Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

ArticleinJournal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(10):1194-205 · November 2004with23 Reads
Impact Factor: 7.26 · DOI: 10.1097/01.chi.0000135623.12843.60 · Source: PubMed
Abstract

To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child and adolescent data. In the 27 years between 1976 and 2002, approximately half of all 12th graders had been exposed to cannabis in the United States. There is growing evidence that early and regular marijuana use is associated with later increases in depression, suicidal behavior, and psychotic illness and may bring forward the onset of schizophrenia. Most of the recent data reject the view that marijuana is used to self-medicate psychotic or depressive symptoms. Research on treatment is very limited. Research on the mental health effects of cannabis has increased dramatically. Although doubts still remain about the role of cannabis in the causation of juvenile psychiatric disorder, the weight of the evidence points in the direction of early and regular cannabis use having substantial negative effects on psychosocial functioning and psychopathology.

    • "Another concern that has been part of marijuana legalization debates is whether these policies will further contribute to the decline in the perceived risks associated with marijuana use. Marijuana use has been associated with an increased risk for a range of negative health outcomes among adolescents , including future depression and anxiety disorders (Rey, Martin, & Krabman, 2004), impaired cognitive functioning and brain development (Meier et al., 2012; Schweinsburg, Brown, & Tapert, 2008 ), fatal automobile crashes (Asbridge, Hayden, & Cartwright, 2012), accidental injuries, chronic bronchitis, and respiratory infections (Hall & Degenhardt, 2009). Nevertheless, adolescents' disapproval of marijuana has declined in the past decade and most high school seniors (64%) do not currently view regular marijuana use as harmful (Johnston et al., 2015). "
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    • "Similarly, the impact of baseline cannabis misuse on long-term social functioning might be concealed when an overall scale of functioning (which includes symptoms) is used (for example [11]. While the deleterious effects of cannabis on psychosocial functioning and psychopathology have been described in young people from the general population [34], the negative impact on social functioning might be particularly important in young people with recent onset of psychosis , who are known to be prone to psychosocial deterioration. According to the 'critical period' hypothesis [35], symptomatic and psychosocial deterioration progresses rapidly during the early phase of psychosis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month fol-low-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use). In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.
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    • "Among adolescent cannabis users, initiation seems to peak at age 15 (Monshouwer et al., 2005). At the same time, cannabis involvement has been related to several adverse outcomes , including other illicit drug use, poor school performance and early dropout, crime and mental health problems including depression, psychosis and substance use disorders, that seem most pronounced in adolescents who start using cannabis before age 16 (Arseneault et al., 2002; Fergusson et al., 2002; Lynskey and Hall, 2000; Rey et al., 2004). Research on initiation of cannabis use before age 16 can improve our understanding of a developmental pathway that may end with such serious adverse outcomes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and early onset of cannabis use. Objectives were studied using data (three waves covering two years) from 444 Dutch adolescents participating in the Research on Adolescent Development and Relationships (RADAR) study. Adolescents had a mean age of 13 years at baseline, and reported at each wave about perceived parental control and support. Big Five personality traits and past year cannabis use were also measured by self-report. Joint latent growth curve-discrete-time survival analyses were used to answer the research questions. Early onset of cannabis use was reported by 19.4% of the sample. Overall, a decline in perceived parental control or support from age 13 to age 15 was unrelated to the risk of early onset of cannabis use. In adolescents with low levels of emotional stability and extraversion, a stronger decline in perceived parental control was associated with an increased risk of early cannabis use. Experiencing a decline in parental control from age 13 to 15 is associated with early onset of cannabis use in adolescents characterized by low emotional stability and low extraversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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