Fiziksel Etkileri - 92-105 BÖLÜM 8: Arş. Gör. Dr. Sabriye KARADENİZLİ TAŞKIN & Arş. Gör. Müge SARPER KAHVECİ - Kanser ve Egzersiz; Korumadan Tedaviye İmmünoterapi - 107-119 BÖLÜM 9: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ezgi SAMAR - Covid 19, Goji Berry Meyvesi ve Egzersiz - 121-130 BÖLÜM 10: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Merve UCA - Sporda İnsan Faktörleri ve Ergonomiye Genel Bir Bakış- 132-154 BÖLÜM 11: Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Merve UCA & Dr. Öğretim Üyesi Ülkü ÇOBAN - Spor ve Rekreasyonda Ergonomi Yönetimi - 156-161
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that passive muscle stretching can diminish the peak force output of subsequent maximal isometric and concentric contractions. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1. to establish if the deleterious effect of stretching on performance also exists for a skill that relies on the rate of force production for success rather than peak force generation and 2. to determine if a similar effect exists for a movement that employs a stretch-shortening action. Ten participants performed two types of maximal vertical jump with and without prior stretching of the hip and knee extensors. Both static jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) were executed from a force platform. Jump height was calculated from the velocity at takeoff determined from the force/time data. Stretching induced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in jump height for both the SJ (4.4 ± 1.3%) and CMJ (4.3 ± 1.3%). Thus, it appears that pre-performance stretching exercises might negatively impact skills that demand a high power output in addition to those that rely simply on maximizing peak force. Furthermore, it is possible that this detrimental effect is comparable for skills that take advantage of the stretch-shortening phenomenon and those that do not.
Article
Full-text available
To date, limited information exists describing a relatively new stretching technique, dynamic range of motion (DROM). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of DROM with static stretch on hamstring flexibility. Fifty-eight subjects, ranging in age from 21 to 41 years and with limited hamstring flexibility (defined as 30 degrees loss of knee extension measured with the femur held at 90 degrees of hip flexion), were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group performed DROM 5 days a week by lying supine with the hip held in 90 degrees of flexion. The subject then actively moved the leg into knee extension (5 seconds), held the leg in end range knee extension for 5 seconds, and then slowly lowered the leg to the initial position (5 seconds). These movements were performed six times per session (30 seconds of total actual stretching time). The second group performed one 30-second static stretch, 5 days per week. The third group served as a control group and did not stretch. Before and after 6 weeks of training, flexibility of the hamstring muscles was determined in all three groups by measuring knee extension range of motion (ROM) with the femur maintained in 90 degrees of hip flexion. Data were analyzed with a 2 x 3 (test x group) two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on one variable (test) and appropriate post hoc analyses. The results of the two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction. Further statistical post hoc analysis of data to interpret the interaction revealed significant differences between the control group (gain = 0.70 degree) and both stretching groups, as well as a significant difference between the static stretch group (gain = 11.42 degrees) and the DROM group (gain = 4.26 degrees). The results of this study suggest that, although both static stretch and DROM will increase hamstring flexibility, a 30-second static stretch was more effective than the newer technique, DROM, for enhancing flexibility. Given the fact that a 30-second static stretch increased ROM more than two times that of DROM, the use of DROM to increase flexibility of muscle must be questioned.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to 1) compare two commonly practiced stretching techniques to determine which is most effective for improving hip range of motion, and 2) evaluate the effect of these techniques on gait economy. Seven asymptomatic males, 18-22 years of age, served as subjects. Goniometric measurements of hip range of motion (ROM) and gait economy, as measured by submaximal oxygen consumption of walking and running on a treadmill, were taken before and after each of the two stretching procedures, (a) static stretching, and (b) soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (STM/PNF). Static stretching procedures resulted in significant improvements in ROM for hip extension (p < 0.01) and hip flexion (p < 0.01). The STM/PNF also resulted in significant improvements in hip extension ROM (p < 0.01) and hip flexion ROM (p < 0.05). There was a significant improvement in gait economy at 40% VO2max (p < 0.05), at 60% VO2max (p < 0.05), and at 80% VO2max (p < 0.01) following the static stretching procedure. The STM/PNF procedure improved gait economy only at one workload, 60% of VO2max (p < 0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of static stretching or STM/PNF was effective for improving hip ROM but static stretching was more effective for improving gait economy in young, asymptomatic males. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;10(9):350-357.
