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Abstract

The diaries of 1,084 U.S. users of an on-line journaling service were downloaded for a period of 4 months spanning the 2 months prior to and after the September 11 attacks. Linguistic analyses of the journal entries revealed pronounced psychological changes in response to the attacks. In the short term, participants expressed more negative emotions, were more cognitively and socially engaged, and wrote with greater psychological distance. After 2 weeks, their moods and social referencing returned to baseline, and their use of cognitive-analytic words dropped below baseline. Over the next 6 weeks, social referencing decreased, and psychological distancing remained elevated relative to baseline. Although the effects were generally stronger for individuals highly preoccupied with September 11, even participants who hardly wrote about the events showed comparable language changes. This study bypasses many of the methodological obstacles of trauma research and provides a fine-grained analysis of the time line of human coping with upheaval.

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... First, we examine if there is a change in Twitch users' emotion in their chats before and after the outbreak of the pandemic. Prior research on crisis events found that people's sentiment is significantly influenced by crisis events such as the September 11 attacks, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings, and Hurricane Sandy (Cohn et al., 2004;Miller, 2015). As uses and gratification theory suggests that people deliberately choose media to satisfy their needs (Katz et al., 1973), it is possible that Twitch users visit the platform to pick up their emotion, which might be, in general, more depressed than before during the pandemic. ...
... Nevertheless, we can glean some clues to people's emotional change during the pandemic from prior literature that addressed society-level crisis events. Cohn et al. (2004) collected, from 1,084 users living in the United States, diaries from an online journaling service which were written from 2 months prior to the September 11 to 2 months after that. Through text analyses using LIWC, the authors find that the September 11 significantly influenced U.S. people's emotion including positivity and psychological distancing. ...
... Across the results of both positive and negative emotion, it is notable that the directions of the changes for all of the four emotion variables were congruent with what the hypotheses predict, regardless of their statistical significance (again, see Table 1). It means that our results corresponded to the findings from the prior literature on crisis events which argues that people become more negative and less positive in general when going through crisis events (Cohn et al., 2004;Miller, 2015). While the notion could sound somewhat obvious, the meaning can be more profound when it comes to the unique nature of Twitch. ...
Article
This paper examines how the COVID-19 pandemic associates with Twitch users' emotion, using natural language processing (NLP) as a method. Two comparable sets of text data were collected from Twitch internet relay chats (IRCs): one after the outbreak of the pandemic and another one before that. Positive emotion, negative emotion, and attitude to social interaction were tested by comparing the two text sets via a dictionary-based NLP program. Particularly regarding negative emotion, three negative emotions⸻anger, anxiety, and sadness⸻were measured given the nature of the pandemic. The results show that users' anger and anxiety significantly increased after the outbreak of the pandemic, while changes in sadness and positive emotion were not statistically significant. In terms of attitude to social interaction, users used significantly fewer “social” words after the outbreak of the pandemic than before. These findings were interpreted considering the nature of Twitch as a unique live mixed media platform, and how the COVID-19 pandemic is different from previous crisis events was discussed based on prior literature.
... Su and colleagues [8] used psycholinguistic analysis on Weibo and Twitter posts to investigate the psychological impact of lockdown measures in China and Italy: After lockdown, people used more cognitive processes and home words. Indeed, as demonstrated by a vast amount of literature [9], the words we use in our daily lives have various links to different psychosocial variables, including mental health, psychological status, and "ongoing emotional and cognitive coping processes, and idiosyncratic reactions to crisis" [10]. In fact, the pandemic could be considered as "[…] the cause of individual and collective traumas" [11], that is, also having tremendous consequences on mental and psychological health [12,13]. ...
... Specifically, emotional tone is a psycholinguistic variable that summarizes the presence of positive and negative emotions in written text as the difference between positive-emotion words and negative-emotion words [10]. Individuals' expressions of emotions in language are connected to the way they experience the world and also react to, and cope with, traumatic events [9]. ...
... Individuals' expressions of emotions in language are connected to the way they experience the world and also react to, and cope with, traumatic events [9]. In particular, experiencing positive emotions after a challenging event is important for resilience [14], while some studies highlighted how, after a traumatic experience such as the September 11 attacks, the emotional tone in journal entries by people in the United States was low, in other words characterized by a negative tone, which slowly rebuilt after some time [10]. ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic is a traumatic individual and collective chronic experience, with tremendous consequences on mental and psychological health that can also be reflected in people’s use of words. Psycholinguistic analysis of tweets from Twitter allows obtaining information about people’s emotional expression, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes, which are particularly important in traumatic events contexts. OBJECTIVE We aimed to analyze the influence of official Italian COVID-19 daily data (new cases, deaths, and hospital discharges) and the phase of managing the pandemic on how people expressed emotions and their analytical thinking and somatosensory processes in Italian tweets written during the first phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. METHODS We retrieved 1,697,490 Italian COVID-19–related tweets written from February 24, 2020 to June 14, 2020 and analyzed them using LIWC2015 to calculate 3 summary psycholinguistic variables: emotional tone, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes. Official daily data about new COVID-19 cases, deaths, and hospital discharges were retrieved from the Italian Prime Minister's Office and Civil Protection Department GitHub page. We considered 3 phases of managing the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We performed 3 general models, 1 for each summary variable as the dependent variable and with daily data and phase of managing the pandemic as independent variables. RESULTS General linear models to assess differences in daily scores of emotional tone, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes were significant (F<sub>6,104</sub>=21.53, P <.001, R<sup>2</sup>= .55; F<sub>5,105</sub>=9.20, P <.001, R<sup>2</sup>= .30; F<sub>6,104</sub>=6.15, P <.001, R<sup>2</sup>=.26, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The COVID-19 pandemic affects how people express emotions, analytical thinking, and somatosensory processes in tweets. Our study contributes to the investigation of pandemic psychological consequences through psycholinguistic analysis of social media textual data.
... In addition, LIWC analyzes the tone of the writer. In particular, we examined the emotional tone, which assesses in general how positive or negative the writer is (Cohn et al., 2004;. ...
... This category puts tone into both negative and positive categories with a higher number indicating a more positive tone. Scores below 50 suggest a more negative emotional tone (Cohn, et al., 2004). In this study, the emotional tone score was 7.3. ...
Article
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Youth sport parents experience an array of emotions as part of their child’s youth sport experience. This may include emotions related to watching their child play, supporting their child’s emotions, or simply related to daily parenting responsibilities. This research examined youth sport parent emotions through an expressive writing exercise. Twelve parents completed a total of 32 expressive writing exercises. In each exercise, parents were asked to write about their emotions as a youth sport parent. Quantitative analysis with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2015) software and qualitative thematic analysis were employed to analyze writings. Results indicate that though parents experienced both positive and negative emotions, negative emotions were most common and salient. Thematic analysis resulted in six themes, including one theme related to positive emotions (happiness for child experience), and five themes related to negative emotions: 1) general stress and negativity, 2) responsibilities, 3) role as parent, 4) coach, and 5) performance. Results also lead to practical implications for park and recreation administrators. First, as substantial stress is related to the time and financial responsibilities associated with sport parenting, organizations may wish to seek ways to support parents including through scholarship funds, and facilitating communication and duty sharing among parents. Parent education programs may also be a way to help parents navigate their own emotions related to parenting roles. Coaches were also a source of negative emotions for parents, though not always for the same reasons. Youth sport organizations can facilitate coach-parent communication to ensure that parent-coach goals are aligned, and provide training for coaches in both sport-specific skills and positive youth development. In addition to facilitating coach-parent communication, organizations may also encourage child-parent communication related to goals. This could include email communications with exercises designed to encourage specific conversations about goals of youth sport participation. Each of these implications is tied directly to negative emotions expressed by parents as part of this research. Assisting parents with these emotions will improve the experience for both the parent and will likely enable the youth participant to have a more positive experience as well.
... The emotional tone of a text; a high score represents more positive and upbeat styles, while a lower score revealing anxiety, sadness, or hostility [6]. ...
... While our manual inspection indicated that developers tended to use the same user ID on both the forums and GitHub, we cannot guarantee that this cross-reference is complete. We found that the percentages of GitHub contributors 6 opensourcesoftwaredirectory.com matched with the forum users of the Zotero, Audacity, VLC, and RStudio projects are, respectively: 42.1%; 3.1%; 6.5%; and 22.6%. ...
Preprint
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User forums of Open Source Software (OSS) enable end-users to collaboratively discuss problems concerning the OSS applications. Despite decades of research on OSS, we know very little about how end-users engage with OSS communities on these forums, in particular, the challenges that hinder their continuous and meaningful participation in the OSS community. Many previous works are developer-centric and overlook the importance of end-user forums. As a result, end-users' expectations are seldom reflected in OSS development. To better understand user behaviors in OSS user forums, we carried out an empirical study analyzing about 1.3 million posts from user forums of four popular OSS applications: Zotero, Audacity, VLC, and RStudio. Through analyzing the contribution patterns of three common user types (end-users, developers, and organizers), we observed that end-users not only initiated most of the threads (above 96% of threads in three projects, 86% in the other), but also acted as the significant contributors for responding to other users' posts, even though they tended to lack confidence in their activities as indicated by psycho-linguistic analyses. Moreover, we found end-users more open, reflecting a more positive emotion in communication than organizers and developers in the forums. Our work contributes new knowledge about end-users' activities and behaviors in OSS user forums that the vital OSS stakeholders can leverage to improve end-user engagement in the OSS development process.
... ", where an individual describes the challenges of their college journey. In contrast, Lo-MHC months show a greater prevalence of first person plural pronoun which associates with narrating as a collective identity 23,36 , such as in "There are plenty of ways to socialize here, as we have several student organizations. ". ...
... ". We also see a greater use of several function words including preposition, conjunction, relative, and inclusive in the Hi-MHC months, which are known to relate with personal narrative writing style 36 . ...
Article
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The mental health of college students is a growing concern, and gauging the mental health needs of college students is difficult to assess in real-time and in scale. To address this gap, researchers and practitioners have encouraged the use of passive technologies. Social media is one such "passive sensor" that has shown potential as a viable "passive sensor" of mental health. However, the construct validity and in-practice reliability of computational assessments of mental health constructs with social media data remain largely unexplored. Towards this goal, we study how assessing the mental health of college students using social media data correspond with ground-truth data of on-campus mental health consultations. For a large U.S. public university, we obtained ground-truth data of on-campus mental health consultations between 2011–2016, and collected 66,000 posts from the university’s Reddit community. We adopted machine learning and natural language methodologies to measure symptomatic mental health expressions of depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal ideation, and psychosis on the social media data. Seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models of forecasting on-campus mental health consultations showed that incorporating social media data led to predictions with r = 0.86 and SMAPE = 13.30, outperforming models without social media data by 41%. Our language analyses revealed that social media discussions during high mental health consultations months consisted of discussions on academics and career, whereas months of low mental health consultations saliently show expressions of positive affect, collective identity, and socialization. This study reveals that social media data can improve our understanding of college students’ mental health, particularly their mental health treatment needs.
