In male golden hamsters, agonistic behavior matures during puberty, changing from play fighting to adult-like aggression. In addition, this transition is accelerated by repeated social subjugation early in puberty. However, little is known about the development of agonistic behavior in females. In the present study, we compared the development of agonistic behavior in male and female golden hamsters. Furthermore, we also tested the effects of repeated social subjugation on the development of agonistic behavior during puberty. Hamsters were tested for agonistic behavior in the presence of a smaller intruder at different intervals during puberty. Several observations were made. First, the frequency of attacks remained stable in females, while varying in males. Second, the transition from play fighting to adult-like aggression occurred at earlier time periods in females than in males. Finally, a clear transitional period marked by attacks focused on the flanks was observable in males around mid-puberty. However, this transitional period was not apparent in females. In addition, juvenile females were exposed to aggressive adult males or females. In both cases, repeated exposure to stress had no statistically significant effect on the development of agonistic behavior. After 2 weeks of subjugation, exposure to aggressive adults had no effect on serum cortisol levels, indicating that juvenile females habituate to repeated social stress. These data show significant sex differences in the development of agonistic behavior and adaptation to repeated stress in juvenile golden hamsters.