A survey of metals in tissues of farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon
Midwest Center for Environmental Science and Public Policy, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, USA.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.23). 10/2004; 23(9):2108-10.
Contamination of fish tissues with organic and inorganic contaminants has been a pervasive environmental and public health problem. The present study reports the concentrations of nine metals in tissues of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and two species of wild-caught salmon (chum [Oncorhynchus keta] and coho [O. kisutch]) analyzed as part of a global survey of contaminants in these fish. Of the nine metals, organic arsenic was significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon, whereas cobalt, copper, and cadmium were significantly higher in wild salmon. None of the contaminants exceeded federal standards or guidance levels.
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- "Concentrations of heavy metals in mariculture sediments mostly exceeded those in non-mariculture sediments (Belias et al. 2003; Dean et al. 2007; Sutherland et al. 2007). Farm-raised fish had higher contents of heavy metals compared to wild-caught fish (Foran et al. 2004; Calvi et al. 2006). Moreover, heavy metals in sediments can be released back into the water column, depending on geochemical conditions and speciation (Payán et al. 2012). "
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- "Contaminant accumulation in fish is controlled by uptake through ingestion of suspended particulate matter and food, ion exchange of dissolved metals across lipophilic membranes such as gills, absorption on tissues and membrane surfaces, and removal through excretory processes in the gut and gills (Alam et al., 2002; Burger et al., 2002; Ikem & Egilla, 2008). There is an increasing awareness of the elemental differences between farmed and wild fish (Fallah, Saei-Dehkordi, Nematollahi, & Jafari, 2011; Foran et al., 2004; Padula, Daughtry, & Nowak, 2008; Yildiz, 2008). However, as far as we know, there are no published data comparing metals and elements in tissues between farmed and wild fish aggregations around cages. "
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