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Appearance of high-frequency alpha band with disappearance of low-frequency alpha band in EEG is produced during voluntary abdominal breathing in an eyes-closed condition

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of voluntary abdominal breathing (VAB) on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 22 healthy subjects. VAB was characterized by prolonged rhythmic contraction of abdominal muscles for 20 min in an eyes-closed condition. The breathing rate was instructed to be very slow, i.e., 3-4 breaths/min (inspiratory time for 6-8s and expiratory time for 9-12s). A low-frequency alpha band appeared immediately after eye closing, but it later disappeared and was replaced by a new development of a high-frequency alpha band 4-5 min after the onset of VAB. The subjects had a feeling of vigor-activity with a tendency of reduced anxiety during and/or after VAB, as assessed by POMS and STAI questionnaire scores. On the other hand, during resting in the eye-closed condition, the disappearance of the low-frequency alpha band was replaced by the occurrence of a theta/delta band. The subjects became drowsy in this condition. We therefore conclude that the increase in high-frequency alpha activity is linked to the state of vigor-activity with a tendency of reduced anxiety. Since the urinary serotonergic level significantly increased after the VAB, we suggest that the serotonergic neurons within the brain may produce the changes in the EEG patterns.

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... 10 Resting-state EEG alpha activity is increased during eye-closed conditions compared to eye-open conditions, 11,12 suggesting that the resting-state alpha activity with eyes closed reflects the baseline state of the brain. The appearance of the high-alpha band (10)(11)(12)(13) indicates increased relaxation and a lessening of tension in a wakeful resting condition. 13 Additionally, the EEG alpha wave is known to occur predominantly at the visual cortex, and is associated with the inhibition of sensory stimulation. ...
... The appearance of the high-alpha band (10)(11)(12)(13) indicates increased relaxation and a lessening of tension in a wakeful resting condition. 13 Additionally, the EEG alpha wave is known to occur predominantly at the visual cortex, and is associated with the inhibition of sensory stimulation. 14 The functionality of sensory gating has been demonstrated during the oddball task in SCZ. 15 The auditory paradigm is a reliable cognitive task for investigating sensory modulation, such as cognitive attention and inhibition, because the experimental conditioning is easy and because this paradigm can be designed specifically for studying SCZ. ...
... Resting EEG was recorded with eyes closed for 5 min. Data were reanalyzed using Matlab 2016 software (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA), including a fast Fourier transform with a 1-50-Hz band-pass filter to calculate absolute power: delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), lowfrequency alpha (8-10 Hz), high-frequency alpha (10-12 Hz), lowfrequency beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18), high-frequency beta (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and gamma (30-50 Hz) signals. Artifacts exceeding AE100 μV were excluded at all electrode sites. ...
... They have discussed that Tanden breathing causes an increase in serotonin levels in the brain. Fumoto et al. (2004) examined the effects of Tanden breathing at 3-4 cycles/min (cpm) (inhalation for 6-8 s and exhalation for 9-12 s) on electroencephalogram (EEG) parameters and serotonin levels in twenty-two healthy participants (aged 21-54 years). In the experiment, EMG was recorded to monitor abdominal muscle contraction (near the right anterior superior iliac spine), through which participants were able to observe and confirm the contraction of the abdominal muscles by viewing the EMG signal on an oscilloscope. ...
... No such changes were observed at rest alone. Because urinary serotonin levels increased significantly after abdominal breathing, Fumoto et al. (2004) concluded that the activity of serotonin neurons in the brain elicited such EEG changes. ...
... In addition, Tanden breathing induces activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) in accordance with increase in whole blood serotonin levels. Yu et al. (2011) examined the effects of Tanden breathing at roughly the same 3-4 breaths/min rate previously set by Fumoto et al. (2004) on hemodynamic changes in the PFC using near-infrared spectroscopy, EEG, and whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels. Fifteen healthy volunteers (mean age = 38 years) were examined during a 20-min session of Tanden breathing. ...
Article
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This article provides an overview of the history of the Japanese Society of Biofeedback Research (JSBR) and presents some of its recent advances. Most of the research papers published in the JSBR journal (Biofeedback Kenkyu) have been written in Japanese, and therefore have had very few opportunities to reach global readers. We would like to present some of important findings previously published there. First, we present the history of the JSBR. Secondly, we will focus on paced breathing, which is instrumental in achieving relaxation in heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF). We will look back on the origin of slow-paced breathing in Japan, that could be attributed to the concept of Tanden breathing (abdominal paced breathing) practiced in Zen meditation. Thirdly, we will introduce some of the current research progresses of JSBR, especially focusing on the development of a non-contact sensing technology and relaxation device. Finally, we will explain about a very recent trial, the “Suu-Haa” Relaxation Technique, which we hope may be useful for helping people cope with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) crisis.
... 10 Resting-state EEG alpha activity is increased during eye-closed conditions compared to eye-open conditions, 11,12 suggesting that the resting-state alpha activity with eyes closed reflects the baseline state of the brain. The appearance of the high-alpha band (10)(11)(12)(13) indicates increased relaxation and a lessening of tension in a wakeful resting condition. 13 Additionally, the EEG alpha wave is known to occur predominantly at the visual cortex, and is associated with the inhibition of sensory stimulation. ...
... The appearance of the high-alpha band (10)(11)(12)(13) indicates increased relaxation and a lessening of tension in a wakeful resting condition. 13 Additionally, the EEG alpha wave is known to occur predominantly at the visual cortex, and is associated with the inhibition of sensory stimulation. 14 The functionality of sensory gating has been demonstrated during the oddball task in SCZ. 15 The auditory paradigm is a reliable cognitive task for investigating sensory modulation, such as cognitive attention and inhibition, because the experimental conditioning is easy and because this paradigm can be designed specifically for studying SCZ. ...
... Resting EEG was recorded with eyes closed for 5 min. Data were reanalyzed using Matlab 2016 software (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA), including a fast Fourier transform with a 1-50-Hz band-pass filter to calculate absolute power: delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), lowfrequency alpha (8-10 Hz), high-frequency alpha (10-12 Hz), lowfrequency beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18), high-frequency beta (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and gamma (30-50 Hz) signals. Artifacts exceeding AE100 μV were excluded at all electrode sites. ...