Article
Full-text available
Sixteen experienced male powerlifters served as subjects in a training study designed to examine the effect of flexibility training on: (i) the stiffness of the series elastic components (SEC) of the upper body musculature and (ii) rebound and purely concentric bench press performance. Nine of the subjects participated in two sessions of flexibility training twice per week for 8 wk. Prior to and after the training period the subjects' static flexibility, SEC stiffness, rebound bench press (RBP), and purely concentric bench press (PCBP) performance were recorded. The flexibility training induced a significant reduction in the maximal stiffness of the SEC. Furthermore, the experimental subjects produced significantly more work during the initial concentric portion of the RBP lift, enabling a significantly greater load to be lifted in the post-training testing occasion. The benefits to performance achieved by the experimental group consequent to flexibility training were greater during the RBP lift as compared with the PCBP lift. The control subjects exhibited no change in any variable over the training period. These results implied that the RBP performance enhancement observed consequent to flexibility training was directly caused by a reduction in SEC stiffness, increasing the utilization of elastic strain energy during the RBP lift.
Article
Full-text available
The relative merits of the separate and combined uses of stretch and electrical stimulation at 10 Hz in influencing the rates of protein synthesis in vivo, proteolysis, and the growth of the extensor digitorum longus muscle have been investigated after 3 days in the rabbit. Continuous electrical stimulation failed to change muscle protein turnover or growth. Static stretch caused significant adaptive growth, with increases in c-fos, c-jun, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; 12-fold) mRNA levels, and protein (19%), RNA (128%), and DNA (45%) contents. Both the fractional (138%) and total (191%) rates of protein synthesis increased with stretch, correlating with increased ribosomal capacities. Combining stretch and electrical stimulation increased the mRNA concentration of IGF-I (40-fold). The adaptive growth was greater (35%), with massive increases in the nucleic acids (185 and 300%), ribosomal capacities (230%), and the rates of protein synthesis (345 and 450%). Large increases (i.e., 200-400%) in cathepsins B and L and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I activities during stretch, with or without stimulation, suggest a role for these enzymes in tissue remodeling during muscle hypertrophy.
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the effects of a passive hip extension stretching exercise program on hip extension range of motion (ROM), (2) to examine the effects of a trunk flexor exercise program on trunk flexor muscle performance, and (3) to examine the effects of passive hip extension stretching or trunk flexor exercises on walking and running economy. ("Gait economy" is defined as the steady-state oxygen consumption per unit of body weight required to walk or run at a specified velocity.) Twenty-five healthy, athletic, male college students (mean age = 21 years, mean weight = 75 kg, mean height = 172 cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control group (n = 7), a hip extension stretching group (n = 9), or a trunk flexor exercise group (n = 9). Before and after 3 weeks of intervention, the following measurements were obtained: right and left hip extension ROM, trunk flexor muscle performance, and walking and running economy. A three x two-way (groups x test sessions) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures for unequal subject numbers was performed on each of the five dependent measures, with analysis of simple main effects applied when significant interactions were found. The ANOVA on right and left hip extension ROM revealed a significant interaction. Analyses of simple main effects showed that 3 weeks (six sessions) of passive hip extension stretching significantly improved right hip extension ROM (pretest = -20.4 degrees, posttest = -8.3 degrees) and left hip extension ROM (pretest = -16.8 degrees, posttest = -7.0 degrees). There also was a significant interaction for trunk flexor muscle performance. The analysis of simple main effects revealed that 3 weeks of daily trunk flexor exercises significantly improved trunk flexor muscle performance (pretest = 41.5 degrees, posttest = 60.4 degrees). The 3-week intervention program of hip extension stretching or trunk flexion exercises, however, did not produce significant changes in walking or running economy. The results suggest that (1) six treatment sessions of passive stretching were sufficient to improve hip extension ROM; (2) 3 weeks of exercises performed daily improved trunk flexor muscle performance; and (3) training of isolated tasks, such as hip flexibility or trunk strengthening activities, did not produce the desired outcome in the economy of walking or running. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
