Identification of an Sp factor-dependent promoter in GCET, a gene expressed at high levels in germinal center B cells
Allergy Division, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Molecular Immunology
(Impact Factor: 2.97).
12/2004; 41(12):1145-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2004.06.031
Antigen-stimulated B lymphocytes undergo genetic and phenotypic changes in germinal centers (GCs), including affinity maturation of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and Ig heavy chain isotype switching. Expression of the Germinal Center Expressed Transcript (GCET) gene is up-regulated in murine GC B cells. The human homolog of GCET, HGAL/GCET2, is an important prognostic marker for staging lymphomas derived from GCs. To identify mechanisms that control cell type-specific transcription of GCET, we localized promoter sequences using S1 nuclease protection and functional assays. Sequences comprising a TATA-less promoter were localized to a short region upstream of multiple mRNA start sites. In functional assays, the promoter is active in cells irrespectively of endogenous GCET gene expression. In vitro binding assays identified a non-consensus binding site for Sp factors near sites of transcriptional initiation. The site binds Spl and Sp3 in nuclear extracts and recombinant Spl in vitro, and is required for full promoter function in transient promoter assays. Activation of the promoter by Spl or Sp3 in Spl/3-deficient cells was largely dependent on the Sp site. Together, these data provide the first analysis of regulatory modules necessary for GCET expression, a model for GC B cell-specific transcription.
Available from: Nataly Manjarrez Orduño
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ABSTRACT: It is becoming increasingly clear that the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of B cells to plasma cells involves the integration of a variety of intracellular signals provided by receptors of both the adaptive and innate immune system. The cross-linking of the surface molecule CD38 induces calcium mobilization, protein phosphorylation and NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus, ultimately leading to proliferation and isotype switching toward IgG1. Here we describe (a) the effect on B cell activation of stimulating through both CD38 and Toll-like receptors 4, 7 and 9; and (b) that CD38 cross-linking increases the number of proliferating cells and the rate of proliferation in LPS-stimulated B cells by a Bruton's tyrosine kinase- and protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. In contrast, CD38 cross-linking reduces the number of cells committed to IgM plasma cell differentiation as measured by the number of CD138+ cells, antibody secretion, and the expression of PAX5, Bcl6 and Blimp-1. Since a putative ligand for CD38 is expressed by germinal center follicular dendritic cells, and CD38 expression is down-regulated in germinal center B cells, we speculate that CD38 might participate in the outcome of post-germinal center antibody responses.
Available from: Xiaoyu Jiang
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ABSTRACT: Human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) and LIM domain only-2 (LMO2) are proteins highly expressed in germinal center (GC) B lymphocytes. HGAL and LMO2 are also expressed in GC-derived lymphomas and distinguish biologically distinct subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) associated with improved survival. However, little is known about their regulation. PRDM1/Blimp1 is a master regulator of terminal B cell differentiation and may also function as a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of DLBCL, where it is frequently inactivated by mutations and deletions. We now demonstrate that both HGAL and LMO2 are directly regulated by the transcription repressor PRDM1. In vivo studies demonstrate that PRDM1 directly binds to the recognition sites within the upstream promoters of both HGAL and LMO2. PRDM1 binding suppresses endogenous protein and mRNA levels of HGAL and LMO2. In addition, promoter analysis reveals that site-specific binding of PRDM1 to the promoters is capable of repressing transcriptional activity. This inhibitory effect of PRDM1 suggests that it has a key role in the loss of HGAL and LMO2 expression upon differentiation of GC B cells to plasma cells and may also contribute to absence of HGAL and LMO2 expression in post-GC lymphoid tumors.
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