Article
Aim Electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha activity during resting state reflects the ‘readiness’ of an individual to respond to the environment, this includes the performance of cognitive processes. Alpha activity is reported to be attenuated in schizophrenia. Understanding the interaction between alpha activity during rest and when cognitively engaged may provide insights to the neural circuitry which is dysfunctional in schizophrenia. This study investigated the changes of alpha activity between resting state and cognitive engagement in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Thirty‐four patients with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls were recruited. EEG was performed in the resting state and during an auditory P300 task. All experimental procedures followed the relevant institutional guidelines and regulations. Results In schizophrenia, high‐frequency alpha activity was reduced in the resting state. High‐frequency alpha source density was decreased in both the resting‐state and a P300 task condition in patients, compared to healthy participants. Healthy controls, but not patients with schizophrenia, showed a reduction in high‐frequency alpha source density during the P300 task compared to the resting state. The negative correlation between high‐frequency alpha source density in the resting state and positive symptoms was significant. Conclusions High‐frequency alpha activity in patients with schizophrenia and its unsuccessful reduction during cognitive processing may be biological markers of schizophrenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Seven studies (Stark et al., 2000;Edmonds et al., 2009;Tsuji, 2010;Park and Park, 2012;Lin et al., 2014;Van Diest et al., 2014;Critchley et al., 2015) dealt with slow paced breathing. Five studies investigated the effects of HRV Biofeedback Siepmann et al., 2008;Sakakibara et al., 2013;Gruzelier et al., 2014;Gross et al., 2016), two studies (Fumoto et al., 2004;Yu et al., 2011) analyzed the effects of Zen Tanden Breathing, and one (Kharya et al., 2014) investigated Prana-Yoga Breathing. ...
... Four studies consistently found an association between neurophysiological parameters and psychological/behavioral outcomes. Fumoto et al. (2004) found that voluntary abdominal breathing (Zen Tanden Breathing) at 3-4 b/min significantly reduced alpha peak at 10 Hz at the EEG and induced significantly higher alpha2 activity (10-13 Hz) in the parietal areas as compared to spontaneous breathing. At a subjective level, participants reported improved vigor-activity in the Profile of Mood States (McNair et al., 1971) subscale scores, and reduced (Spielberger et al., 1983) (even if the between-condition score difference was not significant). ...
... When considering the central nervous system, slow breathing techniques were often paralleled by increases of alpha and decreases of theta power (Fumoto et al., 2004;Yu et al., 2011;Park and Park, 2012), when considering scalp EEG activity, a finding that may reflect the brain "idle" state at rest (Ben-Simon et al., 2008) and the synchronization in the Default Mode Network (DMN) (Knyazev et al., 2011). Measured with by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Yu et al. (2011) reported increased levels of oxygenated hemoglobin in the anterior part of the prefrontal cortex. ...
Article
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Background: The psycho-physiological changes in brain-body interaction observed in most of meditative and relaxing practices rely on voluntary slowing down of breath frequency. However, the identification of mechanisms linking breath control to its psychophysiological effects is still under debate. This systematic review is aimed at unveiling psychophysiological mechanisms underlying slow breathing techniques (<10 breaths/minute) and their effects on healthy subjects. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, using keywords related to both breathing techniques and to their psychophysiological outcomes, focusing on cardio-respiratory and central nervous system, has been conducted. From a pool of 2,461 abstracts only 15 articles met eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The present systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: The main effects of slow breathing techniques cover autonomic and central nervous systems activities as well as the psychological status. Slow breathing techniques promote autonomic changes increasing Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia paralleled by Central Nervous System (CNS) activity modifications. EEG studies show an increase in alpha and a decrease in theta power. Anatomically, the only available fMRI study highlights increased activity in cortical (e.g., prefrontal, motor, and parietal cortices) and subcortical (e.g., pons, thalamus, sub-parabrachial nucleus, periaqueductal gray, and hypothalamus) structures. Psychological/behavioral outputs related to the abovementioned changes are increased comfort, relaxation, pleasantness, vigor and alertness, and reduced symptoms of arousal, anxiety, depression, anger, and confusion. Conclusions: Slow breathing techniques act enhancing autonomic, cerebral and psychological flexibility in a scenario of mutual interactions: we found evidence of links between parasympathetic activity (increased HRV and LF power), CNS activities (increased EEG alpha power and decreased EEG theta power) related to emotional control and psychological well-being in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis considers two different mechanisms for explaining psychophysiological changes induced by voluntary control of slow breathing: one is related to a voluntary regulation of internal bodily states (enteroception), the other is associated to the role of mechanoceptors within the nasal vault in translating slow breathing in a modulation of olfactory bulb activity, which in turn tunes the activity of the entire cortical mantle.
... A similar study by Bušek and Kemlink (2005) further established the relationship between the breathing frequency and the mean power in the theta, alpha and beta bands, whereby a decrease in the breathing frequency led to an increase in the mean power and vice versa. Fumoto et al. (2004) and Yu et al. (2011) utilized a modified study by fixing the breathing frequency at approximately 3-4 breaths per minute to mimic the breathing technique employed in the Zen meditation and investigated the effects on the log-transform relative power for the same three bands. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of the breathing duration by comparing the log-transform relative power at different intervals (e.g. 5, 10, 15, and 20 min) to an initial resting period. ...
... Majority of the studies on deep breathing with EEG did not conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT), for example, the studies by Fumoto et al. (2004) and Yu et al. (2011) or had utilized an RCT but with a cross-over design (e.g. Stancak et al., 1993;Bušek and Kemlink, 2005;Gaurav et al., 2016). ...