To examine electromyography (EMG) activity, passive torque, and stretch perception during static stretch and contract-relax stretch. Two separate randomized crossover protocols: (1) a constant angle protocol on the right side, and (2) a variable angle protocol on the left side. 10 male volunteers. Stretch-induced mechanical response in the hamstring muscles during passive knee extension was measured as knee flexion torque (Nm) while hamstring surface EMG was measured. Final position was determined by extending the knee to an angle that provoked a sensation similar to a stretch maneuver. Constant angle stretch: The knee was extended to 10 degree below final position, held 10sec, then extended to the final position and held for 80 sec. Variable angle stretch: The knee was extended from the starting position to 10 degrees below the final position, held 10sec, then extended to the onset of pain. Subjects produced a 6-sec isometric contraction with the hamstring muscles 10 degrees below the final position in the contract-relax stretch, but not in the static stretch. Passive torque, joint range of motion, velocity, and hamstring EMG were continuously recorded. Constant angle contract-relax and static stretch did not differ in passive torque or EMG response. In the final position, passive torque declined 18% to 21% in both contract-relax and static stretch (p<.001), while EMG activity was unchanged. In the variable angle protocol, maximal joint angle and corresponding passive torque were significantly greater in contract-relax compared with static stretch(p<.01), while EMG did not differ. At a constant angle the viscoelastic and EMG response was unaffected by the isometric contraction. The variable angle protocol demonstrated that PNF stretching altered stretch perception.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of an 8-week unilateral contract-relax (CR) stretching training program (passive stretch after isometric contraction) on muscular performance were investigated in a group of 16 athletes. The flexibility, maximum torque and angular position as well as contraction work in movements of the knee joint were determined before training and after 4 and 8 weeks of training. The torque measurements were performed under isokinetic conditions, eccentrically at angular velocities of 60 degrees x s(-1) and 120 degrees x s(-1), isometrically at five different joint positions, and concentrically at angular velocities of 60, 120, 180 and 240 degrees x s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. A surface electromyogram (EMG) of the thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstrings) was recorded simultaneously. As compared to untrained control limbs, significant improvements in active and passive flexibility (up to 6.3 degrees in range of motion), maximum torque (up to 21.6%) and work (up to 12.9%) were observed, and these were especially pronounced under eccentric load conditions. A comparison between integrated EMG recordings during eccentric and concentric loads, as well as the interpretation of the training-induced changes in the EMG, suggest that muscular activity under eccentric loads may be impaired by mental processes.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess strength performance after an acute bout of maximally tolerable passive stretch (PS(max)) in human subjects. Ten young adults (6 men and 4 women) underwent 30 min of cyclical PS(max) (13 stretches of 135 s each over 33 min) and a similar control period (Con) of no stretch of the ankle plantarflexors. Measures of isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction), with twitch interpolation and electromyography, and twitch characteristics were assessed before (Pre), immediately after (Post), and at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after PS(max) or Con. Compared with Pre, maximal voluntary contraction was decreased at Post (28%) and at 5 (21%), 15 (13%), 30 (12%), 45 (10%), and 60 (9%) min after PS(max) (P < 0.05). Motor unit activation and electromyogram were significantly depressed after PS(max) but had recovered by 15 min. An additional testing trial confirmed that the torque-joint angle relation may have been temporarily altered, but at Post only. These data indicate that prolonged stretching of a single muscle decreases voluntary strength for up to 1 h after the stretch as a result of impaired activation and contractile force in the early phase of deficit and by impaired contractile force throughout the entire period of deficit.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the force loss occurring after prolonged, static, passive stretching. Subjects were tested before and 5-10 min following 20 min of static, passive stretching of the quadriceps (N=12) or a similar period of no stretch (control, N=6). Measurements included isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, surface integrated electromyographic (iEMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, evoked contractile properties (twitch and tetanic force), and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT). Following stretching, there was a significant 12% decrement in MVC with no significant changes in the control group. Muscle inactivation as measured by the ITT and iEMG increased by 2.8% and 20.2%, respectively. While twitch forces significantly decreased 11.7%, there was no change in tetanic force post-stretch. Although possible increases in muscle compliance affected twitch force, a lack of tetanic force change would suggest that post-stretch force decrements are more affected by muscle inactivation than changes in muscle elasticity.
