Novel calcium phosphate formula for filling bone defects. Initial in vivo long-term results
Up to now hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) ceramics have been routinely sintered at temperatures between 1100 degrees and 1500 degrees C. Our new calcium ceramic is fabricated by a sol-gel process at 200 degrees C. The aim of this investigation was to test the biodegradation of and the induction of bone formation by this material.
Eighteen 1-year-old Goettingen minipigs were divided into three groups. Critical size defects (>5 cm(3)) in the mandible were treated differently in all three animals (group 1: filling with 40% beta-TCP plus 60% HA, group 2: pure HA was applied, group 3 served as controls: only gelatinous material was given). Macroscopic and microscopic investigations of the former defects were made 8 months postoperatively. RESULTS. In groups 1 and 2 biodegradation of more than 93% of the new calcium phosphate formula was found 8 months postoperatively and considered to be very good. No difference was observed between pure HA (group 2) and the combination of HA and beta-TCP (group 1). In both groups complete bone formation was seen macroscopically in the former defects. In the control group only incomplete bone formation with 48.4% of the defect area was noted. This difference was significant ( p<0.001).
The new calcium phosphate formula made by a sol-gel method at 120 degrees C seems to be suitable for filling bone defects and is of interest for orthopedic surgery, traumatology, craniomaxillofacial surgery, and dentistry.
Available from: Shahram Ghanaati
- "Most in vivo studies on pure BONITmatrix R have exhibited in situ compatibility in human and animal dental applications   . Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether this novel calcium phosphate/SiO 2 – xerogel collagen composite affects human osteoblast cell (HOB) morphology/function in vitro and its biocompatibility in vivo. "
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ABSTRACT: In the present study we assessed the biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo of a low-temperature sol-gel-manufactured SiO(2)-based bone graft substitute. Human primary osteoblasts and the osteoblastic cell line, MG63, cultured on the SiO(2) biomatrix in monoculture retained their osteoblastic morphology and cellular functionality in vitro. The effect of the biomaterial in vivo and its vascularization potential was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats and demonstrated both rapid vascularization and good integration within the peri-implant tissue. Scaffold degradation was progressive during the first month after implantation, with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive macrophages being present and promoting scaffold degradation from an early stage. This manuscript describes successful osteoblastic growth promotion in vitro and a promising biomaterial integration and vasculogenesis in vivo for a possible therapeutic application of this biomatrix in future clinical studies.
Available from: dentaurum.de
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ABSTRACT: In an initial preliminary study, the applicability of a new high-porosity hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic for obliterating large open mastoid cavities was proven and tested in an animal model (bulla of guinea pig).
NanoBone, a highly porous matrix consisting of 76% hydroxyl apatite and 24% silicone dioxide fabricated in a sol-gel technique, was administered unilaterally into the opened bullae of 30 guinea pigs. In each animal, the opposite bulla was filled with Bio-Oss, a bone substitute consisting of a portion of mineral bovine bone. Histologic evaluations were performed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 12 weeks after the implantation.
After an initial phase in which the ceramic granules were surrounded by inflammatory cells (1-2 wk), there were increasing signs of vascularization. Osteoneogenesis and-at the same time-resorption of the HA ceramic were observed after the third week. No major difference in comparison to the bovine bone material could be found.
Our results confirm the favorable qualities of the new ceramic reported in association with current maxillofacial literature. Conventional HA granules used for mastoid obliteration to date often showed problems with prolonged inflammatory reactions and, finally, extrusions. In contrast to those ceramics, the new material seems to induce more osteoneogenesis and undergoes early resorption probably due to its high porosity. Overall, it is similar to the bovine bone substance tested on the opposite ear in each animal. Further clinical studies may reveal whether NanoBone can be an adequate material for obliterating open mastoid cavities in patients.
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: Biomaterials for reconstruction of bony defects of the skull comprise of osteosynthetic materials applied after osteotomies or traumatic fractures and materials to fill bony defects which result from malformation, trauma or tumor resections. Other applications concern functional augmentations for dental implants or aesthetic augmentations in the facial region.
For ostheosynthesis, mini- and microplates made from titanium alloys provide major advantages concerning biocompatibility, stability and individual fitting to the implant bed. The necessity of removing asymptomatic plates and screws after fracture healing is still a controversial issue. Risks and costs of secondary surgery for removal face a low rate of complications (due to corrosion products) when the material remains in situ. Resorbable osteosynthesis systems have similar mechanical stability and are especially useful in the growing skull.
The huge variety of biomaterials for the reconstruction of bony defects makes it difficult to decide which material is adequate for which indication and for which site. The optimal biomaterial that meets every requirement (e.g. biocompatibility, stability, intraoperative fitting, product safety, low costs etc.) does not exist. The different material types are (autogenic) bone and many alloplastics such as metals (mainly titanium), ceramics, plastics and composites. Future developments aim to improve physical and biological properties, especially regarding surface interactions. To date, tissue engineered bone is far from routine clinical application.
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