... In terms of the topography, a shift of power spectrum from the central location towards the occipital location was evident in the DB groups but not in the CONT group (Table 3). The lack of difference between two groups for the relative alpha power magnitude contrasts markedly with literature reporting a heightened alpha power after deep breathing (Arambula et al., 2001;Fumoto et al., 2004;Park and Park, 2012;Sherlin et al., 2010;Yu et al., 2011) that is normally interpreted as an induction of a relaxation state. This discrepancy can be explained by the fact that the control participants are not shown any video during the deep breathing period, unlike the DB groups that followed the video guide. ...
Article
The study aims to study the effects of short duration deep breathing on the EEG power with topography based on parallel group randomized controlled trial design which was lacking in prior reports. 50 participants were split into 4 groups: control (CONT), deep breathing (DB) for 5 (DB5), 7 (DB7), and 9 (DB9) minutes. EEG recordings were obtained during baseline, deep breathing session, after deep breathing, and a follow-up session after 7 days of consecutive practice. Frontal theta power of DB5 and DB9 was significantly larger than that of CONT after the deep breathing session (p = 0.027 and p = 0.006, respectively) and the profound finding showed that the theta topography obtained a central-focused distribution for DB7 and DB9. The result obtained was consistent with previous literature, albeit for certain deep breathing durations only, indicating a possible linkage between the deep breathing duration and the neurophysiology of the brain.
... 5 Previous studies on the effects of deep breathing for 5 to 20 minutes have shown an increase in alpha power at 5 minutes that remains unchanged until the end of the 20 minutes, but an increase in theta power at both 15 and 20 minutes. 6,7 There is little research on the association between EEG changes and deep breathing. However, previous studies on mindfulness are relevant, as deep breathing is an element of many types of mindfulness meditation. ...
... An increase in frontal theta power during meditation is often reported. 1,[6][7][8] Several studies suggest that alpha power is associated with the frontal brain region, [8][9][10] although alpha waves also appear in the occipital region. 9 Although some studies have reported a decrease in beta waves associated with deep breathing, 1 others have refuted this finding. ...
Article
Full-text available
To clarify the physiological and psychological effects of deep breathing, the effects of extreme prolongation of expiration breathing (Okinaga) were investigated using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG). Participants were five male Okinaga practitioners in their 50s and 60s. Participants performed Okinaga for 31 minutes while continuous EEG and ECG measurements were taken. After 16 minutes of Okinaga, and until the end of the session, the percentages of theta and alpha 2 waves were significantly higher than at baseline. After 20 minutes, and until the end of the session, the percentage of beta waves was significantly lower than at baseline. The high frequency component of heart rate variability was significantly lower after 12 minutes of Okinaga and lasted until 23 minutes. The low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly lower after 18 minutes of Okinaga and until the end of the session. Okinaga produced relaxation, suggesting that deep breathing may relieve anxiety. However, study limitations include potential ambiguity in the interpretation of the low frequency/high frequency ratio, the small sample, and the fact that EEG was measured only on the forehead.
... 5 Previous studies on the effects of deep breathing for 5 to 20 minutes have shown an increase in alpha power at 5 minutes that remains unchanged until the end of the 20 minutes, but an increase in theta power at both 15 and 20 minutes. 6,7 There is little research on the association between EEG changes and deep breathing. However, previous studies on mindfulness are relevant, as deep breathing is an element of many types of mindfulness meditation. ...
... An increase in frontal theta power during meditation is often reported. 1,[6][7][8] Several studies suggest that alpha power is associated with the frontal brain region, [8][9][10] although alpha waves also appear in the occipital region. 9 Although some studies have reported a decrease in beta waves associated with deep breathing, 1 others have refuted this finding. ...
Article
Full-text available
To clarify the physiological and psychological effects of deep breathing, the effects of extreme prolongation of expiration breathing (Okinaga) were investigated using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG). Participants were five male Okinaga practitioners in their 50s and 60s. Participants performed Okinaga for 31 minutes while continuous EEG and ECG measurements were taken. After 16 minutes of Okinaga, and until the end of the session, the percentages of theta and alpha 2 waves were significantly higher than at baseline. After 20 minutes, and until the end of the session, the percentage of beta waves was significantly lower than at baseline. The high frequency component of heart rate variability was significantly lower after 12 minutes of Okinaga and lasted until 23 minutes. The low frequency/high frequency ratio was significantly lower after 18 minutes of Okinaga and until the end of the session. Okinaga produced relaxation, suggesting that deep breathing may relieve anxiety. However, study limitations include potential ambiguity in the interpretation of the low frequency/high frequency ratio, the small sample, and the fact that EEG was measured only on the forehead.
... Альфа-ритм: ослабление низких (8-10Гц) частот и усиление мощности 10-13Гц [21,22] Фронтальная асимметрия [21] Усиление бета-ритма [15] Задние сенсомоторные области коры [15] Депрессия Увеличение мощности тета-ритма [3] Височная доля, больше справа [3] Снижение когерентности между лобными областями [14] Пик альфа-ритма в более низких частотах [3] Медиальная затылочная кора, левая височная доля [3] Синдром навязчивых состояний Увеличение мощности тета-ритма [3] Орбитофронтальная кора, височная доля с обеих сторон [3] Расстройства шизофренического ряда Существует предположение, что шизофрения и другие психические расстройства возникают из-за периодически возникающей таламокортикальной пароксизмальной активности, так называемой таламокортикальной дизритмии [3,24,25]. Высокочастотная кратковременная (1-1.5 с) пароксизмальная активность также была найдена на экспериментальных данных при патологии тиннитус -субъективные слуховые ощущения, возникающие в ухе или голове без очевидных раздражителейсубъективный шум [26]. ...