Article
Full-text available
The acute effect of stretching on the kinematics of the vertical jump was investigated in a sample of 20 young adults. Sagittal plane videography (60 Hz) was used to measure the kinematics of vertical jumps after 2 warm-up routines, control and stretching. Subjects were tested on 2 occasions with warm-up routine randomized. There were no significant changes in vertical velocity, knee angle, or the durations of the eccentric and concentric phases as a result of stretching despite good statistical power for the tests. Fifty-five percent of the subjects had lower vertical velocities (-7.5%) after stretching, while 45 percent of the subjects had no change (10%) or higher vertical (35%) velocities (2.4%) after stretching. Stretching prior to stretch-shortening cycle activities like the vertical jump results in small decreases in performance in some subjects, but the nonsignificant biomechanical changes suggest that neuromuscular inhibition may be the mechanism rather than changes in muscle stiffness.
Article
Full-text available
A popular part of many athletes pre-game regime is to stretch. We examined whether a pre-injury stretching protocol could prevent acute contraction-induced injury. The in situ extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of an anesthetized mouse (80 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) was used. Damage to the muscle from eccentric contraction-induced injury was quantified by the deficit in tetanic force production, and was not confounded by metabolic fatigue. The force deficits resulting from eccentric contractions alone (E) were compared with the force deficits resulting from a protocol that consisted of a stretch before the eccentric contractions (S + E). The pre-injury stretch was performed to 5% L o strain, at a velocity of 0.5 mm/s. The muscle was held in the stretch position for 1 min, then slowly released. Eccentric contraction protocols (excursion ≥ 24% L o) resulted in pronounced force deficits that increased with the excursion amplitude of the eccentric contraction. The eccentric contractions also resulted in an average right shift of 2 ± 0.53% in the length–force relationship (t-test, P = 0.0001). The regression lines for the E (eccentric contraction only) and S + E (stretch and eccentric contractions) treatments did not differ from one another for either force deficit (ANCOVA, P = 0.82) or work deficit (ANCOVA, P = 0.12). Therefore, the pre-injury stretch protocol did not reduce the force deficit or the work deficit resulting from contraction-induced injury.
Article
Although stretching exercises can prevent muscle injuries and enhance athletic performance, they can also cause injury. The author explains the four most common types of stretching exercises and explains why he considers static stretching the safest. He also sets up a stretching routine for runners. In setting up a safe stretching program, one should precede stretching exercises with a mild warm-up; use static stretching; stretch before and after a workout; begin with mild and proceed to moderate exercises; alternate exercises for muscle groups; stretch gently and slowly until tightness, not pain, is felt; and hold the position for 30 to 60 seconds.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the clinical and basic science evidence surrounding the hypothesis that stretching immediately before exercise prevents injury. Data Sources and Selection: MEDLINE was searched using MEDLINE subject headings (MeSH) and textwords for English- and French-language articles related to stretching and muscle injury. Additional references were reviewed from the bibliographies, and from citation searches on key articles. All articles related to stretching and injury or pathophysiology of muscle injury were reviewed. Clinical articles without a control group were excluded. Results: Three (all prospective) of the four clinical articles that suggested stretching was beneficial included a cointervention of warm-up. The fourth study (cross-sectional) found stretching was associated with less groin/buttock problems in cyclists, but only in women. There were five studies suggesting no difference in injury rates between stretchers and nonstretchers (3 prospective, 2 cross-sectional) and three suggesting stretching was detrimental (all cross-sectional). The review of the basic science literature suggested five reasons why stretching before exercise would not prevent injuries. First, in animals, immobilization or heating-induced increases in muscle compliance cause tissues to rupture more easily. Second, stretching before exercise should have no effect for activities in which excessive muscle length is not an issue (e.g., jogging). Third, stretching won't affect muscle compliance during eccentric activity, when most strains are believed to occur. Fourth, stretching can produce damage at the cytoskeleton level. Fifth, stretching appears to mask muscle pain in humans. Conclusion: The basic science literature supports the epidemiologic evidence that stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of injury.
Article
In order to evaluate the static stretching procedures of Hatha Yoga for improvement of flexibility, 57 male college subjects were divided into two groups, one of which trained by static stretching, the other by conventional ballistic methods of stretching for seven 30-min. periods. The subjects were tested before and after the experimental period on Cureton's flexibility tests, involving trunk flexion, trunk extension, and shoulder elevation. Both groups made statistically significant gains at the .01 level of confidence in all three measures. None of the differences in gains between groups were significant at the .05 level of confidence.
