CD4 Help and Tumor Immunity: Beyond the Activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 11/2004; 11(10):881-2. DOI: 10.1245/ASO.2004.08.911
Source: PubMed
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    • "CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor regression by orchestrating immune responses that target the tumor7. However, CD4+ T cells are also associated with tumor-promoting immune responses when they are present in a tumor microenvironment that favors polarized protumorigenic inflammatory states, indicating that CD4+ T cells have a dual role in tumor development8. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) has been reported to have both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing roles in tumorigenesis. However, the role of SHP-2 in tumor immunity remains unclear. Here we observed progressively lower levels of phosphorylated SHP-2 in tumor-associated CD4(+) T cells during melanoma development in a murine model. Similarly, the levels of phosphorylated SHP-2 in the CD4(+) T cells of human melanoma specimens revealed a decrease paralleling cancer development. The CD4(+) T cell-specific deletion of SHP-2 promoted melanoma metastasis in mice. Furthermore, SHP-2 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells resulted in the increased release of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6, and the enhanced accumulation of tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor-bearing mice. An IL-6-neutralizing antibody reduced MDSC accumulation and inhibited tumor growth in CD4(+) T-cell-specific SHP-2-knockout mice. Our results suggest that SHP-2 in CD4(+) T cells plays an important role in preventing melanoma progression and metastasis.
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    ABSTRACT: Preventive immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for patients at a high risk of having cancer. The success of prophylactic cancer vaccines would depend on the selection of target antigens that are essential for tumour growth and progression. The overexpression of GM3 ganglioside in murine and human melanomas and its important role in tumour progression makes this self antigen a potential target for preventive immunotherapy of this neoplasm. We have previously shown that preventive administration of a GM3-based vaccine to C57BL/6 mice elicited the rejection of the GM3 positive-B16 melanoma cells in most of the animals. Despite the crucial role of cellular immune response in tumour protection, the involvement of T cells in anti-tumour immunity of ganglioside vaccines is not described. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which this immunogen confers tumour protection. We have found that induction of anti-GM3 IgG antibodies correlated with tumour protection. Surprisingly, CD8(+) T cells, but not NK1.1(+) cells, are required in the effector phase of the antitumour immune response. The depletion of CD4(+) T cells during immunization phase did not affect the anti-tumour activity. In addition, T cells from surviving-immunized animals secreted IFNgamma when were co-cultured with IFNalpha-treated B16 melanoma cells or DCs pulsed with melanoma extract. Paradoxically, in spite of the glycolipidic nature of this antigen, these findings demonstrate the direct involvement of the cellular immune response in the anti-tumour protection induced by a ganglioside-based vaccine.
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide-based vaccines, one of several anti-tumor immunization strategies currently under investigation, can elicit both MHC Class I-restricted (CD8(+)) and Class II-restricted (CD4(+)) responses. However, the need to identify specific T-cell epitopes in the context of MHC alleles has hampered the application of this approach. We have tested overlapping synthetic peptides (OSP) representing a tumor antigen as a novel approach that bypasses the need for epitope mapping, since OSP contain all possible epitopes for both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Here we report that vaccination of inbred and outbred mice with OSP representing tumor protein D52 (TPD52-OSP), a potential tumor antigen target for immunotherapy against breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer, was safe and induced specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses, as demonstrated by development of specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity, proliferative responses, interferon (IFN)-gamma production and CD107a/b expression in all mice tested. In addition, TPD52-OSP-vaccinated BALB/c mice were challenged with TS/A breast carcinoma cells expressing endogenous TPD52; significant survival benefits were noted in vaccine recipients compared to unvaccinated controls (p<0.001). Our proof-of-concept data demonstrate the safety and efficacy of peptide library-based cancer vaccines that obviates the need to identify epitopes or MHC backgrounds of the vaccinees. We show that an OSP vaccination approach can assist in the disruption of self-tolerance and conclude that our approach may hold promise for immunoprevention of early-stage cancers in a general population.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Vaccine
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