... However, one of the frustrations of linguistic analyses is that there is almost an infinite number of dimensions that could be extracted from written or spoken text (Cohn, Mehl, & Pennebaker, 2004). The CATA method used in this study counts words in predefined categories of linguistic and psychological relevance (e.g., pronouns, function words, affective processes, and cognitive processes). ...
... The LIWC output variables are percentages of total words, for example, an analysis of a portion of text which gave a "causation" score of 4.25 means that 4.25 percent of all words in the text were "causation" words ("causation" is a sub-category of the "cognitive processes" category). Details of how the algorithms and scores were developed and are computed are to be found in previous research (Cohn et al., 2004;Kacewicz, Pennebaker, Davis, Jeon, & Graesser, 2013;Newman, Pennebaker, Berry, & Richards, 2003;Pennebaker, 2011;Pennebaker, Chung, Frazee, Lavergne, & Beaver, 2014;Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). LIWC offers researchers a systematic, objective, and theoretically coherent framework for the extraction of linguistic cues or markers based on psychologically meaningful categorizations (for example, cognitive, affective, and social processes, drives, and motivations). ...
Article
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Insight and intuition are important concepts in creativity research and creative behavior with applications in a wide variety of professional and business domains. Understanding and articulating their similarities and differences is important theoretically and practically. Researchers and practitioners can benefit from the application of new techniques which can distinguish between these two phenomena based on individuals’ subjective experiences as articulated in written or spoken accounts. Subtle language cues provide objective, quantifiable data (linguistic markers) to identify and analyze a variety of cognitive and affective psychological processes. Computer‐assisted text analysis (CATA) based on the theory of natural language use offers researchers a systematic and objective framework for extracting and interpreting such markers. This Brief Report proposes the use of CATA for the identification of the linguistic markers of insight and intuition and outlines ways in which the method could be applied in future research. Using CATA, it was possible to identify a preliminary set of linguistic markers which could be used to distinguish between insight and intuition.
... Emotional tone measures the proportion of positive emotion words to negative emotion words (Cohn et al., 2004). As the score grows from 0 to 100, the speaker's emotional tone shifts from the most negative to the most positive. ...
... The score falling around 50 indicates a neutral tone or a lack of emotionality. high: articles (the, a/an), prepositions (for, with) low: pronouns (I, she), auxiliary verbs (have, may), conjunctions (and, but), adverbs, negations (not, never) Clout (Kacewicz et al., 2014) high: first-person plural pronouns (we, us), second-person pronouns (you, your) low: tentative words (perhaps, maybe) Emotional tone (newman et al., 2003) high: positive emotion words (happy, satisfied) low: negative emotion words (anxious, despair) authenticity (Cohn et al., 2004) high: first-person singular pronouns (I, my), third-person pronouns (she, he), differentiation words (except, else) low: negative emotion words, motion verbs (go, arrive) Authenticity measured by LIWC indicates the speaker's tendency to reveal about themselves. The scores are calculated based on the frequency of first-person singular pronouns, third-person pronouns, differentiation words like except and without, and negative emotion words and motion verbs (Newman et al., 2003). ...
... The LIWC was initially devised to identify emotional content in the written answers of participants in a health survey (Pennebaker and Francis, 1996). Since the introduction of the first version, the LIWC has demonstrated proven category validity in hundreds of studies spanning dozens of psychological domains and has been widely used in the fields of Psychology and Marketing (Cohn et al., 2001;Ireland et al., 2011;Ludwig et al., 2013). ...
... However, other emotional and psychological dimensions are more subjective. 2 The software has been used and the validity of the methodology confirmed in over 100 studies analysing online content such as instant messaging (Ireland et al., 2011;Ludwig et al., 2013) and online blogs (Cohn et al., 2001). The program contains a dictionary of approximately 4500 words covering a number of dimensions. ...
The growth of the Internet has led to massive availability of online consumer reviews. So far, papers studying online reviews have mainly analysed how non-textual features, such as ratings and volume, influence different types of consumer behavior, such as information adoption decisions or product choices. However, little attention has been paid to examining the textual aspects of online reviews in order to study brand image and brand positioning. The text analysis of online reviews inevitably raises the concept of “text mining”; that is, the process of extracting useful and meaningful information from unstructured text. This research proposes an unified, structured and easy-to-implement procedure for the text analysis of online reviews with the ultimate goal of studying brand image and brand positioning. The text mining analysis is based on a lexicon-based approach, the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker et al., 2007), which provides the researcher with insights into emotional and psychological brand associations.
... Lastly, a high emotional tone score suggests a more positive and upbeat style, a low score anxiety/sadness/hostility, and a score around 50 a lack of emotionality. This is based on diaries around September 11, 2001 where negative emotion words increased sharply following the attack and gradually returned to pre-attack baselines after some time (Cohn et al., 2004). ...
... By splitting therapist and client language in each session transcript, we derive a multivariate linguistic profile on a per-session basis across the treatment span. The -negative emotion words (e.g., hurt, ugly, and nasty; Cohn et al., 2004) Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org extent to which a dyad is synchronized could thus be defined in terms of how similar the therapist and client variable scores are within and across sessions, as measured by cluster analysis in " ...
Article
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Interpersonal synchrony is the alignment of responses between social interactants, and is linked to positive outcomes including cooperative behavior, affiliation, and compassion in different social contexts. Language is noted as a key aspect of interpersonal synchrony, but different strands of existing work on linguistic (a)synchrony tends to be methodologically polarized. We introduce a more complementary approach to model linguistic (a)synchrony that is applicable across different interactional contexts, using psychotherapy talk as a case study. We define linguistic synchrony as similarity between linguistic choices that reflect therapists and clients’ socio-psychological stances. Our approach involves (i) computing linguistic variables per session, (ii) k-means cluster analysis to derive a global synchrony measure per dyad, and (iii) qualitative analysis of sample extracts from each dyad. This is demonstrated on sample dyads from psychoanalysis, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic therapy. The resulting synchrony measures reflect the general philosophy of these therapy types, while further qualitative analyses reveal how (a)synchrony is contextually co-constructed. Our approach provides a systematic and replicable tool for research and self-reflection in psychotherapy and other types of purposive dialogic interaction, on more representative and limited datasets alike.
... For example, one large sample study found that in emergencies, I-talk unexpectedly decreases (Guntuku et al., 2020); because this was in a semi-public context (Facebook), it suggests that I-talk may not be the best marker of negative emotionality in public communication contexts. One speculation is that people respond to emergency situations with self-distancing or decentering as part of an adaptive psychological "shock reaction" that (perhaps adaptively) prevents one from becoming emotionally overwhelmed (Cohn et al., 2004). We think it is important to emphasize that much work remains to be done to further integrate the literature on I-talk and affect, and we think attention to context will be necessary (as appears to be the case for honesty-deception; Hauch et al., 2015). ...
Article
We review extant research on the psychological implications of the use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., “I-talk”). A common intuition is that I-talk is associated with an overly positive, highly agentic, and inflated view of the self—including arrogance, self-centeredness, and grandiose narcissism. Initial (small-sample) research provided evidence that frequent I-talk was associated with grandiose narcissism. More recent (large-sample) research, however, has found that the correlation is near zero. Frequent I-talk is, however, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, in particular, and negative emotionality (i.e., neuroticism), more broadly. Frequent I-talk is also positively related to the neurotic variety of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism. In addition, frequent I-talk has a positive association with sociodemographic characteristics such as (lower) status, (younger) age, and (female) gender; I-talk has a conditional association with truth-telling and authenticity—a correlation that appears to hinge on context. This review summarizes the literature on I-talk, provides some speculations about the emergent psychological meanings of I-talk, and provides a guide for future research.
... From the first results of the SAM Model on the axis of the Argumentativity, emerges the occurrence of global questions [25]. Global questions are types of questions that require a necessarily dichotomous answer, such as "Yes or No"/"True or False". ...
Conference Paper
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Joke is an ambiguous communication act that can be used to trigger a persuasive process. The study aims to analyze the linguistic and prosodic features of an automatic voice registered for phone jokes and the emotional reactions of the human victim. Respecting the privacy of victims, 37 phone jokes about an alleged ‘dented car’ were collected by means of Youtube videos. From the results, analysed in terms of psycholinguistic features, it emerges the use of attenuators, together with the prosodic feature of global questions, mainly related to intonation is an element of perceived truthfulness. These features, and in particular the global questions, can be seen as an appropriate strategy to create uncertainty and a negative emotionality in real users and prolong the call, as well as to weave the trap.
... Tone is computed by LIWC and summarises the presence of both positive and negative emotions. A Tone score lower (higher) than 50 indicates a negative (positive) tone [10]. We also control for the overall number of words (Word Count) included in the white paper and the corresponding number of pages (Pages White Paper). ...
Chapter
Digital technologies have created new alternative sources of entrepreneurial finance that create significant opportunities for start-ups and entrepreneurs. Among them, Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) have attracted significant attention from the start-up community and from investors. Despite all the hype around ICOs and the growing number of new token offerings being launched on a daily basis, little is known about the characteristics of successful ICOs. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature by exploring whether and how the linguistic styles adopted in the white paper affects the success of an ICO as measured by the actual amount raised by the offering. Our results are based on a primary dataset of 131 ICOs completed between June 2017 and October 2018. Our results suggest that the use of precise language is positively associated with the amount funded while the use of a concrete language and more numerical terms is negatively associated with the amount funded. This study contributes to the growing literature on ICOs by providing novel insights into the role of the communication strategy adopted by token issuers.
... Language-based evidence of psychological distancing, referred to as linguistic distancing, has been indexed with a standardized composite metric of one's frequency of first-person singular pronouns, articles, discrepancy words, words greater than six letters, and present-tense verbs. These particular lexical components best track verbal immediacy and have been used to index linguistic distancing in previous literature [8,15,16,17,18]. For example, a sentence reflecting high levels of linguistic distancing could be "This car crash happened far away from me, medical help was at the scene, and no one was seriously hurt." ...
... Emotional tone combines the positive and negative tone dimensions into a single summary variable. According to the software's developers, a score of 100 in emotional tone means the tone is maximally upbeat and positive; numbers below 50 indicate a more negative tone or a neutral balance (Cohn et al. 2004). For the comments analyzed here, the tone variable was calculated as 98.56, which is overwhelmingly positive. ...
Article
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While a sizable body of literature suggests that repeated exposure to images of suffering may provoke compassion fatigue and news avoidance in audiences, this paper examines whether a different kind of representation can allow viewers to connect with the subjects of media coverage, cultivating empathy for them. The hope is that understanding the emotional impact of the way people are represented in news stories will help journalists better serve the public’s need for what Schudson called “social empathy”, “stories that—often in a human-interest vein—inform citizens about neighbors and groups they may not know or understand” and create a space where audiences can express positive emotions about their fellow citizens. This paper considers the reactions of followers of the “Humans of New York” (HONY) social media feed to the subjects of the feed’s posts, who are not portrayed as tragic victims, but humanized through portrayals of commonplace concerns, such as family, career, and romantic relationships. Comments on more than 8000 HONY posts over a year were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count program. Results indicate that comments on HONY are overwhelmingly positive and socially oriented, suggesting that this type of representation may be effective in countering compassion fatigue and allowing for better social connection.