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that the “looseness” factor in sprint running would be enhanced through lessening the resistance of antagonistic muscles and/or their connective tissues by stretching. On the basis of this hypothesis, it was predicted that running times would be improved and metabolic cost reduced as the result of improving joint mobility through stretching. Static stretching was used as a warm-up procedure to allow evaluation of a relatively pure flexibility factor as a contributor to muscular efficiency or “looseness.” Four subjects each ran ten 100-yd. time trials anaerobically. Five trials followed no warm-up and five followed a period of static stretching. Respiratory gas samples were analyzed for gross and net O2, CO2, ventilation rate, and true O2. Differences in running time and all respiratory measures were small in magnitude and none achieved significance at the .05 level.
Article
Several studies utilizing adult subjects have indicated that static stretching may reduce subsequent strength and power production, possibly for as long as an hour following the stretch. This observation has not been evaluated in children, nor in athletes accustomed to performing static stretches during strength/ power type training sessions. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an acute bout of passive, static stretching of the lower extremity would affect jumping performance in a group of young, female gymnasts. Thirteen competitive gymnasts (age 13.3 ± 2.6 yrs) performed drop jumps under two conditions: immediately following stretching and without prior stretching. The jumps were performed on separate days. The conditions were randomly ordered among the subjects. Time in the air (AIR) and ground contact time (CT) were measured during the drop jumps using a timing mat. Three different stretches of the lower extremity were conducted on each gymnast twice, each stretch being held for 30 seconds. Following the stretching condition, AIR was significantly reduced (.44 vs .46 sec, p < .001), while CT was not different (.130 for both conditions, p > .05). This study demonstrates that children's lower extremity power is reduced when the performance immediately follows passive, static stretching, even in children accustomed to static stretching during training sessions involving explosive power.
Article
Indirect or strain injury to muscle is a common cause of athletic disability. Strain injuries often occur during powerful muscle eccentric contractions. Clinical studies suggest that most injuries cause partial disruption of certain characteristic muscles. Diagnostic imaging studies can demonstrate the location of many injuries. Laboratory studies show that partial and complete injuries exhibit disruption of muscle fibers near the muscle-tendon junction. Healing of partial injuries is characterized by an initial inflammatory response followed by a healing phase marked by fibrosis. Biomechanical studies show that muscle failure occurs at forces much larger than maximal isometric force, and stretch is necessary to create injury. Compared to the passively stretched muscle, muscle activated by nerve contraction and stretched to failure attains a small increase in force at failure, no change in strain to failure, and a large increase in energy absorbed prior to failure. These studies emphasize the ability of muscles to function as energy absorbers in preventing injury to themselves and to bones and joints. Experimental muscle stretching protocols show significant stress relaxation and reduction of stiffness in muscle due to inherent viscoelastic properties of muscle rather than to reflex-mediated effects. These viscoelastic properties may be useful in understanding how muscle injury might be prevented.
Article
Most muscle stretching studies have focused on defin ing the biomechanical properties of isolated elements of the muscle-tendon unit or on comparing different stretching techniques. We developed an experimental model that was designed to evaluate clinically relevant biomechanical stretching properties in an entire muscle- tendon unit. Our objectives were to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of the muscle-tendon unit and to consider the clinical applications of these viscoelastic properties. Rabbit extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscle-tendon units were evaluated using methods designed to simulate widely used stretching tech niques. Additionally, the effects of varying stretch rates and of reflex influences were evaluated. We found that muscle-tendon units respond viscoelastically to tensile loads. Reflex activity did not influence the biomechani cal characteristics of the muscle-tendon unit in this model. Experimental techniques simulating cyclic stretching and static stretching resulted in sustained muscle-ten don unit elongations, suggesting that greater flexibility can result if these techniques are used in the clinical setting. With repetitive stretching, we found that after four stretches there was little alteration of the muscle- tendon unit, implying that a minimum number of stretches will lead to most of the elongation in repetitive stretching. Also, greater peak tensions and greater energy absorptions occurred at faster stretch rates, suggesting that the risk of injury in a stretching regimen may be related to the stretch rate, and not to the actual technique. All of these clinically important considera tions can be related to the viscoelastic characteristics of the muscle-tendon unit.