... Альфа-ритм: ослабление низких (8-10Гц) частот и усиление мощности 10-13Гц [21,22] Фронтальная асимметрия [21] Усиление бета-ритма [15] Задние сенсомоторные области коры [15] Депрессия Увеличение мощности тета-ритма [3] Височная доля, больше справа [3] Снижение когерентности между лобными областями [14] Пик альфа-ритма в более низких частотах [3] Медиальная затылочная кора, левая височная доля [3] Синдром навязчивых состояний Увеличение мощности тета-ритма [3] Орбитофронтальная кора, височная доля с обеих сторон [3] Расстройства шизофренического ряда Существует предположение, что шизофрения и другие психические расстройства возникают из-за периодически возникающей таламокортикальной пароксизмальной активности, так называемой таламокортикальной дизритмии [3,24,25]. Высокочастотная кратковременная (1-1.5 с) пароксизмальная активность также была найдена на экспериментальных данных при патологии тиннитус -субъективные слуховые ощущения, возникающие в ухе или голове без очевидных раздражителейсубъективный шум [26]. ...
Article
Рассматривается вопрос изменения спектральных и пространственных характеристик энцефалограмм, наблюдаемых при психических расстройствах. Представлен систеМатизированный обзор литературы, включающий статьи по оценке спектра источников патологической активности и их расположения в мозге. Рассматривается, прежде всего, спонтанная активность головного мозга в различных состояниях, которая различается по пространственной локализации, а также по когерентности между областями мозга. Представленные в статье работы показывают, что ритмическая активность головного мозга при психических расстройствах отличается от нормальной в нескольких частотных диапазонах. Предложен метод для точного количественного анализа этой активности по данным энцефалографии. Вопрос о пространственном расположении источников патологической активности является ключевым при изучении работы мозга и решается с помощью различных методов локализации. Результаты локализации отображаются на анатомической схеме мозга или на магнитно-резонансной томограмме субъекта, в результате чего строятся гипотезы о нейрофизиологическом механизме изучаемой патологии. Простейшим из методов определения местоположения какой-либо патологии можно считать сравнительный анализ спектров энцефалограмм, наблюдаемых в различных каналах регистрации, распределенных по скальпу или над ним. Такая локализация является чисто качественной и позволяет сделать только самые приблизительные выводы. Метод, предложенный в данной работе, опирается на преобразование Фурье многоканальных данных энцефалографии и локализацию отдельных спектральных компонент. Это позволяет детально изучать те или иные частотные признаки патологической активности мозга и отвечать на вопросы об их связи с анатомией мозга.
... Альфа-ритм: ослабление низких (8-10 Гц) частот и усиление мощности 10-13 Гц [22,23] Фронтальная асимметрия [22] Усиление бетаритма [20] Задние сенсомоторные области коры [20] Патология Спектральные особенности Пространственные особенности Когерентность депрессия Увеличение мощности тетаритма [3] Височная доля, больше справа [3] Снижение когерентности между лобными областями [26] Пик альфа-ритма в более низких частотах [3] Медиальная затылочная кора, левая височная доля [3] Синдром навязчивых состояний Увеличение мощности тетаритма [3] Орбитофронтальная кора, височная доля с обеих сторон [3] 1.3. Расстройства шизофренического ряда Существует предположение, что шизофрения и другие психические расстройства возникают из-за периодически возникающей таламокортикальной пароксизмальной активности, так называемой таламокортикальной дизритмии [3,12,13]. ...
... Альфа-ритм: ослабление низких (8-10 Гц) частот и усиление мощности 10-13 Гц [22,23] Фронтальная асимметрия [22] Усиление бетаритма [20] Задние сенсомоторные области коры [20] Патология Спектральные особенности Пространственные особенности Когерентность депрессия Увеличение мощности тетаритма [3] Височная доля, больше справа [3] Снижение когерентности между лобными областями [26] Пик альфа-ритма в более низких частотах [3] Медиальная затылочная кора, левая височная доля [3] Синдром навязчивых состояний Увеличение мощности тетаритма [3] Орбитофронтальная кора, височная доля с обеих сторон [3] 1.3. Расстройства шизофренического ряда Существует предположение, что шизофрения и другие психические расстройства возникают из-за периодически возникающей таламокортикальной пароксизмальной активности, так называемой таламокортикальной дизритмии [3,12,13]. ...
... In [13], it investigated the effect of neurofeedback training (NFT) on expert rifle shooters and two NFT protocols were used in this study. One involved increasing the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 13-15 Hz) while inhibiting high-beta (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) whereas the other involved training crossover between alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) with high-beta suppression. The results revealed that the marksmen who underwent training showed significant improvements in performance after fifteen sessions of training comparing with control group [13]. ...
... During NFT, the subjects are first asked to try the strategy they are familiar with in the shooting experience. Other instructions such as fingers heating [22], abdominal breathing [23], expiration prolongation [24], position stability [25], forehead muscle relaxation [26], nice imagination [27] are given for the subjects to try to change the color of the robots from blue to red. ...
... Thereafter, Fast Fourier Transformation was performed on these data for decomposition of the EEG waveform into sine wave components in terms of respective frequency bands i.e. alpha (8-12 Hz) & beta (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) and power spectral density (PSD in uv 2 ) was estimated for each type. As the inter-subject basal power of EEG waves had large variations among each other, the powers obtained after each post-intervention session for each frequency were expressed as percentage (%) change in relation to respective resting EEG power. ...
... In fact,research has documented clearly that deep breathing induced vagal stimulation is a sensitive measure of parasympathetic cardiac function (21). This is also reported to decrease the stress with increased appearance of relaxed EEG waves i.e. alpha waves (22). However, we did not see any increased alpha which may be due to the fact that it was a one time deep breathing manoeuvre without any prior practice. ...
Article
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Hypoxemia, hyper/hypocapnia due to altered respiratory patterns in patients with chronic respiratory ailments cause changes in cortical functions leading to encepalopathy. But presence of other simultaneous confounding factors in these patients makes it difficult to understand the effect of different breathing patterns alone on cortical areas. Therefore, the present study aim to investigate the effect of different breathing patterns on alpha and beta activity over different brain regions in normal human subjects. To achieve this, thirty healthy male subjects were asked to perform 3-minutes of slow deep breathing (SDB), Breath holding (BH) and fast deep breathing (FDB) while EEG was recorded at frontal, parietal and occipital sites. Percent change in power reveal that both alpha and beta activities increased following FDB in the frontal region (approx 40±10% at F3 & 25±15% at F4) whereas, they decreased in all the regions post BH but only alpha decreased posteriorly post SDB (up to 20±5% at P3 & 18±5% at P4). Therefore, alterations in post-interventional cortical EEG activities seems to have alpha preponderance which might be sensitive to relative hypoxemia/ hypercapnia or hypocapnia, having differential response to the respiratory interventions.