... verted to percentiles ranging from zero to 100 (for more information see https://liwc.wpengine.com/interpreting-liwc-output/). For details of how the algorithms were developed and are computed see:Cohn et al. (2004), Kacewicz et al. (2013), Newman et al. (2003,Pennebaker (2011), Pennebaker et al. (2014, andTausczik and Pennebaker (2010). ...
Article
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Intuitions are judgements that arise automatically and non‐consciously. Recognising when intuitive judgements are being used and whether doing so is appropriate is an important skill both for HR practitioners and managers involved in human resource (HR) processes. Because ‘intuiting’ is involuntary and unconscious it is difficult to access, monitor and control, however people can access and articulate their intuitive judgements through the spoken/written word. Identifying ‘linguistic markers’ of intuitions in spoken/written communications could help identify when/how intuition is being used in HR and improve HR practices in areas such as selection (e.g., obviating implicit/unconscious biases) and creativity (e.g., as a source of insights). This research used computerised text analysis (CTA) to identify linguistic markers of intuition based on HR practitioners' descriptions of what happens when they ‘intuit’. We outline implications of these findings for improving HR decision‐making processes and practices and their potential applications in data analytics, AI and machine learning in HR.
... The LIWC also includes both positive emotion and negative emotion dimensions, however, the tone variables put the two dimensions into a single summary variable Cohn, Mehl, & Pennebaker, 2004. The algorithm is built so that the higher the number, the more positive the tone. ...
Article
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This work analyses post-traumatic growth in Covid-19 addresses delivered to the people of Ghana by President Nana Akuffo Addo. We draw on Post-Traumatic Growth Theory to explain how Akuffo Addo constructs a new identity for himself and the nation in order to navigate through the pandemic and forge an agenda of growth and prosperity for Ghana. The study employs a linguistic content analysis approach. The data consists of twenty different speeches from the president to the people. The speeches are first analysed and coded manually for the five main tenets of Post-Traumatic Growth (PTG) identified in the updates. Consequently, the linguistic markers that are used in reconstructing the Ghanaian identity in response to the pandemic are delineated and mapped to the goals of the president using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2015 (LIWC2015; Pennebaker et al., 2015) software; a vocabulary analysis tool. The analysis showed that there was a high prevalence of personal pronoun use, use of positive-emotion words, and cognitive-processing words. This confirms our hypothesis that linguistic markers can be used to detect PTG.
... We view it as a testbed for generating and testing hypotheses both independently and in comparison to other demographic groups, in order to create a comprehensive picture of how affect develops and finds expression through language over the lifespan. This study also adds to the literature concerned with individual and societal response to catastrophic events, including armed conflicts, terrorist acts, natural disasters, and pandemics (Updegraff et al., 2008;Cheung-Blunden & Blunden, 2008;Cohn et al., 2004;Kontoangelos et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The topic of affective development over the lifespan is at the forefront of psychological science. One of the intriguing findings in this area is superior emotion regulation and increased positivity in older rather than younger adults. This paper aims to contribute to the empirical base of studies on the role of affect in cognition. We report a new dataset of valence (positivity) ratings to 3,600 English words collected from North American and British English-speaking younger (below 65 years of age) and older adults (65 years of age and older) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This dataset represents a broad range of valence and a rich selection of semantic categories. Our analyses of the new data pitted against comparable pre-pandemic (2013) data from younger counterparts reveal differences in the overall distribution of valence related both to age and the psychological fallout of the pandemic. Thus, we found at the group level that older participants produced higher valence ratings overall than their younger counterparts before and especially during the pandemic. Moreover, valence ratings saw a super-linear increase after the age of 65. Together, these findings provide new evidence for emotion regulation throughout adulthood, including a novel demonstration of greater emotional resilience in older adults to the stressors of the pandemic.
... For the measurement of emotional valence (whether positive or negative emotions are prevalent), this article relies on both positive and negative emotions (Kowalski, 2000). In line with the linguistic psychology literature (e.g., Cohn, Mehl, & Pennebaker, 2004), LIWC word categories of positive words (posemo) and negative words (negemo) are used. The LIWC dictionaries contain positive and negative emotional language dimensions that represent 685 positive and 1332 negative emotion words, respectively (e.g., "love," "nice," and "sweet" versus "hurt," "ugly," and "nasty"). ...
Article
In this paper, we examine which content characteristics lead to increased sharing of political information on social media, and which role political ideology has in user sharing behavior. More specifically, we investigate the impact of emotions and authority on sharing, as well as the moderating role of political extremity of social media users. We analyzed 10,141 political tweets, sent by 527 influencers between July 2019 and June 2020. The results reveal that content in which emotions are more prevalent than argument quality is more likely to be shared than content in which argument quality is prevalent. Perhaps surprisingly, we also show that content in which positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions is more likely to be shared than content in which negative emotions are prevalent. Moreover, authority (i.e., a dominant language style and a high number of followers) can lead to increased shares. Finally, we find that content in which positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions is less effective in increasing shares when users are located at the ideological extreme compared to the ideological center. On the one hand, we provide insights into how influencers in social media networks can be utilized for political campaigning. On the other hand, we provide insights into what makes users engage with political content from influencers that might contribute to political polarization on social media.
... We then copied and pasted the data into a MS Excel spreadsheet and imported the material into the LIWC 2015 text analysis software. Through that analysis, we obtained measures of review length (measured as number of words contained in a single review) and emotional tone (which combines the two dimensions of positive and negative emotions emerging from the text into a single summary variable, with variable values above 50 suggesting a more positive emotional tone; Cohn, Mehl, and Pennebaker, 2004). Furthermore, in order to assess the affective and cognitive components present in individuals' reviews, we considered two additional measures extracted through the LIWC software: the individual use of words associated with affective processing (e.g., happy, cried) or cognitive processing (e.g., cause, know, ought). ...
... The authors suggested that the increase in singular pronouns were reflective of a weakness in communicating with others (66). Another study examining online personal journals surrounding the 9/11 terrorist attacks showed that individuals directly affected by the attacks used stronger negative words, more first-person plural words, and less first-person singular words (69). More recently, a longitudinal study examining 124 9/11 responders sought to predict symptom severity using an interview of their oral history. ...
Article
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Rates of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have risen significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth has emerged as a means to monitor symptoms for such disorders. This is partly due to isolation or inaccessibility of therapeutic intervention caused from the pandemic. Additional screening tools may be needed to augment identification and diagnosis of PTSD through a virtual medium. Sentiment analysis refers to the use of natural language processing to extract emotional content from text information. In our study, we train a machine learning model on text data, which is part of the Audio/Visual Emotion Challenge and Workshop (AVEC-19) corpus, to identify individuals with PTSD using sentiment analysis from semi-structured interviews. Our sample size included 188 individuals without PTSD, and 87 with PTSD. The interview was conducted by an artificial character (Ellie) over a video-conference call. Our model was able to achieve a balanced accuracy of 80.4% on a held out dataset used from the AVEC-19 challenge. Additionally, we implemented various partitioning techniques to determine if our model was generalizable enough. This shows that learned models can use sentiment analysis of speech to identify the presence of PTSD, even through a virtual medium. This can serve as an important, accessible and inexpensive tool to detect mental health abnormalities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... The increased use of social-media platforms has sparked interest in research on socialmedia behavior (Ledford, 2020). Specifically, online and social-media content can be used to examine the impact of social events on psychological outcomes (Cohn et al., 2004). For example, Simchon and colleagues (2020) investigated the effect of the 2016 U.S. presidential election on population-level depression among liberal and conservative Americans by analyzing Twitter and Google Search data. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a demanding caregiving context for parents, particularly during lockdowns. In this study, we examined parental mentalization, parents’ proclivity to consider their own and their child’s mental states, during the pandemic, as manifested in mental-state language (MSL) on parenting social media. Parenting-related posts on Reddit from two time periods in the pandemic in 2020, March to April (lockdown) and July to August (postlockdown), were compared with time-matched control periods in 2019. MSL and self–other references were measured using text-analysis methods. Parental mentalization content decreased during the pandemic: Posts referred less to mental activities and to other people during the COVID-19 pandemic and showed decreased affective MSL, cognitive MSL, and self-references specifically during lockdown. Father-specific subreddits exhibited strongest declines in mentalization content, whereas mother-specific subreddits exhibited smaller changes. Implications on understanding associations between caregiving contexts and parental mentalization, gender differences, and the value of using social-media data to study parenting and mentalizing are discussed.
... This is because literature indicates that well-being concerns may manifest in different ways in an individual's interaction with others, sometimes with explicit references to the underlying causes and sometimes implicitly embedded in other conversations (Kícíman et al., 2018). Moreover, psycholinguistic expressions that signal an individual's underlying psychological state, are associated with non-content words, such as articles and pronouns, which are rarely consciously regulated by the individual and may span a variety of topics directly or indirectly related to a crisis, whether offline (Cohn et al., 2004) or online (Saha and De Choudhury, 2017). Analyzing all temporally and school-community relevant longitudinal social media data mitigates issues of partial observability of well-being outcomes that may result from focusing on drill-specific postings. ...
Article
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The toll from gun violence in American K-12 schools has escalated over the past 20 years. School administrators face pressure to prepare for possible active shootings, and often do so through drills, which can range from general lockdowns to simulations, involving masked “shooters” and simulated gunfire, and many variations in between. However, the broad and lasting impact of these drills on the well-being of school communities is poorly understood. To that end, this article applies machine learning and interrupted time series analysis to 54 million social media posts, both pre- and post-drills in 114 schools spanning 33 states. Drill dates and locations were identified via a survey, then posts were captured by geo-location, school social media following, and/or school social media group membership. Results indicate that anxiety, stress, and depression increased by 39–42% following the drills, but this was accompanied by increases in civic engagement (10–106%). This research, paired with the lack of strong evidence that drills save lives, suggests that proactive school safety strategies may be both more effective, and less detrimental to mental health, than drills.
... Data from our interviews seem to confirm that attending the program had a positive effect on participants' emotional tone, as reflected by the high score in the emotional tone category. Higher scores in the category of emotional tone have been reported to be linked to a more positive effect [65], a characteristic that was also confirmed by the prevalence of positive emotions when examining the specific affective language used during the interviews. As discussed in the literature, given the need for paying more scientific attention to patients' everyday emotions in natural contexts, this data is relevant [66]. ...
Article
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Previous research has shown the positive effects of music and dance-based interventions on the physical and psychosocial symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate how PD patients subjectively perceive the emotional, cognitive, and social benefits of a music-and dance-based intervention; (2) to apply an innovative methodology for an interview analysis combining findings from a linguistic text with an analytic approach and conducted with the software LIWC and from the content analysis performed by human coders. Extensive, open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 patients with PD who had participated in a dance and music program. The interviews were analyzed using both human coders and the computer-based approach. The results show that emotional and social aspects are considered the most frequent perceived benefits of the dance program. The data confirm the positive impact of dance-and music-based programs on promoting participants' emotional and social well-being. A combined approach to text analysis appears to be a promising way to achieve more in-depth insights into patients' subjective perceptions.
