Second-Impact Syndrome

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
The Journal of School Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.11). 11/2004; 20(5):262-7. DOI: 10.1177/10598405040200050401
Source: PubMed


Sports-related injuries are among the more common causes of injury in adolescents that can result in concussion and its sequelae, postconcussion syndrome and second-impact syndrome (SIS). Students who experience multiple brain injuries within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks) may suffer catastrophic or fatal reactions related to SIS. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to the dangers of SIS, and current return-to-play guidelines may be too lenient to protect a student from SIS. Any student with signs of a concussion should receive medical evaluation and not be allowed to return to play in the current game or practice. The role of the school nurse includes being knowledgeable about management of head injuries and return-to-play guidelines, providing follow-up for athletes who have concussions, and providing education on prevention and management of head injuries.

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    • "Moreover, a second hit to a concussed, vulnerable brain can, in rare cases, have a catastrophic outcome with permanent brain damage or even death (known as the second impact syndrome) [28]. Several repeated concussions over time can in later years cumulate in irreversible brain damage with devastating psychological and cognitive decline, a pathological condition now defined as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) [29,30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrauma or injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are a serious public health problem worldwide. Approximately 75% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are concussions or other mild TBI (mTBI) forms. Evaluation of concussion injury today is limited to an assessment of behavioral symptoms, often with delay and subject to motivation. Hence, there is an urgent need for an accurate chemical measure in biofluids to serve as a diagnostic tool for invisible brain wounds, to monitor severe patient trajectories, and to predict survival chances. Although a number of neurotrauma marker candidates have been reported, the broad spectrum of TBI limits the significance of small cohort studies. Specificity and sensitivity issues compound the development of a conclusive diagnostic assay, especially for concussion patients. Thus, the neurotrauma field currently has no diagnostic biofluid test in clinical use.Content: We discuss the challenges of discovering new and validating identified neurotrauma marker candidates using proteomics-based strategies, including targeting, selection strategies and the application of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and their potential impact to the neurotrauma field. Many studies use TBI marker candidates based on literature reports, yet progress in genomics and proteomics have started to provide neurotrauma protein profiles. Choosing meaningful marker candidates from such 'long lists' is still pending, as only few can be taken through the process of preclinical verification and large scale translational validation. Quantitative mass spectrometry targeting specific molecules rather than random sampling of the whole proteome, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), offers an efficient and effective means to multiplex the measurement of several candidates in patient samples, thereby omitting the need for antibodies prior to clinical assay design. Sample preparation challenges specific to TBI are addressed. A tailored selection strategy combined with a multiplex screening approach is helping to arrive at diagnostically suitable candidates for clinical assay development. A surrogate marker test will be instrumental for critical decisions of TBI patient care and protection of concussion victims from repeated exposures that could result in lasting neurological deficits.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Clinical Proteomics
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    • "Permanent neurological damage can occur in severe TBI (Lippert- Gruner, Kuchta, Hellmich, & Klug, 2006). Multiple TBIs (including mTBI) have been linked to poorer prognosis, an increased likelihood of persistent symptoms in the future, and ''second-impact syndrome'' (Cobb & Battin, 2004; Corrigan & Deutschle, Jr., 2008). Second-impact syndrome can include lasting cognitive effects and in some cases may prove fatal; younger persons and athletes are particularly susceptible to these risks (Cobb & Battin, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in the United States, and has been given particular attention in the veteran population. Recent accounts have estimated TBI incidence rates as high as 20 % among US veterans who served in Afghanistan or Iraq, and many of these veterans experience a host of co-morbid concerns, including psychiatric complaints (such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder), sleep disturbance, and substance abuse which may warrant referral to behavioral health specialists working in primary care settings. This paper reviews many common behavioral health concerns co-morbid with TBI, and suggests areas in which behavioral health specialists may assess, intervene, and help to facilitate holistic patient care beyond the acute phase of injury. The primary focus is on sequelae common to mild and moderate TBI which may more readily present in primary care clinics.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
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    • "sorular sorulmalıdır, -Baş ağrısında, gereksinim duyulduğunda her dört saatte bir asetominofen içeren analjezikler verilmelidir, -Hastaya en az 24 saat sedatifler, uyku ilaçları ya da alkol içeren içecekler verilmemelidir, -Hastanın en az 48 saat için yorucu aktivitelere katılmasına izin verilmemeli, otomobil kullanma, ağır cihazları kullanma, teması gerektiren spor aktivitelerinde bulunma ve sıcak banyo yapmaktan kaçınması bildirilmelidir, -Komplikasyon belirti ve bulguları görüldüğü anda, hemen sağlık ekibine bildirilmelidir. Görülebilecek komplikasyon belirti ve bulguları; Uykuya eğilim, Kulak ve burundan akıntı gelmesi (BOS sıvısı), Bulantı ve/ veya kusma, Baş ağrısı, ense sertliği, Epileptik nöbetler, Görme güçlüğü (bulanık görme vb.) Davranış değişiklikleri (hassasiyet, huzursuzluk, öfke vb.) Motor sorunlar (yürümede güçlük, heceleri karıştırarak konuşmak, kol ve bacaklarda güçsüzlük hissi vb.) Duyusal bozukluklar (hissizlik, uyuşma hissi vb.) Kalp hızında azalma, olarak sıralanabilir (Arbour, 2006; Cobb ve Batin, 2004; Eti Aslan, 2004; Kerr ve Crago, 2004; Pryor, 2004; Wright, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Head trauma with its high morbidity and mortality ratios has become an important health problem nowadays. More than half of the traumatic deaths are caused by head trauma. In our country, due to the undeniably high rates of traffic accidents, incidents of falling-from-high, natural disasters and incidents of being shot; it is very critical to
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