... Так, Holmes [19] и Prewett [25] пришли к заключению, что эффективность альфастимулирующего тренинга определяется в большей степени инструкциями, которые пациент получает перед тренингом (например, поднимать глазные яблоки вверх), чем наличием биологической обратной связи. Анализ литературы показал, что изменения амплитуды альфа-волн происходят при использовании таких техник, как «Перемещение центра тяжести», «Контроль позы» [8, 10], «Абдоминальное дыхание» [16], «Релаксация мышц лба» [9, 15, 25], воображение приятных состояний [30]. Цель исследования – изучить зависимость эффективности обучения произвольному увеличению мощности в индивидуальном высокочастотном альфа-диапазоне от типа используемой инструкции (поведенческой техники) и от наличия или отсутствия обратной связи ...
... «Поза»: испытуемым предлагалось принять позу кучера, чтобы вес корпуса при этом был смещен на ноги, создавая механическую стимуляцию подошвенных зон [8, 26] (Kozlovskaya I.B., 1997–2011). «Дыхание»: испытуемым предлагалось применять следующие дыхательные техники: а) удлинение выдоха ; б) абдоминальное дыхание [16, 33]. «Фронтальные мышцы»: так как снижение тонуса M. frontalis приводит к генерализации релаксации [27], испытуемым предлагалось расслабить лоб и лицевые мышцы для достижения состояния покоя [22]. ...
Article
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We studied how the efficiency of individual alpha power stimulating training depends on the use of instructions and the presence or absence of feedback. A new method of calculating the efficiency of a single training session was suggested.
... В то же время сведения о связи индивидуальной вариабельности IAF и эмоциональной реактивности отрывочны и противоречивы. В единичных работах показано, что возникающие в процессе произвольного медленного абдоминального дыхания субъективные ощущения увеличения внутренней энергии и активности (vigor-activity) с тенденцией к снижению тревоги сопровождаются градуальным снижением низкочастотной (8-10 Гц) и ростом высокочастотной (10-13 Гц) α-активности [28]. Антидепрессивный эффект кетамина сопровождается увеличением IAF [17]. ...
... В нашем случае можно полагать, что сниженная частота дыхания у лиц с высо-кой IAF отражает не столько более низкую тоническую активацию (tonic arousal), сколько повышенные бдительность (alertness) и готовность к переработке информации, механизмы которых связывают с высокочастотной активностью α (10,25-13 Гц) [37]. О справедливости такого допущения свидетельствуют психофизиологические эффекты медленного произвольного абдоминального дыхания, характерного для восточных медитативных техник: возникающий активационный сдвиг в сторону высокочастотной (10-13 Гц) α ЭЭГ сопровождается чувством прилива энергии/активности (vigor-activity) в сочетании с релаксацией и снижением ситуативной тревоги [28,38]. Предполагая возможные нервные механизмы сопряжения IAF и дыхания, нужно отметить, что адаптивная регуляция дыхательного цикла осуществляется не только первичными инспираторными и экспираторными центрами ствола мозга [39], но и вышележащими структурами моста и среднего мозга [40]. ...
Article
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Individual alpha frequency (IAF) of electroencephalogram (EEG) is regarded as a neurophysiological endophenotypic indicator of cognitive activity featuring individual propensity to efficient cognitive performance and creativity. Considering that cognitive coping style is intrinsic part of emotional regulation, defining medical aspects of individual health as well as risks of psychosomatic diseases, we intended to assess IAF contribution into mechanisms of individual emotional reactivity. Participants and methods. As participants was healthy man subjects (n=62). Three models of laboratory induced emotions were used: emotional perception (1); anxious apprehension (awaiting of inescapable aversive punishment) (2); experience of discrete emotions of anger and joy (3). Results. It was revealed that high IAF individuals exhibit predisposition to prevalence of parasympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, proactive-like coping with inescapable threat, prevailing contribution of the positive emotional stance and better accessibility of recent positive memories. By contrast, low IAF subjects manifested predisposition to prevalence of sympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, maladaptive avoidance-like coping with inescapable threat, insufficiency positive emotional arousal mechanisms. Conclusions. It is suggested that IAF creates a «hardware» construct featuring individual emotional space and adaptability of coping styles to emotional challenges.
... Because the occurrence of the "alpha experience" can be accounted for complexly interrelated factors (Plotkin, 1979), we proposed to use only those self-regulating techniques which were known as increasing alpha activity. Unfortunately there are just few articles which showed regulation techniques impact on the upper alpha power ( Cadwell et al, 2003;Fumoto M., et al., 2004) and no date about some strategy which lead to increase in activity in individual upper alpha range. So we used follow strategies: "Warming hands" (Nozawa & Tacano, 2009), "Postural control" (Cadwell et al, 2003;), "Breathing" (Fumoto M., et al., 2004),"Frontal muscle relaxation" (Canter 1975). ...
... Unfortunately there are just few articles which showed regulation techniques impact on the upper alpha power ( Cadwell et al, 2003;Fumoto M., et al., 2004) and no date about some strategy which lead to increase in activity in individual upper alpha range. So we used follow strategies: "Warming hands" (Nozawa & Tacano, 2009), "Postural control" (Cadwell et al, 2003;), "Breathing" (Fumoto M., et al., 2004),"Frontal muscle relaxation" (Canter 1975). Moreover these strategies were used by GAV in his teaching practice as a recommendations for achievement "easiness and comfort in musical execution" by his students. ...
