The Use of a Combination of Galectin-3 and Thyroid Peroxidase for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 11/2004; 122(4):524-31. DOI: 10.1309/UUQT-E505-PTN5-QJ7M
Source: PubMed


In this retrospective histologic study, galectin-3 had a sensitivity of 92% (22/24) for papillary thyroid carcinoma and 44% (4/9) for follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) had a sensitivity of 50% (12/24) for papillary and 11% (1/11) for follicular carcinoma. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO had a sensitivity of 96% (23/24) for papillary and 44% (4/9) for follicular carcinoma. From a prognostic standpoint, of patients whose papillary carcinomas expressed both markers, all became free of disease. Of those whose papillary carcinomas expressed galectin-3 but not TPO, 57% (4/7) became free of disease, 29% (2/7) had persistent disease, and 14% (1/7) had progressive disease. This study confirms previous observations that galectin-3 alone is highly sensitive for papillary carcinoma but not adequately sensitive for follicular carcinoma. TPO alone is not adequately sensitive for the evaluation of any thyroid lesion. The combination of galectin-3 and TPO is complementary as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with papillary carcinoma.

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    • "Scoring of immunohistochemistry was based on two parameters: intensity of immunoreactivity and the exact location of immunoreaction. The immunostaining intensity was scored using the following semi-quantitative scale: 1) -, no reactivity (no staining or weak staining less than 5% of the target cells), 2) +, cases presented specific staining of more than 5% of the target cells, regardless of staining intensity, were scored as positive for c-Jun, p73, Casp-9 or N-ras[22]. "
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    • "Several markers have been investigated on aspiration biopsy material and histologic specimens such as CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CK 903, CITED1, Ret oncoprotein, CD 44, CD 57, cyclin D1 and p27. The findings were generally encouraging and promising although some studies demonstrated inconclusive or conflicting results [3,5,6,8,9,12,13,17-23]. "
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    • "HBME1, CK19, CD26/DPPIV, TPO and c-met have also been reported to be useful markers for improving the preoperative characterisation of thyroid nodules (De Micco et al, 1994, 1999; Ruco et al, 2001; Aratake et al, 2002; Rosai, 2003; Maruta et al, 2004; Mechanick, 2004; Weber et al, 2004; Papotti et al, 2005; Prasad et al, 2005; Saggiorato et al, 2005; de Matos et al, 2005). Among the aforementioned molecules, TPO is the largest preoperatively investigated tumour marker with a high overall accuracy (De Micco et al, 1994, 1999; Christensen et al, 2000; Weber et al, 2004 "
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