... For example, one large sample study found that in emergencies, I-talk unexpectedly decreases (Guntuku et al., 2020); because this was in a semi-public context (Facebook), it suggests that I-talk may not be the best marker of negative emotionality in public communication contexts. One speculation is that people respond to emergency situations with self-distancing or decentering as part of an adaptive psychological "shock reaction" that (perhaps adaptively) prevents one from becoming emotionally overwhelmed (Cohn et al., 2004). We think it is important to emphasize that much work remains to be done to further integrate the literature on I-talk and affect, and we think attention to context will be necessary (as appears to be the case for honesty-deception; Hauch et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
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We review extant research on the psychological implications of the use of first-person singular pronouns (i.e., “I-talk”). A common intuition is that I-talk is associated with an overly positive, highly agentic, and inflated view of the self—including arrogance, self-centeredness, and grandiose narcissism. Initial (small-sample) research provided evidence that frequent I-talk was associated with grandiose narcissism. More recent (large-sample) research, however, has found that the correlation is near zero. Frequent I-talk is, however, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, in particular, and negative emotionality (i.e., neuroticism), more broadly. Frequent I-talk is also positively related to the neurotic variety of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism. In addition, frequent I-talk has a positive association with sociodemographic characteristics such as (lower) status, (younger) age, and (female) gender; I-talk has a conditional association with truth-telling and authenticity—a correlation that appears to hinge on context. This review summarizes the literature on I-talk, provides some speculations about the emergent psychological meanings of I-talk, and provides a guide for future research.
... In addition to standard LIWC dimensions based on percentage of total words, four summary variables were calculated: analytical thinking , clout (Kacewicz et al., 2014), authenticity (M. L. Newman et al., 2003), and emotional tone (Cohn et al., 2004). Each summary variable builds upon previouslypublished research from our lab; measures are calculated, then converted to percentiles based on standardized scores from large comparison corpora. ...
Technical Report
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The words that people use in everyday life tell us about their psychological states: their beliefs, emotions, thinking habits, lived experiences, social relationships, and personalities. From the time of Freud’s writings about “slips of the tongue” to the early days of computer-based text analysis, researchers across the social sciences have amassed an extensive body of evidence showing that people’s words have tremendous psychological value. To appreciate some of the truly great pioneers, check out (Allport, 1942), Gottschalk and Gleser (1969), Stone et al., (1966), and Weintraub (1989). Although promising, the early computer methods floundered because of the sheer complexity of the task. In order to provide a better method for studying verbal and written speech samples, we originally developed a text analysis application called Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, or LIWC (pronounced “Luke”). The first LIWC application was developed as part of an exploratory study of language and disclosure (Francis & Pennebaker, 1992). The second (LIWC2001), third (LIWC2007), fourth (2015), and now fifth (LIWC-22) versions updated the original application with increasingly expanded dictionaries and sophisticated software design (Pennebaker et al., 2001, 2007, 2015). The most recent evolution, LIWC-22 (Pennebaker et al., 2022), has significantly altered both the dictionary and the software options to reflect new directions in text analysis. As with previous versions, the program is designed to analyze individual or multiple language files quickly and efficiently. At the same time, the program attempts to be transparent and flexible in its operation, allowing the user to explore word use in multiple ways.
... To quantify the positive emotional tone of the feedback, we used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) text analysis software (Pennebaker, Boyd, Jordan, & Blackburn, 2015) to identify the proportion of words in the feedback submissions that were associated with positive emotions in the LIWC2015 library, as well as the proportion associated with negative emotions. We used the "Tone" linguistic category, consistent with Cohn, Mehl, and Pennebaker (2004), which operationalizes the positive emotional tone of language by subtracting the proportion of text that is negatively valenced from the proportion that is positively valenced, effectively indexing the emotional tone of the specific language such that higher numbers are associated with language that is, on net, proportionally more positive than negative, and lower numbers are associated with language that is, on net, proportionally more negative than positive. ...
Article
Though leader agreeableness has been associated with follower ratings of leader effectiveness, the relationship between leader agreeableness and team task performance is more tenuous. We propose that leader agreeableness stifles team leaders' effectiveness by moderating the efficacy of their constructive feedback to the team. We argue that feedback delivered by an agreeable individual will be higher in positive emotional tone, and that positive emotional tone is, itself, informational content from which recipient teams draw inferences about the need to adapt. As a result, we suggest that team leaders' agreeableness influences the effectiveness of the constructive feedback they provide. Using two studies, one panel study of working adults and another of sales teams, we find support for our theory. Specifically, we show that agreeable individuals provide feedback that has linguistic features that convey higher levels of positive emotional tone. We then show that constructive feedback from team leaders encourages team reflexivity, which in turn enhances team performance, but that high agreeableness inhibits the impact of leaders' constructive feedback. Constructive feedback provided by agreeable leaders limits team reflexivity in response to the feedback. These results have important theoretical and practical implications.
... These two variables captured textual claims of innovativeness and superiority. We also included the four text summary variables generated by LIWC, which influence the persuasiveness of a text: analytical language [74], authenticity [75], and emotional tone [76]. Another feature that a creator can control is duration of the project funding window, which we measured by the number of days a project could accept funding. ...
Preprint
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Despite an increase in the empirical study of crowdfunding platforms and the prevalence of visual information, operations management and marketing literature has yet to explore the role that image characteristics play in crowdfunding success. The authors of this manuscript begin by synthesizing literature on visual processing to identify several image characteristics that are likely to shape crowdfunding success. After detailing measures for each image characteristic, they use them as part of a machine-learning algorithm (Bayesian additive trees), along with project characteristics and textual information, to predict crowdfunding success. Results show that the inclusion of these image characteristics substantially improves prediction over baseline project variables, as well as textual features. Furthermore, image characteristic variables exhibit high importance, similar to variables linked to the number of pictures and number of videos. This research therefore offers valuable resources to researchers and managers who are interested in the role of visual information in ensuring new product success.
... The authenticity variable determined whether individuals' statements are more deceptive or truthful according to whether the words used are more/less descriptive, close/distant from the self, or positive/ negative (Newman et al. 2003). Finally, the emotional-tone variable distinguished between the use of positive and negative emotional words in individuals' statements (Cohn, Mehl, and Pennebaker 2004). ...
Article
The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to reframe interactions among tourists, destinations, and service providers in multiple ways. Yet, there is scant empirical evidence on how individuals develop their relationships with IoT devices and how this technology can serve tourists in planning and deciding on particular destinations or services. Drawing on the assemblage theory, we investigated tourists’ interactive experiences when planning trips with and without smart speakers. Methodologically, we employed an interactionist/performative approach that included three qualitative studies to examine tourists’ information production, expressive roles, and information processing styles during interactions with smart speakers in the pre-visit stage. The analysis was driven by grounded theory and utilized computerized psycholinguistic techniques to enrich our research implications for theory, methodology, and tourism management.
... For example, Campbell and Pennebaker (2003) suggested that personal pronouns manifest psychological states from the perspective of a person's social connection or social isolation. Specifically, an excessive use of first-person singular pronouns may be related to a high degree of self-involvement, while an increased use of the other pronouns may indicate improvement of social engagement (Cohn et al., 2004;Simmons et al., 2008). In addition, people use more first-person singular pronouns when in grief or depression or attempting suicide (Rude et al., 2004;Boals and Klein, 2005;Eichstaedt et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study investigated the relation between psychological states and linguistic features with the case of Virginia Woolf. We analyzed the data from The Diary of Virginia Woolf and Virginia Woolf: Biography by automatic text analysis and statistical analysis, including stepwise multiple regression and Deep Learning algorithm. The results suggested that the significant linguistic features can jointly predict the psychological states of Virginia Woolf, including the emotional value of anger, the absolutist word “everything,” and the total of first-person plural pronouns. In addition, we found that the total use of first-person plural pronouns and the emotional value of anger were negatively related to mental health of Virginia Woolf. While the use of the absolutist word “everything” was positively related to mental health of Virginia Woolf. Meanwhile, we developed a model that can predict the psychological states of Virginia Woolf, with 86.9% accuracy. We discussed the findings and enumerated the limitations of this study at the end of the paper. The results not only complemented previous studies in the understanding of the relation between language and psychological health, but also facilitated timely identification, intervention, and prevention of mental disorders.
... The sheer size of Internet corpora multiplies the specific strengths of this class of methods: Nonmanipulable events can be studied in natura, facilitating the examination of rare behavioral patterns (e.g., Fritsche & Linneweber, 2006). For example, Cohn, Mehl, and Pennebaker (2004) studied the online diaries of U.S. users of livejournal.com, a publicly accessible online diary site, for linguistic markers of psychological change surrounding September 11, 2001. ...
Article
Online reviews are found to mitigate racial discrimination in the sharing economy, but we argue that the chance of getting reviews is unequal for suppliers/workers of difference races. We test this logic with 16,674 hosts and 396,923 reviews on Airbnb in New York City. We find that the majority hosts (i.e. White) acquire their first review and third review (enough to trigger the publication of aggregate rating) more quickly than minority hosts (i.e. Asian and Black). However, setting listings instantly bookable helps reduce the racial difference in review acquisition. Our analyses also reveal that compared with Asian or Black hosts, White hosts receive higher aggregate ratings and more positive reviews at early stage of review acquisition. Such racial difference attenuates over time as the number of reviews increases. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of racial discrimination against minorities in the sharing economy.
Conference Paper
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The continuing disruption in the higher education landscape resulted in unending challenges concerning the mode of learning. In this brief report, we explored the emotional tone of university students through their reflective writings submitted at the end of a 16-week semester of online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. Using LWIC, a keyword analysis tool, a corpus of reflective writings from 60 students was analyzed. Results indicated a negative emotional tone toward online learning. Words with negative and positive connotations were further explored to give the meaning of their emotional tone. These results suggest several implications for educators to mitigate the challenges faced by university students in contexts similar to Thailand.
Article
Employees are increasingly exhorted to “pursue their passion” at work. Inherent in this call is the belief that passion will produce higher performance because it promotes intrapersonal processes that propel employees forward. Here, we suggest that the pervasiveness of this “passion narrative,” coupled with the relative observability of passion, may lead others to treat passionate employees in more favorable ways that subsequently produce better workplace outcomes, a self-fulfilling prophecy we term the Passionate Pygmalion Effect. We find evidence for this effect across two experiments (Study 1 and pre-registered Study 3) and one field survey with pairs of subordinates and supervisors from a diverse set of organizations (Study 2). In line with the Passionate Pygmalion Effect, our studies show that more passionate employees (1) received more positive feedback for their success, (2) were offered more training and promotion opportunities, (3) elicited more favorable emotional reactions, and (4) prompted more favorable attributions for varied performance outcomes. Such favorable treatment persisted despite describing passionate employees' job performance identically or controlling for job performance statistically. Notably, more passionate employees even elicited more favorable emotional reactions and attributions when their job performance decreased. We subsequently discuss how our interpersonal perspective on the passion narrative implicates challenges for the advancement of employees with fewer opportunities to pursue their passion (e.g., given socioeconomic constraints or exploitative work demands), or who are less likely to be perceived as passionate by others (e.g., given cross-cultural differences).