Article
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IntroductionBackground Information of ClientDescription of the Presenting ProblemAssessment and DiagnosisAlpha Activity EEG AnalysisInterventionOutcomes and Discussion of FindingsReferences
... Because the occurrence of the "alpha experience" can be accounted for complexly interrelated factors (Plotkin, 1979), we proposed to use only those self-regulating techniques which were known as increasing alpha activity. Unfortunately there are just few articles which showed regulation techniques impact on the upper alpha power (Cadwell et al, 2003; Fumoto M., et al., 2004) and no date about some strategy which lead to increase in activity in individual upper alpha range. So we used follow strategies: " Warming hands " (Nozawa & Tacano, 2009), " Postural control " (Cadwell et al, 2003;), " Breathing " (Fumoto M., et al., 2004), " Frontal muscle relaxation " (Canter 1975). ...
... Unfortunately there are just few articles which showed regulation techniques impact on the upper alpha power (Cadwell et al, 2003; Fumoto M., et al., 2004) and no date about some strategy which lead to increase in activity in individual upper alpha range. So we used follow strategies: " Warming hands " (Nozawa & Tacano, 2009), " Postural control " (Cadwell et al, 2003;), " Breathing " (Fumoto M., et al., 2004), " Frontal muscle relaxation " (Canter 1975). Moreover these strategies were used by GAV in his teaching practice as a recommendations for achievement "easiness and comfort in musical execution" by his students. ...
Article
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This review of modern interpretations of nature and physiological significance of EBG alpha activity was inspired with the following aims: I-alpha activity phenomena determination, 2 summering the experimental and theoretical data about the nature, origin and neurophysiological mechanisms of the alpha oscillations distribution, 3-description of the most famous brain alpha activity structure hypothesis, -1 presentation of authors hypothesis about hEG alpha activity indices as: 1 - individual alpha peak lret|uency in parietal-occipital brain area, 2 - alpha spindle features: length, amplitude variability and steepness, 3 - reactivity to visual stimulations as: amount and tune duration of amplitude suppression and frequency range width in w hich amplitude suppression is appeared.
... Six participants (6 able-bodied, 0 CNP participants) used a physical strategy instead of a mental strategy, that is, participants focused on their actual physical body and not any imagery or thoughts within the mind. Each part of respiration cycle has been associated with specific EEG patterns [222], and slow and controlled breathing has been associated with increased alpha power [223]. Although Breathing can be considered a physical strategy, Breathing was identified as a separate category from Actual Movement as these strategies are associated with different EEG patterns. ...
Thesis
Early evidence suggests that individuals can learn voluntary modulation of their own brain activity, called neurofeedback, to relieve central neuropathic pain (CNP) after a spinal cord injury (SCI). CNP after SCI is a life-changing illness that is difficult to treat. Neurofeedback that uses electrical brain activity (electroencephalogram; EEG) is a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical treatment, which minimises side-effects. Thus, a neurofeedback system was developed in previous work targeting EEG activity associated with CNP after SCI in order to relieve pain. However, it was unclear how individuals become successful at neurofeedback and current literature on neurofeedback learning is sparse and inconsistent. The aim of this thesis was to explore mental behaviour during neurofeedback training to understand neurofeedback learning. This was done by examining mental strategies used by participants during neurofeedback training, questionnaires of general learning factors, and autonomic responses during neurofeedback training. Twenty-five able-bodied individuals (13 female, mean age = 30.96) and ten individuals with CNP after SCI (3 female, mean age = 51.70) completed neurofeedback training on four separate visits, where interviews were conducted after each visit. Standardised questionnaires examined the influence of general learning factors (self-efficacy, locus of control, motivation, and difficulty) on neurofeedback success. Autonomic responses (heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response) were examined in relation to neurofeedback success. A framework model and thematic analysis were used to examine qualitative interview data. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to examine quantitative data. No mental behaviour differences were found between able-bodied individuals and individuals with CNP after SCI. Perceived performance of the neurofeedback task seemed to influence participants’ approach to achieving the neurofeedback task. Negative affect was somewhat associated with being unsuccessful at neurofeedback. Only self-efficacy had a moderate correlation with neurofeedback success (r =< 0.587, p =< 0.020). No autonomic responses were significantly correlated with neurofeedback success. The mental behaviour of 70% of participants were directly inspired by the user interface design. Interviews revealed five types of success goals created by participants to assess their neurofeedback performance; not all goals aligned with the researchers’ success goal despite reminders of the task instructions. Furthermore, no participant could focus on more than one piece of information from the user interface at once. A third of participants reported that the interface design interfered with their neurofeedback performance. This thesis displays the complexity of behaviour involved in neurofeedback learning that future research should acknowledge, and particularly emphasises the importance of a user interface design that facilitates neurofeedback learning.
... Past investigations into the associations of EEG with spontaneous breathing have mostly focused on the alpha band. Fumoto et al. ( Fumoto et al., 2004 ) observed an increase in high-frequency alpha power (10-13 Hz) during abdominal breathing, one that is distinct in frequency to the alpha increase in the eyes-closed state, and one which was attributed to an increase in serotonin and the action of serotonergic neurons. Most recently, in the work of Keller et al., respiratory (and heart-rate) fluctuations in the intermediate-frequency range (centered at 0.15 Hz) correlated with the fMRI signal in the mid and posterior insula and the secondary somatosensory area, which are regions related to interoceptive perception ( Keller et al., 2020 ); it was proposed that respiratory variability shares a common central-nervous pathway with heart-rate variability, and that low-frequency respiratory rhythms can in fact modulate higher-frequency EEG oscillations through a harmonics relationship ( Mather and Thayer, 2018 ). ...
Article
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The desire to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of resting-state (rs-fMRI) measures has prompted substantial recent research into removing noise components. Chief among contributions to noise in rs-fMRI are physiological processes, and the neuronal implications of respiratory-volume variability (RVT), a main rs-fMRI-relevant physiological process, is incompletely understood. The potential implications of RVT in modulating and being modulated by autonomic nervous regulation, has yet to be fully understood by the rs-fMRI community. In this work, we use high-density electroencephalography (EEG) along with simultaneously acquired RVT recordings to help address this question. We hypothesize that (1) there is a significant relationship between EEG and RVT in multiple EEG bands, and (2) that this relationship varies by brain region. Our results confirm our first hypothesis, although all brain regions are shown to be equally implicated in RVT-related EEG-signal fluctuations. The lag between RVT and EEG is consistent with previously reported values. However, an interesting finding is related to the polarity of the correlation between RVT and EEG. Our results reveal potentially two main regimes of EEG-RVT association, one in which EEG leads RVT with a positive association between the two, and one in which RVT leads EEG but with a negative association between the two. We propose that these two patterns can be interpreted differently in terms of the involvement of higher cognition. These results further suggest that treating RVT simply as noise is likely a questionable practice, and that more work is needed to avoid discarding cognitively relevant information when performing physiological correction rs-fMRI.
