Body mass index at time of HIV diagnosis: a strong and independent predictor of survival.

Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 11/2004; 37(2):1288-94.
Source: PubMed


Identification of basic prognostic indicators of HIV infection is essential before widespread antiretroviral therapy can be implemented in low-technology settings. This study assessed how well body mass index (BMI:kg/m2) predicts survival.
BMI within 3 months of HIV diagnosis was obtained from 1657 patients aged > or = 15 years, recruited in a seroprevalent clinical cohort in The Gambia since 1992 and followed up at least once. Baseline CD4+ counts and clinical assessment at time of diagnosis were done.
The mortality hazard ratio (HR) of those with a baseline BMI <18 compared with those with a baseline BMI > or = 18 was 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.9). The median survival time of those presenting with a BMI <16 was 0.8 years, in contrast to a median survival of 8.9 years for those with a baseline BMI > or = 22. Baseline BMI <18 remained a highly significant independent predictor of mortality after adjustment for age, sex, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, tuberculosis, reported wasting at diagnosis, and baseline CD4+ cell count (adjusted HR = 2.5, 95% CI 2.0-3.0). Sensitivity and specificity of baseline BMI <18 was comparable to that of a CD4+ count <200 in predicting mortality within 6 months of diagnosis.
BMI at diagnosis is a strong, independent predictor of survival in HIV-infected patients in West Africa. In the absence of sophisticated clinical and laboratory support, BMI may also prove a useful guide for deciding when to initiate antiretroviral therapy.

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Available from: Abraham Alabi, Mar 09, 2014
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    • "Despite the tremendous benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use on HIV disease progression and survival [1], [2], micro- and macronutrient malnutrition remain strong independent predictors of mortality among HIV-positive individuals in both high and low resource settings [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]. A growing body of evidence suggests that socio-economic determinants may also adversely impact survival among people living with HIV/AIDS [14], [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) across British Columbia (BC). Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3%) were food insecure and 108 (42.5%) were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3%) participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.53), after adjusting for potential confounders. HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs.
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    • "However, frequency of anemia was higher in non-survivors, but it was insignificant. Another important parameter is BMI measured at the time of diagnosis, which has been shown as a strong independent predictor of survival in HIV patients.[25] Though the frequency of low BMI (<17.5 kg/m2) was higher among non-survivors than survivors, it was also insignificant in our patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic abnormalities are common throughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may occur either due to HIV infection or as a result of side effects of antiretroviral therapy. It has been established that dyslipidemia and dysglycemia associated with HIV disease reduce the long-term survival of the patients, but their role for predicting prognosis of short-term mortality in HIV patients is unknown. To study dyslipidemia and dysglycemia as a prognostic indicator for short-term mortality (<3 months) in HIV patients. An observational, prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care center over a period of 6 months. Consecutive HIV-positive patients hospitalized (both, HIV status known prior to hospitalization and the diagnosis made for the first time at admission) in medical wards from March to May 2010 were studied. All patients had their random blood sugars, fasting blood sugars (if possible), fasting lipid profile, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts tested at the time of enrollment. The patients were followed for a period of 3 months, at the end of which they were categorized as survivors and non-survivors, and the demographic, clinical, and investigational parameters were compared between the above groups. Data was analyzed by applying Mann-Whitney U test, two sample t-test, Fisher-Exact test, and stepwise logistic regression analysis of significance, using the computer-based program, Stata, version 11.1. A total of 82 patients were enrolled for the study of which 64 (78.05%) were males and 18 (21.95%) were females, with a mean (SD) age of 34.00 (7.0) years. The mean CD4 count was 206.23 (129.5) cells/mm(3). The overall mortality within 3 months was 20.7% (17/82). Mycobacterium tuberculosis as opportunistic infection was found in 42 patients, out of which 13 expired (P=0.02). Patients with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR = 22.92, P value = 0.03, adjusted OR = 3.4, P value = 0.02, respectively) had high likelihood of mortality within 3 months. Low HDL and hypertriglyceridemia also appear to be promising short-term mortality markers in HIV patients apart from established factors like low CD4 counts, co-morbid conditions, and opportunistic infections like M. tuberculosis infection. This study warrants further studies with a larger sample size to establish HDL and triglyceride as markers of disease progression and short-term mortality in HIV-infection.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012
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    • "This also makes it useful in monitoring TB treatment response [37]. Low BMI is a marker for poor prognosis in patients with HIV and has also been associated with increased risk of TB and death [38, 39]. Early initiation of TB treatment in HIV-infected patients with wasting and increased CRP levels prior to initiating ART may therefore alleviate the excess morbidity due to undiagnosed TB and ART-associated TB. "
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