Article
Résumé Objectifs L’expérience traumatique s’avère caractérisée par l’« indicibilité » : point de mot pour réellement exprimer, pour traduire, pour se représenter l’horreur traversée. Et pourtant, paradoxalement, l’accès principal à notre connaissance de la dissociation traumatique provient de ce que les patients arrivent à nous en dire ne serait-ce que partiellement, chaotiquement… Les empreintes lexicales, syntaxiques et pragmatiques du trauma dans le discours, que nous avons baptisées syndrome psycholinguistique traumatique (SPLIT), s’expriment selon une dissociation automatico-volontaire prenant forme graduelle : plus le trauma apparaît présent et plus les stigmates psycholinguistiques se manifestent ; plus le sujet s’éloigne psychiquement du trauma et de ses conséquences, plus le discours regagne l’état nominal. Comment le sujet peut-il redevenir maître de sa propre vie, de sa propre parole, sans que le trauma ne la contraigne ? Comment le sujet arrive-t-il parfois, seul ou avec l’aide d’autrui, à s’extraire de ses reviviscences par la narrativisation de la scène traumatique ? Ces espaces de retour au « je » n’ont jamais été étudiés en langue française dans le discours de patients souffrant de trouble de stress post-traumatique. Outre la forme linguistique « je », quelles sont les autres formes utilisées (personnelles, exclusives, inclusives, génériques) par les locuteurs de récits traumatiques dans leurs discours afin de faire référence à eux-mêmes ? Méthodes À partir des témoignages de survivants du Bataclan recueillis immédiatement après l’attentat puis quelques années plus tard, ainsi qu’à partir des récits produits par des patients militaires souffrant de trouble de stress post-traumatique chronique, nous analysons, grâce à l’étude linguistique précise des marqueurs pronominaux, comment les locuteurs font référence à eux-mêmes. Résultats Une analyse détaillée des formes pronominales et des différentes valeurs qu’elles signifient, nous a conduit à quatre principales découvertes : (i) surreprésentation de la première personne dans les récits traumatiques, tant par l’emploi du pronom « je » que par les autres pronoms incluant le locuteur ; (ii) prédominance de l’emploi des valeurs pronominales génériques dans les récits traumatiques ; (iii) utilisation préférentielle de la valeur exclusive du pronom « on » dans le corpus « Guerre d’Afghanistan » ; et enfin (iv), le déroulé temporel de ces trois premiers résultats suit la chronologie de la clinique évolutive du trouble de stress post-traumatique. Discussion Les récits traumatiques contiennent significativement davantage d’occurrences du pronom « je », mais aussi d’autres formes de références à soi-même comparativement aux sujets témoins. L’évocation à la première personne témoigne principalement de la singularité du trauma : ce qui est traumatique pour quelqu’un, à un moment particulier de son histoire, ne le sera pas forcément pour quelqu’un d’autre qui traverserait la « même » épreuve aux sens des coordonnées objectives (lieu, date des faits, intensité des sons, étendue de lésions physiques, etc.). Dire « je » c’est aussi lutter contre les symptômes dissociatifs, au premier rang desquels la dépersonnalisation confinant à la réification et à la désubjectivation. Cependant, le trauma s’accroche aux premières tentatives de s’en extraire : la prééminence du pronom « je » apparaît parallèlement telle une marque de la répétition dans le discours, disjonction entre les dimensions lexicales et pragmatiques de l’énonciation. Pour cause de dissociation massive, le « je » discursif renvoie même parfois à un asubjectif dans la scène traumatique tel un « Out of Langage Experience » : le sujet dit quelquefois « je » mais sans parler de lui. En outre, l’emploi des pronoms génériques est retrouvé avec une plus grande fréquence dans les récits d’événements traumatiques, notamment dans le corpus du « Bataclan différé », alors que les témoins les utilisent significativement moins. En employant « tu » ou « vous » générique, c’est comme si le locuteur disait : si vous aviez été à ma place, voilà ce que vous auriez éprouvé, vu, entendu, pensé, car n’importe quel humain, dans ces circonstances, éprouverait ce que j’ai éprouvé. En un sens, je suis donc un être humain « normal » mais en même temps, j’évite ma propre subjectivité, ce qui reste une forme de dépersonnalisation. Par l’utilisation d’un « vous » générique, voire même davantage par un « tu » familier, un changement de perspective cognitive adoptée pour décrire le vécu, le sujet blessé psychique décrit l’expérience de l’extérieur. Ainsi, le processus de dissociation traumatique se protège toujours, voire s’étend, en incluant l’interlocuteur dans la scène traumatique, en suggérant une quête empathique, comme pour l’en rendre captif, témoin invité ou participant obligé de la scène verbale. Enfin, alors que les témoins emploient « je » et « on » de manière équivalente, chez les sujets blessés psychiques, plus l’on s’éloigne du trauma temporellement alors que ses conséquences cliniques persistent, plus l’utilisation du pronom « je » augmente et plus l’emploi du pronom « on » diminue tout en se polarisant sur un caractère exclusif ou générique. De telles évolutions croisées, témoignant en même temps d’une tentative de recours à l’affirmation de soi et de la dissolution dans un collectif extérieur, restent une marque de la dissociation traumatique dans le discours. Ces résultats concordent avec l’évolution chronologique de la clinique post-traumatique de la phase immédiate marquée de trouble de stress aigu, à la phase différée souvent lieu d’une période intermédiaire latente, puis aux symptômes chroniques évoluant vers des souffrances multiples. Conclusion L’approche linguistique peut nous offrir à la fois de comprendre les marques générales de la blessure psychique dans le discours et le traumatisme au sens de la singularité du vécu. Alors que le syndrome psycholinguistique traumatique résulte de la blessure du langage constitutive du trauma, inversement, c’est une parole singulière qui permet de s’extraire des reviviscences. Sans doute que des processus salvateurs surviennent notamment grâce à la relation intersubjective entre le patient et autrui, par la co-construction d’un discours. L’analyse de la restauration de ce langage, et en particulier des marques pronominales, pourrait unifier une conception spécifique de l’apaisement des conséquences traumatiques tout en définissant des marqueurs linguistiques objectifs offrant d’évaluer l’efficacité des traitements recommandés.
Article
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When it comes to understanding experiences of illness, humanities and social sciences research have traditionally reserved a prominent role for narrative. Yet, depression has characteristics that withstand the form of traditional narratives, such as a lack of desire and an impotence to act. How can a ‘datafied’ approach to online forms of depression writing pose a valuable addition to existing narrative approaches in health humanities? In this article, we analyse lay people’s depression discourses online. Our approach, ‘digital hermeneutics’, is inspired by Gadamer’s dialogical hermeneutics. It consists of a ‘scaled reading’ on five different scales: platform hermeneutics; contextual reading with term frequency—inverse document frequency (TF–IDF); distant reading with natural language processing topic modelling; hyper-reading with concordance views and close reading. Our corpus consisted of three data sets, from the blogs and message boards of, respectively, time-to-change.org.uk, a UK-based social organisation and movement that aims to counter mental health discrimination and alleviate social isolation by spreading awareness; Sane.org.uk, a leading UK mental health charity that seeks to help people in facing the challenges of mental illness and to improve quality of life; and the subreddit ‘r/depression’ on web discussion platform reddit. We found that the manner in which people express experiences of illness online is very much dependent on the specific affordances of platforms. We found degrees of ‘narrativity’ to be correlated to authorship and identity markers: the less ‘anonymous’ the writing, generally speaking, the more conventionally ‘narrative’ it was. Pseudonimity was related to more intimate and singular forms, with less pressure to conform to socially accepted and positive narratives of the ‘restitution’ type. We also found that interactive affordances of the platforms were used to a limited extent, nuancing assumptions about the polyvocality of online depression writing. We conclude by making a claim for increased cooperation between digital and medical humanities that might lead to a field of ‘Digital Medical Humanities’.
Article
Creativity and innovation are often considered to be essential characteristics of effective organizations. However, recent experimental research suggests that individual-level creativity in the workplace is not always perceived positively because of the uncertainty inherent in creative ideas. Although this research has advanced our understanding of perceptions of individual creativity in organizations, less is known about whether this creativity bias holds in real world contexts and, if so, whether there are organizational consequences. In this paper, we examine the organizational implications of executives’ use of words related to creativity and innovation (i.e., creativity-speak) during quarterly earnings calls. We predict that due to the association between creativity and uncertainty, market reactions to creativity-speak will be negative. However, we also predict that these same discussions of creativity will be associated with higher firm financial performance. We find support for our predictions, and additionally find that the creativity bias can be ameliorated through executives’ use of a positive tone when discussing creativity and innovation. Our study has a number of theoretical implications for the study of creativity, innovation, and executive communication.
Article
Background: Australians living in rural and remote areas are at elevated risk of mental health problems and must overcome barriers to help seeking, such as poor access, stigma, and entrenched stoicism. e-Mental health services circumvent such barriers using technology, and text-based services are particularly well suited to clients concerned with privacy and self-presentation. They allow the client to reflect on the therapy session after it has ended as the chat log is stored on their device. The text also offers researchers an opportunity to analyze language use patterns and explore how these relate to mental health status. Objective: In this project, we investigated whether computational linguistic techniques can be applied to text-based communications with the goal of identifying a client's mental health status. Methods: Client-therapist text messages were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count tool. We examined whether the resulting word counts related to the participants' presenting problems or their self-ratings of mental health at the completion of counseling. Results: The results confirmed that word use patterns could be used to differentiate whether a client had one of the top 3 presenting problems (depression, anxiety, or stress) and, prospectively, to predict their self-rated mental health after counseling had been completed. Conclusions: These findings suggest that language use patterns are useful for both researchers and clinicians trying to identify individuals at risk of mental health problems, with potential applications in screening and targeted intervention.
Article
This paper investigates the effect of blinding––a policy on certain sharing-economy platforms to suppress online review reciprocation––on the content of reviews from both vendors and customers. While previous studies often focus on customer review or overlook the difference between the two types of reviews, we call attention to their distinct relational nature. We argue that the blinding policy has different impacts on the two types of reviews, and such differences are detectable in a review’s linguistic features. We test this logic with mutual reviews (N= 191,526) between Airbnb guests and hosts in New York City during July 10th, 2013 to July 10th, 2015. Using interrupted timeseries analysis, we find that Airbnb’s blinding policy on July 10th, 2014 made guest-to-host reviews more objective by reducing prosocial language and positive emotion. In contrast, blinding increased these features in host-to-guest reviews. We also found that this opposite impact of blinding on host-to-guest reviews was stronger when there were fewer opportunities for face-to-face interactions between hosts and guests. We theorize such opposing effects in terms of the ways that blinding alters, rather than eliminates, the relational nature of hosts’ behaviors toward guests. We argue for a broader appreciation of relational dynamics in the theoretical and practical understanding of online sharing-economy platforms.
