Article

Coping With Distress by Eating or Drinking: Role of Trait Urgency and Expectancies.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.75). 10/2004; 18(3):269-74. DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.3.269
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The authors propose that trait urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) is a risk factor for both alcohol abuse and bulimic symptoms, that disorder-specific expectancies influence whether one engages in one behavior or the other, and that expectancies moderate urgency's influence on those behaviors. Cross-sectional findings were consistent with the model. Problems from alcohol use were comorbid with binge eating and purging. Trait urgency was associated with both behaviors. Alcohol expectancies were associated with drinking levels and with problem drinking, but not with eating. Eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, but not with alcohol use or problems. Urgency's effect on binge eating was moderated by expectancies, but its effect on alcohol use and problem drinking was not.

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    • "Moreover, multiple studies have found that sensation seeking is significantly associated with disinhibited eating behaviors (Carrard, Crépin, Ceschi, Golay, & Van der Linden, 2012; Claes, Vandereycken, & Vertommen, 2005; Davis & Fischer, 2013; Fischer, Anderson, & Smith, 2004; Fischer, Smith, & Anderson, 2003; Fischer, Smith, & Cyders, 2008; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). While research to date on the role of positive urgency in disinhibited eating and food addiction is lacking (Cyders & Smith, 2008), negative urgency's role is extensively supported in bulimia nervosa (Carrard et al., 2012; Claes et al., 2005; Cyders & Smith, 2008; Davis & Fischer, 2013; Fischer et al., 2004, 2003, 2008; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). Negative urgency's role in disinhibited eating, and potentially food addiction, may relate to affect; individuals are more likely to act impulsively when under distress in hopes of reducing negative affect (Tice, Bratslavsky, & Baumeister, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Food addiction is the clinical occurrence in which individuals develop physical and psychological dependencies on high fat, high sugar, and highly palatable foods. Past research has demonstrated a number of similarities between food addiction and drug use disorders including the activation of specific brain regions and neurotransmitters, disrupted neuronal circuitry, and behavioral indicators of addiction such as continued use despite negative consequences. The present study examined the role of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in food addiction as both play salient roles in drug use disorders. Poisson regression analyses using data from 878 undergraduate students revealed negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when under distress, and emotion dysregulation positively predicted symptom count on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2009) whereas a lack of premeditation negatively predicted symptom count (all ps<0.05). Future research is needed to confirm precursors to eating episodes in food addiction, elucidate causal mechanisms, and support an explanatory model of food addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Eating behaviors
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    • "In particular, it is suggested that realizing an urge could bring pleasant experience to an individual, yet, the failure in managing the incessant urges could potentially lead to the occurrence of a wide range of addictive behaviours (American Psychiatic Association 2000). These behaviours include cigarette craving (Billieux et al. 2007a), binge eating (Fischer et al. 2004), pathological gambling (Smith et al. 2007), and problematic mobile phone use (Billieux et al. 2007b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Social networking sites (SNSs) have evolved as the centre for daily social interactions. However, some users experience difficulties in managing their incessant urges to use the site, and result in spending excessive amount of time on the platform. While the research on the dark side of SNS use is gaining momentum, the theoretical understanding of this issue remains limited. In this study, we aim to advance the literature by investigating the development of excessive use of SNSs through the prism of urge. More specifically, we studied the anticipated emotions as the drivers of urge to use SNS. We also explored the impact of internal (i.e., self-control) and external (i.e., accessibility) factor on the urge to use and its transition to excessive use of SNSs. We will test the model with active SNS users using structural equation modelling. We believe that current work will enrich the existing literature on the dark side of SNS use, and raise the awareness in the community regarding this emerging phenomenon.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2015
    • "In particular, it is suggested that realizing an urge could bring pleasant experience to an individual, yet, the failure in managing the incessant urges could potentially lead to the occurrence of a wide range of addictive behaviours (American Psychiatic Association 2000). These behaviours include cigarette craving (Billieux et al. 2007a), binge eating (Fischer et al. 2004), pathological gambling (Smith et al. 2007), and problematic mobile phone use (Billieux et al. 2007b). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Social networking sites (SNSs) have evolved as the centre for daily social interactions. However, some users experience difficulties in managing their incessant urges to use the site, and result in spending excessive amount of time on the platform. While the research on the dark side of SNS use is gaining momentum, the theoretical understanding of this issue remains limited. In this study, we aim to advance the literature by investigating the development of excessive use of SNSs through the prism of urge. More specifically, we studied the anticipated emotions as the drivers of urge to use SNS. We also explored the impact of internal (i.e., self-control) and external (i.e., accessibility) factor on the urge to use and its transition to excessive use of SNSs. We will test the model with active SNS users using structural equation modelling. We believe that current work will enrich the existing literature on the dark side of SNS use, and raise the awareness in the community regarding this emerging phenomenon.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2015
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