Article
Musculotendinous injuries are responsible for a significant proportion of injuries incurred by athletes. Many of these injuries are preventable. Importantly, musculotendinous injuries have a high incidence of recurrence. Thus, muscle injury prevention is advocated by coaches and trainers. Yet, most of the recommendations for muscle injury prevention are attempted by athletes and taught by coaches without supporting scientific evidence. This paper reviews the mechanics of muscular injury, associated and predisposing factors, and methods of prevention with a review of the supporting research and rationale for these methods with an emphasis on warm-up, stretching and strengthening. Muscles that are capable of producing a greater force, a faster contraction speed and subjected to a greater stretch are more likely to become injured. Many factors have been associated with muscular injury. From current research, some conclusions and recommendations for muscle injury prevention can be made. Overall and muscular conditioning and nutrition are important. Proper training and balanced strengthening are key factors in prevention of musculotendinous injuries as well. Warm-up and stretching are essential to preventing muscle injuries by increasing the elasticity of muscles and smoothing muscular contractions. Improper or excessive stretching and warming up can, however, predispose to muscle injury. Much research is still needed in this important aspect of sports medicine.
Article
Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the end-points in the range of motion. Dynamic flexibility refers to the degree which a joint can be moved as a result of a muscle contraction and may therefore not be a good indicator of stiffness or looseness of a joint. There are 3 basic categories of stretching techniques: (a) ballistic--which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements; (b) static--which stretches the muscle to the point of slight muscle discomfort and is held for an extended period; and (c) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - which uses alternating contractions and stretching of the muscles. Each of these stretching methods is based on the neurophysiological phenomenon involving the stretch reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Article
The sample for the study involved 12 volunteer male, active but not specially trained secondary school students. They averaged 15.33 years with a mean height of 168.20 cm, and a mean mass of 55.08 kg. Changes, if any, in the mechanical properties (MVC, half-relaxation time, fast isometric contraction, concentric contraction of the knee extensors) and flexibility of the hip joints were studied. The subjects executed passive, purely slow stretching as well as range-of-motion flexibility exercises for the knee extensors and the hip joints for 7 weeks three times a week. Pre- and post-measurements for flexibility and stride frequency on the spot showed significant improvement as did half-relaxation time, fast isometric force development, and speed of concentric contractions when low loads were to be overcome. In addition to studies in which improvements reported were attributed to and related to myoelectrical, reflex, and connective tissue changes, in the present study it was concluded that stretching exercises influence intrinsic muscle mechanical character along with a simultaneous improvement in range of motion of the joints exercised.
Article
This study assessed the effect of five selected treatments of preliminary activity on performance in the 60-yard dash, the cricket ball throw for distance, the jump reach, and the bicycle ergometer test of leg speed. The effect of such preliminary activity at different levels of achievement in the same performance tests was also investigated. An experimental sample of 15- to 17-year-old schoolboys (N = 45) underwent a testing program involving four consecutive days, with two sessions daily. On the basis of measures of pretreatment status, the subjects were matched into groups and subsequently exposed to the treatments. The treatments included identical maximal, identical submaximal, general strengthening, general flexibility and control routines. The statistical analysis of the results involved analysis of variance techniques. There was no evidence available indicating either that the treatments had an effect on the chosen motor performances or that there was a difference in this response at certain levels of achievement. As no measures of physiological function were taken, an assessment of the likely reasons for these findings could not be made.
Article
The effects of general warming up, massage, and stretching on ranges of motion (ROM) and strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured in eight male volunteers. Thigh muscle strength was not influenced by the experimental procedures. Stretching resulted in a significantly increased range of hip flexion/extension, hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion; the effect was significantly greater than that obtained by massage and warming up separately or combined. Only ankle dorsiflexion was influenced by massage or warming up, whereas stretching affected all muscle groups tested. Stretching was, therefore, superior to the other methods tested for increasing flexibility in the lower extremity.
Article
The pediatric athlete with open physeal plates is more susceptible to growth plate injuries and avulsion fractures rather than ligament and muscle-tendon injuries that most often occur in adults. In general, the pediatric athlete is able to return to full activity quicker than the adult athlete because of a more rapid healing response. There has been a recent interest in the study of the pathophysiology of muscle-tendon injuries and treatment strategies based on these studies have changed. Laboratory studies have several implications regarding the prevention of muscle-tendon injuries. Clinical studies to confirm their efficacy are needed. Complications of re-injury include more serious injury and conditions such as myositis ossificans. Injury prevention has focused on the use of protective equipment and an emphasis on stretching and strengthening programs.