Article
One of the most fundamental, yet often overlooked, components of language is the personal pronoun system. Pronouns reveal and empower different perspectives, providing insight into and even altering how a person is conceptualizing the self. Here, we illustrate how the pronouns “I,” “you,” and “we” can enable shifts in perspective that bring a person further from, or closer to, others. We additionally highlight the implications of these pronoun shifts on the addressee(s). We review a growing body of research that focuses on how these words can function as both windows—providing insight into the thoughts and emotions of a speaker, and levers—that can subtly alter the speaker's and addressee(s)’ thoughts, emotions, and even behaviors, across a range of domains. We conclude by discussing possibilities for future research.
Article
Purpose Existing studies on the relationship between task description and task performance are insufficient, with many studies considering description length rather than content to measure quality or only evaluating a single aspect of task performance. To address this gap, this study analyzes the linguistic styles of task descriptions from 2,545 tasks on the Taskcn.com crowdsourcing platform. Design/methodology/approach An empirical analysis was completed for task description language styles and task performance. The paper used text mining tool Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count to extract eight linguistic styles, namely readability, self-distancing, cognitive complexity, causality, tentative language, humanizing personal details, normative information and language intensity. And it tests the relationship between the eight language styles and task performance. Findings The study found that more cognitive complexity markers, tentative language, humanized details and normative information increase the quantity of submissions for a task. In addition, more humanized details and normative information in a task description improves the quality of task. Conversely, the inclusion of more causal relationships in a task description reduces the quantity of submissions. Poorer readability of the task description, less self-estrangement and higher language intensity reduces the quality of the task. Originality/value This study first reveals the importance of the linguistic styles used in task descriptions and provides a reference for how to attract more task solvers and achieve higher quality task performance by improving task descriptions. The research also enriches existing knowledge on the impact of linguistic styles and the applications of text mining.
Article
In the movie pre-production stage, movie studios have scarce information about the movie in planning to select and edit the right script that can be commercially successful. Given this constraint, we provide a procedure of predicting movie revenues in the movie pre-production stage. To utilize the contents of textual scripts as the primary information source, we theoretically predicate the procedure on the market’s collective consumption experiences with prior movies sharing similar content features with the new movie. We hypothesize that the market wants to enjoy not only certain content features again (as positive carryover effects), but also different content features (as negative carryover effects) in the new movie. Toward this end, we integrate two distinct components into our prediction procedure: (1) LIWC (a text-mining tool) and (2) the auto-Gaussian spatial model. Our empirical application demonstrates that our procedure outperforms select benchmark models in predictive accuracy.
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The current paper used a preregistered set of language dimensions to indicate how scientists psychologically managed the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects. Study 1 evaluated over 1.8 million preprints from arXiv.org and assessed how papers written during the COVID-19 pandemic reflected patterns of psychological trauma and emotional upheaval compared to those written before the pandemic. The data suggest papers written during the pandemic contained more affect and more cognitive processing terms to indicate writers working through a crisis than papers written before the pandemic. Study 2 (N = 74,744 published PLoS One papers) observed consistent emotion results, though cognitive processing patterns were inconsistent. Papers written specifically about COVID-19 contained more emotion than those not written about COVID-19. Finally, Study 3 (N = 361,189 published papers) replicated the Study 2 emotion results across more diverse journals and observed papers written during the pandemic contained a greater rate of cognitive processing terms, but a lower rate of analytic thinking, than papers written before the pandemic. These data suggest emotional upheavals are associated with psychological correlates reflected in the language of scientists at scale. Implications for psychology of language research and trauma are discussed.
Purpose This study initiated an investigation of how the Macau–Zhuhai tourism cooperated and discussed how Macau and Zhuhai could join hands to develop tourism in the region. The study demonstrated an approach for destination marketing organizations to explore online tourist-generated content and to understand tourists' perceptions of the destination image (DI). Design/methodology/approach A total of 1,291,057 reviews (535,317 for Macau and 755,740 for Zhuhai) were collected, analyzed and examined to determine how the DI s of Macau and Zhuhai changed during the period of 2015–2019 based on tourist-generated content on travel websites (TripAdvisor, Ctrip.com and Qyer.com) through a text-mining approach. Findings The result revealed that Macau and Zhuhai were in a hybrid of competition and collaboration on tourism DI s. First, Macau and Zhuhai competed in hotel and catering industry. Macau was appealing to international tourists and provided high-end and prestigious offerings; while Zhuhai was impressed by cost-effective accommodation and food. Second, Macau diversified industrial structure with diverse “Tourism, Leisure and Recreation” and “Culture, History and Art” more than Zhuhai did. Meanwhile, Macau should balance the different demands of international and Chinese tourists. Third, complementary potentials were found in natural resources, urbanization technology and tourism innovation and related projects. Practical implications The research provides valuable insights for policymakers and industrial managers on their endeavors to develop DIs. Policymakers should be able to develop supportive mechanisms and tourism facilitators to promote industrial collaboration and mutual DIs. Managers could refer to the components in the changing DIs and identify the developmental gaps and cooperation potentials in their targeted areas. Originality/value The research fulfills the gap in regional tourism studies on Macau, in which the evaluation on synergetic influence and neighbor effect from Zhuhai has been underexplored. Facilitated by up-to-date data mining techniques, the study contributes to both DI and coopetition literature in tourism marketing; and this should inspire further studies on the antecedences of DI changes, resolutions to the competing interests and DIs of different stakeholders in different forms of strategic cooperation in regional tourism. The employment of DIs is an explicit demonstration of tourists' immersion and values attached to the destination, providing effective cues on the status of coopetition.
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The Twitter #MeToo movement has been characterized as an angry mob, out for revenge. However, several lines of research warrant a critical evaluation of this characterization: (1) social movements are often delegitimized; (2) anger is an inconsistent response to sexual assault; and (3) preliminary evidence suggests a focus of #MeToo was meaning-making. To evaluate the focus of #MeToo, the language of tweets was assessed across four sequential events, each associated with peak usage of the hashtag. Three mixed measures ANOVAs showed there were more cognitive than emotion words, suggesting a greater thought-than anger-focus. The patterns of first versus third-person pronoun usage differed at the first event compared to the last event, consistent with a change in focus from meaning-making to meaning-made. Power words were accompanied by more first-person singular pronouns than first-person plural pronouns at all events, suggesting tweeters were focused more on personal empowerment, than attaining power over others. We conclude that #MeToo language was not focused on anger and revenge, but on personal empowerment and meaning-making, and that examining the language of social media movements can help to understand whether criticisms of these movements are evidence-based, or backlash.
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This study was designed to further understand rupture events that counselors encounter during a counseling session that ultimately impact the quality of the therapeutic alliance. We employed a cross-sectional analysis of a linguistic corpus created from mock counseling transcripts embedded in a website administered by a peer-reviewed expert in the psychology field and three video recorded sessions of Carl Rodgers, Fritz Pearls, and Albert Ellis. The content of the corpuses was analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software. The results showed a significant difference between she/he words, or third-person singular pronouns, and certainty words when comparing withdrawal and mixed rupture corpuses with a confrontation rupture corpus. In addition, we found a significant differences between positive emotion words and discrepancy words when comparing a rupture-infused psychotherapy corpus to a general psychotherapy corpus. Several implications for counseling and research are provided in response to these findings. Keywords: corpus linguistics, therapeutic alliance, alliance rupture, rupture event, LIWC
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Firms of all sizes are “joining the conversation” on social media platforms and increasingly trademarking hashtags related to their products and brands. This added effort to protect intellectual property and its impact on social media engagement have not been investigated in the literature. In this study, we find that trademarking hashtags plays a pivotal role in increasing social media audience engagement and information dissemination. More importantly, this positive effect is stronger for firms with fewer Twitter followers. Digging deeper into the underlying mechanisms, we find that trademarking hashtags makes composing tweets with certain linguistic styles more critical: It can amplify the positive effects of trademarking hashtags on social media audience engagement. Our findings highlight important managerial implications of trademarking hashtags. First of all, we examine whether trademarking a hashtag helps or hurts a firm in terms of its social media audience engagement. Further, we show, to maximize the effectiveness of trademarking hashtags, how firms should develop the right social media engagement strategies by taking specific communication and linguistic styles into account. Our results provide useful insights to firms in understanding the key benefits of signaling through trademarking hashtags on social media engagement.
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Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing efforts to contain its spread have caused major problems with public health, along with social and economic disruptions. This Special Issue addresses how coping with the pandemic has been shaped by the interplay between cognition and emotion. The various contributions to this Special Issue explore the impacts of the pandemic on: (a) How people were confronted with new risks and realities; (b) Active processes of emotional resilience and ruminative coping; and c) Moral decision-making. Taken together, this work shows how research on cognition and emotion can illuminate the social and emotional strains of the pandemic, while helping to identify risk factors that exacerbate these problems and pointing to ways to successfully address and mitigate these problems, such as emotion regulation, social support, and perspective taking. The editorial closes by briefly reporting on the present state of the journal and changes in the editorial team.
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Essays written by currently-depressed, formerly-depressed, and never-depressed college students were examined for differences in language that might shed light on the cognitive operations associated with depression and depression-vulnerability. A text analysis program computed the incidence of words in predesignated categories. Consistent with Beck's cognitive model and with Pyczsinski and Greenberg's self-focus model of depression, depressed participants used more negatively valenced words and used the word, "I" more than did never-depressed participants. Formerly-depressed (presumably depression-vulnerable) participants did not differ from never-depressed participants on these indices of depressive processing. However, consistent with prediction, formerly-depressed participants' use of the word "I" increased across the essays and was significantly greater than that of never-depressed writers in the final portion of the essays.
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Research on talking about trauma as a means of coping typically relies on retrospective self-reports. This study analyzed Internet chat room conversations about the death of Princess Diana for 4 weeks after her death to begin to map the ways people naturally talk about shared disasters and to seek evidence of social stages of coping. In the 1st hours and days, people exhibited high levels of personal and emotional responses to the loss of Diana. Linguistic analyses revealed strong evidence of collective shared grief in the 1st week, with a shift from greater levels of collective language to individual language after the 1st week. Ratings of the chat-room transcripts by judges revealed a shift from largely compassionate to largely hostile comments over the 4-week period. Advantages and complications of Internet chat rooms as a data source are considered.
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For a growing cohort of Americans Internet tools have become a significant conduit of their social life and work life. The surveys of the Pew Internet & American Life Project in year 2000 show that more than 52 million Americans went online each day and there are significant differences in use between men and women, young and old, those of different races and ethnic groups, and those of different socio-economic status. A user typology can be built around two variables: the length of time a person has used the Internet and the frequency with which she or he logs on from home. We contend that use of e-mail helps people build their social networks by extending and maintaining friend and family relationships.