... Past investigations into the associations of EEG with spontaneous breathing have mostly focused on the alpha band. Fumoto et al. (Fumoto et al., 2004) observed an increase in high-frequency alpha power (10-13 Hz) during abdominal breathing, one that is distinct in frequency to the alpha increase in the eyes-closed state, and one which was attributed to an increase in serotonin and the action of serotonergic neurons. Most recently, in the work of Keller et al., respiratory (and heart-rate) fluctuations in the intermediate-frequency range (centred at 0.15 Hz) correlated with the fMRI signal in the mid and posterior insula and the secondary somatosensory area, which are regions related to interoceptive perception (Keller et al., 2020) ; it was proposed that respiratory variability shares a common central-nervous pathway with heart-rate variability, and that low-frequency respiratory rhythms can in fact modulate higher-frequency EEG oscillations through a harmonics relationship (Mather and Thayer, 2018) . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The desire to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of resting-state (rs-fMRI) measures has prompted substantial recent research into removing noise components. Chief among contributions to noise in rs-fMRI are physiological processes, and the neuronal implications of respiratory-volume variability (RVT), a main rs-fMRI-relevant physiological process, is incompletely understood. The potential implications of RVT in modulating and being modulated by autonomic nervous regulation, has yet to be fully understood by the rs-fMRI community. In this work, we use high-density electroencephalography (EEG) along with simultaneously acquired RVT recordings to help address this question. We hypothesize that (1) there is a significant relationship between EEG and RVT in multiple EEG bands, and (2) that this relationship varies by brain region. Our results confirm our first hypothesis, although all brain regions are shown to be equally implicated in RVT-related EEG-signal fluctuations. The lag between RVT and EEG is consistent with previously reported values. However, an interesting finding is related to the polarity of the correlation between RVT and EEG. Our results reveal potentially two main regimes of EEG-RVT association, one in which EEG leads RVT with a positive association between the two, and one in which RVT leads EEG but with a positive association between the two. We propose that these two patterns can be interpreted differently in terms of the involvement of higher cognition. These results further suggest that treating RVT simply as noise is likely a questionable practice, and that more work is needed to avoid discarding cognitively relevant information when performing physiological correction rs-fMRI.
... Respiratory synchronized activity in the brain has been shown to modulate cognitive performance depending on the phase properties of the respiratory cycle (Nakamura et al., 2018). Such modulation of neural oscillations has been associated with modulations of emotion (Fumoto et al., 2004;Yu et al., 2011). Respiration can also modulate hemodynamic activity, which has a significant effect on brain activity (Başar, 2008). ...
Article
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Pulmonary ventilation and respiration are considered to be primarily involved in oxygenation of blood for oxygen delivery to cells throughout the body for metabolic purposes. Other pulmonary physiological observations, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia, Hering Brewer reflex, cardiorespiratory synchronization, and the heart rate variability (HRV) relationship with breathing rhythm, lack complete explanations of physiological/functional significance. The spectrum of waveforms of breathing activity correlate to anxiety, depression, anger, stress, and other positive and negative emotions. Respiratory pattern has been thought not only to be influenced by emotion but to itself influence emotion in a bi-directional relationship between the body and the mind. In order to show how filling in gaps in understanding could lead to certain future developments in mind-body medicine, biofeedback, and personal health monitoring, we review and discuss empirical work and tracings to express the vital role of bodily rhythms in influencing emotion, autonomic nervous system activity, and even general neural activity. Future developments in measurement and psychophysiological understanding of the pattern of breathing in combination with other parameters such as HRV, cardiorespiratory synchronization, and skin conductivity may allow for biometric monitoring systems to one day accurately predict affective state and even affective disorders such as anxiety. Better affective prediction based on recent research when incorporated into personal health monitoring devices could greatly improve public mental health by providing at-home biofeedback for greater understanding of one's mental state and for mind-body affective treatments such as breathing exercises.
... The amount of coordination may rely on the amount of meditation experience with experienced meditators having higher alpha power than novices [2,36,43,44]. This increase in alpha power has been associated with increased relaxation and attention that takes place during meditation [34,45] and can even be induced from simple paced breathing [46,47]. This increased prevalence of alpha frequency represents a slowing and coordination of neuronal firing throughout the cerebral cortex. ...
... During a respiration rate of 6 breaths/min globally increased alpha power and decreased theta power was reported compared with spontaneous breathing [2]. An increase in alpha power was also detected while breathing at 3-4 breaths/min [23]. In contrast, higher spectral power of the alpha and theta band was observed at a breathing frequency of 0.1 Hz compared with 0.5 Hz [24]. ...
Article
Numerous methods for enhancing consciousness and well-being emphasize the role of breathing. We have for the first time investigated the link between body rhythms and slow cortical brain dynamics during paced breathing. Physiological data from 37 participants are presented, who conducted paced breathing sessions with respiration rates (RR) from 6 to 14 seconds/cycle for 7 min each task. Measures of respiration, heart rate variability (HRV), and 64 channels EEG as well as subjective ratings were recorded and compared with each other. Both, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia of the HRV and the slow cortical potentials (SCPs) of the EEG correlated with the respiration cycle. The highest correlations were observed at a RR of 10 seconds/cycle especially for the SCPs. A strong positive voltage deflection during inhalation is followed by a negative variation during exhalation. This decelerated breathing rhythm matches the frequency of the baroreceptor sensitivity, leading to synchronization between breath, HRV, baroreceptors and the brain. Subjectively, participants rated this RR as the most relaxing one. This study demonstrates the importance of the speed of breathing on the brain dynamics which might help in understanding the role of the breath for mental health.&#13.