Article
The relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring muscle performance has not been reported. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the most effective stretching method for increasing hamstring flexibility and 2) to determine the effects of increasing hamstring flexibility on isokinetic peak torque. Nineteen subjects participated in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare two stretching techniques: proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch and static stretch. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare hamstring isokinetic values pre- and poststretching. No significant increase occurred (p < .05) in hamstring flexibility even though increases occurred with each technique: static stretch (+21.3%) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (+25.7%). Significant increases occurred in peak torque eccentrically at 60 degrees/sec (p < .05, +8.5%) and 120 degrees/sec (p < .05, +13.5%) and concentrically at 120 degrees/sec (p < .05, +11.2%). No significant increase occurred at 60 degrees/sec (p > .05, +2.5%). We concluded that increasing hamstring flexibility was an effective method for increasing hamstring muscle performance at selective isokinetic conditions. Further study is needed to determine if increasing hamstring flexibility will increase performance in closed kinetic chain activities.
Article
Stretch overload has been shown to increase muscle mass by increasing fiber size and fiber number in the anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) of adult Japanese quail. However, the functional significance of these changes is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if stretch-induced hypertrophy alters function of the ALD. A tube weight corresponding to 12% of the bird's body mass was added to one wing of 12 Japanese quail for 30 days. This increased muscle mass corrected for the increase in non-muscle tissue by 121 +/- 3%. In vitro contractile measures were made at 25 degrees C by direct stimulation of the ALD. Fiber hypertrophy accounted for only 60% of the 95% increase in maximal force in stretched muscles. Specific tension was similar in control (11.1 +/- 0.2 mN/mm2) and experimental muscles (9.2 +/- 0.3 mN/mm2). Stretch-enlarged muscles had significantly greater twitch half-relaxation time (161.9 +/- 7.4 vs. 187.7 +/- 9.7 ms) relative to control muscles. The maximal velocity of loaded shortening decreased from 2.6 +/- 0.4 muscle lengths/s in control muscles to 1.1 +/- 0.1 muscle lengths/s in stretched muscles. The maximal velocity of unloaded shortening decreased from 4.2 +/- 0.6 to 2.6 muscle lengths/s in stretched muscles. These data indicate that 1) twitch duration and shortening velocity are slowed in stretch hypertrophied muscle and 2) new fibers contribute to force production after 30 days of stretch overload.
Article
Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles have been experimentally determined and the effects of stretching exercises have been evaluated. Fourteen volunteers, aged 20 to 38 years (mean 27.3) were selected from a young healthy population with the toe-touch test (finger-ground distance greater than 0cm), and a straight-leg-raising angle about 80 degrees. According to usual standards the diagnosis was short hamstrings. One group of seven subjects was treated during 4 weeks with a daily home exercise program aimed at stretching the hamstrings, whereas the untreated group was used as a control. Instrumental straight-leg-raising was performed in the subjects of both groups. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined with the Student's t-test. Comparison of the data obtained before and after the muscle stretching program showed a slight but significant increase in the extensibility of the hamstrings accompanied with a significant increase of the stretching moment tolerated by the passive hamstring muscles. However, the elasticity remained the same. It is concluded that stretching exercises do not make short hamstrings any longer or less stiff, but only influence the stretch tolerance.
Article
To evaluate the effects of one 10-minute stretch on muscle stiffness in subjects with short hamstrings. Randomized control trial. Laboratory for human movement sciences in the department of rehabilitation of a university hospital. Sixteen students from the Department of Human Movement Sciences participated with informed consent in the experiment. Subjects were limited to men and women without a history of neurological and orthopedic disorders. To select subjects with short hamstrings, the finger-ground distance had to be greater than 0cm (unable to touch the floor when bending forward) and the manual leg lifting was not to exceed 80 degrees. One group of 10 subjects performed static stretching exercises during 10 minutes interspersed with relaxing, whereas the untreated group of 6 subjects was used as a control. The instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up enables the measurement of the force needed to lift the leg, range of motion (ROM), pelvic-femoral angle, and the electromyogram of the hamstrings. These variables provide information about the stiffness, elongation, and state of activity of the hamstring muscles. RESULTS. One 10-minute sport stretch resulted in a significant increase in passive muscle moment, ROM, and elongation of the hamstrings. There was no significant change in the course of the passive muscle stiffness curve with respect to the prestretch stiffness curve. One session of static stretching does not influence the course of the passive muscle stiffness curve. The increased ROM, i.e., the extensibility of the hamstrings, results from an increase in the stretch tolerance.