Essential Thrombocythemia terminating in pure erythroleukemia
Institut für Pathologie, Klinikum Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany.American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 11/2004; 77(2):140-3. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.20164
Transformation into acute leukemia is a rare event in essential thrombocythemia (ET). The blasts are usually of myeloid, rarely of megakaryoblastic differentiation. We present the case of a patient with pure erythroleukemia after a nearly 10-year course of ET, which was treated with hydroxyurea. The patient, a 58-year-old male, presented with an elevated thrombocyte count (926,000/microL) and normal values of hemoglobin and leukocytes. After 10 years of therapy with hydroxyurea, the patient developed acute leukemia of solely erythroid differentiation. Chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin resulted in incomplete remission. The patient died 2 months after diagnosis of acute erythroleukemia. Transformation of ET into erythroleukemia may demonstrate the pluripotent potential of the neoplastic hemopoietic stem cell, with the ability to cause acute leukemia not only of myeloid or megakaryoblastic but also of erythroid lineage.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of myelofibrosis (MF) among the three major Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders, i.e. essential thrombocythaemia (ET), polycythaemia vera (PV) and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF), is not well documented since the diagnostic criteria have recently been redefined by the WHO. Therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of follow-up biopsies of 275 patients with ET, PV and CIMF according to the WHO classification of chronic myeloproliferative disorders. In the diagnostic bone marrow biopsies, MF was observed in 57 of the 136 CIMF patients (42%), 4 of the 73 PV patients (5%) and none of the 66 patients with ET. Within a median observation time of 2.9 years, 34 of the 79 patients with CIMF (43%), 13 of the 69 patients with PV (19%) and 1 of the 66 patients with ET (1.5%)--each initially without MF--developed MF regardless of myelosuppressive therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Acute leukemia is an uncommon complication of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). We describe a patient with ET, who transformed to acute biphenotypic leukemia 4 and 1/2 years after initial ET diagnosis. She had received hydroxyurea, anagrelide, and interferon, in different combinations and varying doses, before leukemic transformation. Acute biphenotypic leukemia was confirmed on bone marrow studies and immunophenotyping. Complete remission (CR) was achieved with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia. This was followed with consolidation chemotherapy and the patient has remained in CR 9 months after initial induction chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is a rare event of acute biphenotypic leukemic transformation of a patient with ET.