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Rimé et al. (1992) showed that most emotional experiences are shared with others shortly after they occurred. They proposed that social sharing represents an integral part of emotional experiences. The present chapter examines the generalizability of the phenomenon across various research procedures that overcome the limits of previous studies. Existing findings are extended to children and older populations, and individual and cultural differences are considered. Furthermore, the role of the intensity of the emotion and its relation with extent of social sharing is investigated. The chapter then addresses the contribution of social sharing to emotional recovery. Given that findings were generally not consistent with the view that sharing alleviates the memory of the shared emotional experience, the chapter discusses alternative potential effects and functions of social sharing.
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For a growing cohort of Americans Internet tools have become a significant conduitof their social life and work life. The surveys of the Pew Internet and American LifeProject track the diffusion of Internet technologies, revealing significant differences inuse between men and women, young and old, those of different races and ethnicgroups, and those of different socio-economic status. A user typology can be builtaround two variables: the length of time a person has used the Internet and the frequencywith which she or he logs on from home. We contend that use of email helpspeople build their social networks by extending and maintaining friend and familyrelationships
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Individuals differ considerably in their emotion experience. Some experience emotions in a highly differentiated manner, clearly distinguishing among a variety of negative and positive discrete emotions. Others experience emotions in a relatively undifferentiated manner, treating a range of like-valence terms as interchangeable. Drawing on self-regulation theory, we hypothesised that indivi-duals with highly differentiated emotion experience should be better able to regulate emotions than individuals with poorly differentiated emotion experience. In particular, we hypothesised that emotion differentiation and emotion regulation would be positively related in the context of intense negative emotions, where the press for emotion regulation is generally greatest. To test this hypothesis, parti-cipants' negative and positive emotion differentiation was assessed using a 14-day diary protocol. Participants' regulation of negative and positive emotions was assessed using laboratory measures. As predicted, negative emotion differentiation was positively related to the frequency of negative emotion regulation, particularly at higher levels of emotional intensity.
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Background: The scope of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, was unprecedented in the United States. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of acute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among residents of Manhattan five to eight weeks after the attacks. Methods: We used random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults living south of 110th Street in Manhattan. Participants were asked about demographic characteristics, exposure to the events of September 11, and psychological symptoms after the attacks. Results: Among 1008 adults interviewed, 7.5 percent reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current PTSD related to the attacks, and 9.7 percent reported symptoms consistent with current depression (with "current" defined as occurring within the previous 30 days). Among respondents who lived south of Canal Street (i.e., near the World Trade Center), the prevalence of PTSD was 20.0 percent. Predictors of PTSD in a multivariate model were Hispanic ethnicity, two or more prior stressors, a panic attack during or shortly after the events, residence south of Canal Street, and loss of possessions due to the events. Predictors of depression were Hispanic ethnicity, two or more prior stressors, a panic attack, a low level of social support, the death of a friend or relative during the attacks, and loss of a job due to the attacks. Conclusions: There was a substantial burden of acute PTSD and depression in Manhattan after the September 11 attacks. Experiences involving exposure to the attacks were predictors of current PTSD, and losses as a result of the events were predictors of current depression. In the aftermath of terrorist attacks, there may be substantial psychological morbidity in the population.
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Measures of emotional health and styles of responding to negative moods were obtained for 137 students 14 days before the Loma Prieta earthquake. A follow-up was done 10 days again 7 weeks after the earthquake to test predictions about which of the students would show the most enduring symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Regression analysis showed that students who, before the earthquake, already had elevated levels of depression and stress symptoms and a ruminative style of responding to their symptoms had more depression and stress symptoms for both follow-ups. Students who were exposed to more dangerous or difficult circumstances because of the earthquake also had elevated symptom levels 10 days after the earthquake. Similarly, students who, during the 10 days after the earthquake, had more ruminations about the earthquake were still more likely to have high levels of depressive and stress symptoms 7 weeks after the earthquake.
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In this article we examine the long-term effects of the sudden, unexpected loss of a spouse or child. In the spouse study, interviews were conducted with 39 individuals who had lost a spouse in a motor vehicle crash 4 to 7 years ago and with 39 matched controls. In the parent study, interviews were conducted with 41 parents who had lost a child in a crash and with 41 matched controls. Control respondents were matched to bereaved respondents case-by-case on the basis of sex, age, income, education, and number and ages of children. Significant differences between bereaved spouses and controls were revealed on several indicators of general functioning, including depression and other psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, psychological well-being, reactivity to good events, and future worries and concerns. For the most part, these differences persisted when variables such as present family income and present marital status were statistically controlled. Comparisons between bereaved and control parents also revealed significant differences on some measures of general functioning (especially depression), but these were not as pervasive as the differences obtained in the spouse study. Responses to questions about current thoughts and feelings suggest that the deceased continued to occupy the thoughts and conversations of bereaved spouses and parents. Moreover, a large percentage of respondents (from 30% to 85%, depending on the question), continued to ruminate about the accident or what might have been done to prevent it, and they appeared to be unable to accept, resolve, or find any meaning in the loss. Taken together, the data provide little support for traditional notions of recovery from the sudden, unexpected loss of a spouse or child.
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The purpose of this article is to determine whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons from potentially adverse effects of stressful events (buffering model). The review of studies is organized according to (a) whether a measure assesses support structure or function, and (b) the degree of specificity (vs. globality) of the scale. By structure we mean simply the existence of relationships, and by function we mean the extent to which one’s interpersonal relationships provide particular resources. Special attention is paid to methodological characteristics that are requisite for a fair comparison of the models. The review concludes that there is evidence consistent with both models. Evidence for a buffering model is found when the social support measure assesses the perceived availability of interpersonal resources that are responsive to the needs elicited by stressful events. Evidence for a main effect model is found when the support measure assesses a person’s degree of integration in a large social network. Both conceptualizations of social support are correct in some respects, but each represents a different process through which social support may affect well-being. Implications of these conclusions for theories of social support processes and for the design of preventive interventions are discussed.
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Cognitive-experiential self-theory integrates the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious by assuming the existence of two parallel, interacting modes of information processing: a rational system and an emotionally driven experiential system. Support for the theory is provided by the convergence of a wide variety of theoretical positions on two similar processing modes; by real-life phenomena--such as conflicts between the heart and the head; the appeal of concrete, imagistic, and narrative representations; superstitious thinking; and the ubiquity of religion throughout recorded history--and by laboratory research, including the prediction of new phenomena in heuristic reasoning.
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Can language use reflect personality style? Studies examined the reliability, factor structure, and validity of written language using a word-based, computerized text analysis program. Daily diaries from 15 substance abuse inpatients, daily writing assignments from 35 students, and journal abstracts from 40 social psychologists demonstrated good internal consistency for over 36 language dimensions. Analyses of the best 15 language dimensions from essays by 838 students yielded 4 factors that replicated across written samples from another 381 students. Finally, linguistic profiles from writing samples were compared with Thematic Apperception Test coding, self-reports, and behavioral measures from 79 students and with self-reports of a 5-factor measure and health markers from more than 1,200 students. Despite modest effect sizes, the data suggest that linguistic style is an independent and meaningful way of exploring personality.
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The purpose of these studies was to examine how women and men react and accommodate to gender-preferential language in e-mail messages. In Experiment 1, participants wrote messages to two assigned "netpals." These netpals were actually one of the experimenters. For each participant, one netpal used female-preferential language and the other used male-preferential language. Analyses revealed that the netpals' language style, and not the participants' gender, predicted the language used by participants in their e-mail replies. Female and male participants used the gender-preferential language that matched the language used by their netpals. In Experiment 2, the gender labels and language styles of netpals were independently manipulated. As before, linguistic style had the greatest impact on participants' language use. These results have implications for how people think about gendered behavior, and highlight how gendered language is constructed in social interaction.
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People who are not present at a traumatic event may also experience stress reactions. We assessed the immediate mental health effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Using random-digit dialing three to five days after September 11, we interviewed a nationally representative sample of 569 U.S. adults about their reactions to the terrorist attacks and their perceptions of their children's reactions. Forty-four percent of the adults reported one or more substantial stress symptoms; 91 percent had one or more symptoms to at least some degree. Respondents throughout the country reported stress syndromes. They coped by talking with others (98 percent), turning to religion (90 percent), participating in group activities (60 percent), and making donations (36 percent). Eighty-five percent of parents reported that they or other adults in the household had talked to their children about the attacks for an hour or more; 34 percent restricted their children's television viewing. Thirty-five percent of children had one or more stress symptoms, and 47 percent were worried about their own safety or the safety of loved ones. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, Americans across the country, including children, had substantial symptoms of stress. Even clinicians who practice in regions that are far from the recent attacks should be prepared to assist people with trauma-related symptoms of stress.
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The words people use in their daily lives can reveal important aspects of their social and psychological worlds. With advances in computer technology, text analysis allows researchers to reliably and quickly assess features of what people say as well as subtleties in their linguistic styles. Following a brief review of several text analysis programs, we summarize some of the evidence that links natural word use to personality, social and situational fluctuations, and psychological interventions. Of particular interest are findings that point to the psychological value of studying particles-parts of speech that include pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctives, and auxiliary verbs. Particles, which serve as the glue that holds nouns and regular verbs together, can serve as markers of emotional state, social identity, and cognitive styles.
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The September 11, 2001, attacks against the United States provide a unique opportunity to examine longitudinally the process of adjustment to a traumatic event on a national scale. To examine the degree to which demographic factors, mental and physical health history, lifetime exposure to stressful events, September 11-related experiences, and coping strategies used shortly after the attacks predict psychological outcomes over time. A national probability sample of 3496 adults received a Web-based survey; 2729 individuals (78% participation rate) completed it between 9 and 23 days (75% within 9 to 14 days) after the terrorist attacks. A random sample of 1069 panelists residing outside New York, NY, were drawn from the wave 1 sample (n = 2729) and received a second survey; 933 (87% participation rate) completed it approximately 2 months following the attacks. A third survey (n = 787) was completed approximately 6 months after the attacks. September 11-related symptoms of acute stress, posttraumatic stress, and global distress. Seventeen percent of the US population outside of New York City reported symptoms of September 11-related posttraumatic stress 2 months after the attacks; 5.8% did so at 6 months. High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.31), marital separation (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.06-6.14), pre-September 11 physician-diagnosed depression or anxiety disorder (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.33-2.56) or physical illness (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), severity of exposure to the attacks (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.11-1.55), and early disengagement from coping efforts (eg, giving up: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27-2.20; denial: OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64; and self-distraction: OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07-1.59). In addition to demographic and pre-September 11 health variables, global distress was associated with severity of loss due to the attacks (beta =.07; P =.008) and early coping strategies (eg, increased with denial: beta =.08; P =.005; and giving up: beta =.05; P =.04; and decreased with active coping: beta = -.08; P =.002). The psychological effects of a major national trauma are not limited to those who experience it directly, and the degree of response is not predicted simply by objective measures of exposure to or loss from the trauma. Instead, use of specific coping strategies shortly after an event is associated with symptoms over time. In particular, disengaging from coping efforts can signal the likelihood of psychological difficulties up to 6 months after a trauma.
