Article

A video-based movement analysis system to quantify behavioral stress responses of fish. Water Res

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 12/2004; 38(18):3993-4001. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.06.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Behavioral alterations can be measured as endpoints for sublethal toxicity, and serve as a tool for environmental risk assessment and analysis of toxicological impact. Numerous technical and biological factors have made sublethal effects on fish behavior difficult to quantify. In order to investigate stress- and contaminant-induced behavioral alterations, a video analysis system was designed by our laboratory. With this system up to 12 fish may be individually housed in 20 L exposure arenas and automatically videotaped at multiple and discrete intervals during an experimental period. Analog video data can then digitized, converted into x,y coordinates, and finally transformed into relevant behavioral endpoints using software designed for tracking fish movement combined with specific algorithms. These endpoints include velocity, total distance traveled, angular change, percent movement, space utilization, and fractal dimension (path complexity). Data from fish exposed to a reference toxicant, MS222, and simulation experiments, are presented to exemplify alterations in fish behavior associated with exposure, and accuracy and precision, respectively. The system provides flexibility to analyze any observed movement behavior, is remotely controlled, and can be transportable. These movement analyses can be used to identify characteristic behavioral responses to a variety of environmentally-relevant stressors, and assist in risk assessment and the development of more sensitive lowest observable effect level and no observable effect level for sentinel species.

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    ABSTRACT: Image-based monitoring using video tracking has been showing potential in aquaculture behavioural studies during the past decade. It provides higher spatial and temporal resolution in comparison to most conventional methods such as hand scoring, tagging or telemetry. It also permits more quantitative environmental data to be collected than do other methods. Studies about trajectory are usually based on tracking in two-Dimensional (2D) environments; however, most aquatic organisms move in a three–Dimensional (3D) environment, which greatly influences ecological interactions. Furthermore, in most 2D image analysis, occlusion of fish is a frequent problem for analysis of tracking and ultimately evaluating their behaviour. Recently, sensors based on 3D single point imaging technology, which can provide geometric information of 3D environment with high-frame rate in real time have been developed. These sensors provide the opportunity to develop a practical and affordable tracking system to study movements of multiple fish in real-time. This study aims to develop a multiple fish tracking system in 3D space based on currently available structured-light sensor. Kinect I as low cost available structured-light sensor was used to record a 10-minute video from four Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) which were freely swimming in an aquarium. The video was processed to identify position of each fish in 3D space (x, y, and z) within each frame so as to create a trajectory. The system accurately (98%) tracked multiple tilapia in an aquarium. Another objective of this study was comparing trajectory of introduced system with stereo vision as a conventional method for monitoring in 3D space. This study is contributing to feasibility of new sensor for monitoring fish behaviours in 3D space.
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    • "Moreover, fish are ideal test organism for assessing toxic chemical exposure in water based on their behavioural assays (Little and Finger 1990), which makes fish behaviour studies as inexpensive, accurate and fast technique in environmental research. Kane et al. (2004) show the behavioural changes in fish when exposed with m-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methansulfonate (MS222) or change in swimming speed and their tail beat frequently (TBF) as results of chemical in water. Thus, continuous monitoring and quantifying behavioural response of fish are potential methods of assessing stress, disease and water pollution. "

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    • "Moreover, fish are ideal test organism for assessing toxic chemical exposure in water based on their behavioural assays (Little and Finger 1990), which makes fish behaviour studies as inexpensive, accurate and fast technique in environmental research. Kane et al. (2004) show the behavioural changes in fish when exposed with m-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methansulfonate (MS222) or change in swimming speed and their tail beat frequently (TBF) as results of chemical in water. Thus, continuous monitoring and quantifying behavioural response of fish are potential methods of assessing stress, disease and water pollution. "

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