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Before the opening of the new Munich International Airport and the termination of the old airport, children near both sites were recruited into aircraft-noise groups (aircraft noise at present or pending) and control groups with no aircraft noise (closely matched for socioeconomic status). A total of 326 children (mean age = 10.4 years) took part in three data-collection waves, one before and two after the switch-over of the airports. After the switch, long-term memory and reading were impaired in the noise group at the new airport. and improved in the formerly noise-exposed group at the old airport. Short-term memory also improved in the latter group after the old airport was closed. At the new airport, speech perception was impaired in the newly noise-exposed group. Mediational analyses suggest that poorer reading was not mediated by speech perception, and that impaired recall was in part mediated by reading.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks--gratitude, interest, love, and so forth--fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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The rapid growth of the Internet provides a wealth of new research opportunities for psychologists. Internet data collection methods, with a focus on self-report questionnaires from self-selected samples, are evaluated and compared with traditional paper-and-pencil methods. Six preconceptions about Internet samples and data quality are evaluated by comparing a new large Internet sample (N = 361,703) with a set of 510 published traditional samples. Internet samples are shown to be relatively diverse with respect to gender, socioeconomic status, geographic region, and age. Moreover, Internet findings generalize across presentation formats, are not adversely affected by nonserious or repeat responders, and are consistent with findings from traditional methods. It is concluded that Internet methods can contribute to many areas of psychology.
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Telling lies often requires creating a story about an experience or attitude that does not exist. As a result, false stories may be qualitatively different from true stories. The current project investigated the features of linguistic style that distinguish between true and false stories. In an analysis of five independent samples, a computer-based text analysis program correctly classified liars and truth-tellers at a rate of 67% when the topic was constant and a rate of 61% overall. Compared to truth-tellers, liars showed lower cognitive complexity, used fewer self-references and other-references, and used more negative emotion words.
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This study aimed to correlate testosterone levels with natural written language in 2 people undergoing testosterone therapy. Two participants, a man receiving treatment for loss of upper-body strength and a female-to-male transgendered individual, supplied records of injections over 1-2 years along with e-mails or journal entries as writing samples. Results showed that higher testosterone levels correlated with reduced use of words related to social connections. Language relating to anger, sexuality, and achievement was unrelated to testosterone levels. It appears that testosterone steers attention away from social connections but not necessarily toward concerns with aggression or sexual activity.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks - gratitude, interest, love, and so forth - fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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Research on talking about trauma as a means of coping typically relies on retrospective self-reports. This study analyzed Internet chat room conversations about the death of Princess Diana for 4 weeks after her death to begin to map the ways people naturally talk about shared disasters and to seek evidence of social stages of coping. In the 1st hours and days, people exhibited high levels of personal and emotional responses to the loss of Diana. Linguistic analyses revealed strong evidence of collective shared grief in the 1st week, with a shift from greater levels of collective language to individual language after the 1st week. Ratings of the chat-room transcripts by judges revealed a shift from largely compassionate to largely hostile comments over the 4-week period. Advantages and complications of Internet chat rooms as a data source are considered.
Chapter
We had to be off the streets and in our homes before it got dark… that was the law. If you weren’t and the security police caught you, something terrible could happen. One day you would be here, the next day you could be disappeared. Since the sun was just beginning to set, I thought I was in no danger. I went to the neighborhood store to buy a few vegetables for dinner. I was in there no more than 3 minutes. Since it was still light, I didn’t think I was in any danger. Shortly after I left, I heard the footsteps. I didn’t turn around because I didn’t want to give the impression that I was afraid. The faster I walked, the closer the footsteps seemed. I was almost home when two men in civilian clothes stepped in front of me and said I had to go with them. I told them that my mother and father were waiting for me, that I hadn’t done anything wrong. The next thing I remember I was at the police station. I could hear screams and loud thumps… the thumps sounded like a heavy blanket being beaten by a stick. “Would this happen to me?” I wondered. Then they took me into a small room and ordered me to remove my clothes. “Please,” I pleaded with them, “I haven’t done anything wrong.” My pleas went unheard, and I was ordered again to remove my clothes… but I didn’t. Then one of the men started to tear at my clothes—he was the first one who raped me. I don’t remember how many of them raped me; there were so many. In the morning, they told me I could go home, and they laughed. My clothes were torn and stained with blood. When I got home, my mother wept, but my father beat me. He said it was my fault; it was my fault that I was out at night.
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Clinicians have gained considerable knowledge about psychopathology and treatment but this knowledge is poorly systematized and hard to transmit. One way to organize clinical knowledge is to circumscribe a limited area and describe within it the interactions between personality dispositions, states of disorder, and treatment techniques. This report models such an approach by limiting disorder to stress response syndromes, personality to obsessional and hysterical neurotic styles, and treatment to focal dynamic psychotherapy. Within this domain, an information processing approach to working through conflicted ideas and feeling is developed. The result is a series of assertions about observable behavior and nuances of technique. Since these assertions are localized conceptually, they can be checked, revised, refuted, compared, or extended into other disorders, dispositions, and treatments.
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People who have lost a loved one often try to make some meaning of their loss. The authors explore the ways people try to make meaning of loss, the factors that predict difficulty in making meaning, and the emotional outcomes of finding meaning. They also contrast the process of finding meaning with finding some benefit in the loss, even if meaning cannot be found. Our discussion centers on a study of 205 bereaved people who were interviewed before their loss and 1, 6, 13, and 18 months after their loss. The authors draw conclusions from this work not only for bereavement theories but also for general theories of adjustment in social and personality psychology.
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People who have lost a loved one often try to make some meaning of their loss. The authors explore the ways people try to make meaning of loss, the factors that predict difficulty in making meaning, and the emotional outcomes of finding meaning. They also contrast the process of finding meaning with finding some benefit in the loss, even if meaning cannot be found. Our discussion centers on a study of 205 bereaved people who were interviewed before their loss and 1, 6, 13, and 18 months after their loss. The authors draw conclusions from this work not only for bereavement theories but also for general theories of adjustment in social and personality psychology.
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It is argued that this book (see record 1999-04118-000) contains some interesting overview-type chapters that identify one aspect of self-reports and that provide researchers with findings that either help them to design their questionnaires so that they obtain more veridical self-reports or at least help them to interpret self-report findings accurately. However, some chapters put heavy emphasis on self-report in medical contexts and clinical practice. Researchers who work in other domains of the behavioral and social sciences may be disappointed to find that they book does not contain, among others, chapters on self-reports of stereotypes, attitudes, evaluations, and self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Part I. Background Concepts and Issues: 1. Introduction: textual dimensions and relations 2. Situations and functions 3. Previous linguistic research on speech and writing Part II. Methodology: 4. Methodological overview of the study 5. Statistical analysis Part III. Dimensions and Relations in English: 6. Textual dimensions in speech and writing 7. Textual relations in speech and writing 8. Extending the description: variations within genres 9. Afterword: applying the model Appendices.
Article
A community-wide trauma leaves its mark on all aspects of the community. Following the death of 12 Texas A&M students who died as part of an annual bonfire ritual, linguistic analyses of student newspapers and changes in student health center visits were analyzed at both Texas A&M and the University of Texas at Austin. Newspaper reports in the first days after the accident were rich in emotional content and reflect an increase in both self- and collective focus. The coverage of the disaster decreased sharply in the weeks after the accident, became shorter on average, and grew distanced and intellectualized. Compared to news coverage from the University of Texas, the Texas A&M newspaper evidenced lower levels of negative emotions and death-related themes. Consistent with a social stages of coping model, the linguistic shifts covaried with increased rates of illness. However, within two months of the accident, the health of A&M students increased dramatically compared to levels prior to the accident. Implications for the social stages of coping in newsprint and for the collective health in a unique community are discussed.
Article
Proposes a theory of cognitive adaptation to threatening events. It is argued that the adjustment process centers around 3 themes: A search for meaning in the experience, an attempt to regain mastery over the event in particular and over life more generally, and an effort to restore self-esteem through self-enhancing evaluations. These themes are discussed with reference to cancer patients' coping efforts. It is maintained that successful adjustment depends, in a large part, on the ability to sustain and modify illusions that buffer not only against present threats but also against possible future setbacks. (84 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
During his years as mayor of New York City, Rudolph Giuliani was perceived as undergoing changes in personality as a result of a number of personal crises and, later, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. One method by which to study individual differences is to explore the natural use of language of an individual. Giuliani's use of language was measured from 35 of his press conferences between his election in 1993 and late 2001. Significant changes in his linguistic style were found in the ways he identified with others, expressed emotions, and exhibited cognitive complexity. Implications for using an analysis of linguistic styles to understand personality are discussed.
Article
The Handbook of Bereavement Research provides a broad view of diverse contemporary approaches to bereavement, examining both normal adaptation and complex manifestations of grief. In this volume, leading interdisciplinary scholars focus on 3 important themes in bereavement research: consequences, coping, and care. In exploring the consequences of bereavement, authors examine developmental factors that influence grief both for the individual and the family at different phases of the life cycle. In exploring coping, they describe new empirical studies about how people can and do cope with grief, without professional intervention. Until recently, intervention for the bereaved has not been scientifically guided and has become the subject of challenging differences of opinion and approach. Chapters in the care section of the volume critically examine interventions to date and provide guidance for assessment and more theoretically and empirically guided treatment strategies. The Handbook provides an up-to-date comprehensive review of scientific knowledge about bereavement in an authoritative yet accessible way that will be essential reading for researchers, practitioners, and health care professionals in the 21st century. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There is a consensus among clinicians treating patients who have experienced a trauma that a number of common themes emerge. Using a manual that codified ten of these themes, their frequency was measured in the case material of 30 psychotherapy patients treated for posttraumatic stress disorders after bereavement or personal injury. The themes found to be most prominent in bereavement cases included sadness over loss and discomfort over discovered personal vulnerability. In the personal-injury cases, fear of a repetition of the event and feelings of responsibility emerged most frequently. Rage at the source of the trauma figured prominently in both bereavement and personal-injury cases.
Article
Did Americans change following the September 11 terrorist attacks? We provide a tentative answer with respect to the positive traits included in the Values in Action Classification of Strengths and measured with a self-report questionnaire available on-line and completed by 4,817 respondents. When scores for individuals completing the survey in the 2 months immediately after September 11 were compared with scores for those individuals who completed the survey before September 11, seven character strengths showed increases: gratitude, hope, kindness, leadership, love, spirituality, and teamwork. Ten months after September 11, these character strengths were still elevated, although to a somewhat lesser degree than immediately following the attacks.
Article
Two projects explored the links between language use and aging. In the first project, written or spoken text samples from disclosure studies from over 3,000 research participants from 45 different studies representing 21 laboratories in 3 countries were analyzed to determine how people change in their use of 14 text dimensions as a function of age. A separate project analyzed the collected works of 10 well-known novelists, playwrights, and poets who lived over the last 500 years. Both projects found that with increasing age, individuals use more positive and fewer negative affect words, use fewer self-references, use more future-tense and fewer past-tense verbs, and demonstrate a general pattern of increasing cognitive complexity. Implications for using language as a marker of personality among current and historical texts are discussed.