... In addition, during the last decade, several studies have addressed the relationship between changes in EEG parameters after opening or closing the eyes, and metabolic responses [12,13]. One widely accepted distinction between the two conditions is that eyes-closed could define a more resting state as compared with eyes-open [14]. Accordingly, the eyes-closed state induces functional inhibition of the brain, and the eyes-open is a state for functional activation. ...
Article
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Human tissues own conductive properties, and the electrical activity produced by human organs can propagate throughout the body due to neuro transmitters and electrolytes. Therefore, it might be reasonable to hypothesize correlations and similarities between electrical activities among different parts of the body. Since no works have been found in this direction, the proposed study aimed at overcoming this lack of evidence and seeking analogies between the brain activity and the electrical activity of non-cerebral locations, such as the neck and wrists, to determine if i) cerebral parameters can be estimated from non-cerebral sites, and if ii) non-cerebral sensors can replace cerebral sensors for the evaluation of the users under specific experimental conditions, such as eyes open or closed. In fact, the use of cerebral sensors requires high-qualified personnel, and reliable recording systems, which are still expensive. Therefore, the possibility to use cheaper and easy-to-use equipment to estimate cerebral parameters will allow making some brain-based applications less invasive and expensive, and easier to employ. The results demonstrated the occurrence of significant correlations and analogies between cerebral and non-cerebral electrical activity. Furthermore, the same discrimination and classification accuracy were found in using the cerebral or non-cerebral sites for the user’s status assessment.
... A number of clinical studies have reported that patients are aware of physiological changes in their body during relaxation therapy performed as a mental/physical coping technique. Relaxation techniques, including particular breathing methods, can induce psychological changes in the central nervous system, as well as physiological changes in peripheral tissues (e.g., blood vessels, saliva, skeletal muscles, body temperature, and heart rate) [6,7,[17][18][19]. We hypothesized that patient awareness immediately after a relaxation therapy session would function as a patient-related factor, influencing the patients' level of expectation regarding the therapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background High expectations regarding therapy are reported to have positive effects on future therapeutic course and related behavior. Some individuals are aware of feelings of comfort immediately after a relaxation therapy session. Methods Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) therapy using a relaxation technique called resonant breathing was administered to 44 family caregivers who felt burdened by their work caring for family members with cancer. We prospectively evaluated how the level of comfort participants were aware of immediately after an initial therapy session affected their expectations regarding the therapy, as well as future quality of life (QOL) and autonomic function. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized, open-label study titled “Self-care system for family caregivers of cancer patients using resonant breathing with a portable home device”. Results Among the participants, 56.8% were aware of a feeling of comfort immediately after an initial therapy session. Participants were then divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of their awareness of comfort. Expectation levels regarding the therapy were significantly increased in the awareness group after the therapy session (P = 0.003). No main effect between groups was observed for heart rate variability (HRV) during therapy (P = 0.949). Four weeks after the initial therapy session, QOL improved and HRV increased in the awareness group (P < 0.001). Conclusions Better outcomes in the awareness group were not associated with HRV during therapy. A feeling of comfort immediately after a therapy session may have positive effects on future QOL and autonomic function by raising participants’ expectations of the therapy. Trial registration UMIN000021639. Registered 27 March 2016
... Regarding the second point, in recent years, a close association between rhythmic movement and 5-HT has been reported in human-based research (Takahashi et al., 2007). Fumoto et al. (2004) reported that there is an increase in 5-HT levels after 5 minutes of rhythmic respiration, thereby increasing sympathetic nerve activity. Although the 5-HT level was not measured in this study, the difference observed between groups and the increase in the autonomic nervous activity 5 minutes after chewing are in agreement with the report of Fu-moto et al. (2004), which suggested that mastication becomes a stronger exercise as the hardness of the chewed objects increases, thereby facilitating the secretion of 5-HT and the enhancement of sympathetic nerve activity by 5-HT. ...
... Some studies have examined the effects of paced breathing on electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters. Compared with the resting state, slow breathing (3-6 breaths/min) has been shown to increase alpha power (Bušek and Kemlink, 2005;Dziembowska et al., 2016;Fumoto et al., 2004;Sherlin et al., 2009) and reduce alpha variability (Stancák et al., 1993), increase theta power (Dziembowska et al., 2016;Prinsloo et al., 2013), and decrease beta power (Prinsloo et al., 2013). In contrast, normal breathing (12 and 15 breaths/min) produced a higher beta value in the whole brain than breathing at 8.4 breaths/min (Stancák et al., 1993). ...
Article
Cardiorespiratory synchronization training (CRST) uses diaphragmatic breathing to increase balance in the autonomic nervous system and reduce negative emotions. CRST integrated with high-technology mobile applications affords innovative and convenient home-based training. This study examined the effects of a CRST mobile application on heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG) parameters in healthy adults. Ninety-six participants were randomly assigned to the CRST, relaxation training (RT; active control group), and control (C) groups. The CRST group received paced breathing training using a wearable device connected to a mobile application and received feedback on the HRV indices. The RT group received muscle relaxation training using a wearable device connected to a mobile application and received feedback on heart rate (HR). The training program was conducted for 1 h per week for 4 weeks. The C group did not receive any wearable device, mobile application, or psychological intervention. Psychological questionnaires on depression and anxiety and physiological measurements of the breathing rates, electrocardiography (ECG), and EEG were measured at the pretest and posttest. The CRST group showed significantly higher HRV indices and lower breathing rates at the posttest than the RT and C groups. There were no significant interaction effects on EEG parameters at pretest and posttest among the three groups. Use of a CRST mobile application increased balance in the autonomic nervous system at the resting state. This clinical evidence-based technologically advanced mobile application could be implemented in future clinical practice.
... While playing the NFT game, the subjects were first asked to try the strategy they are familiar with in the shooting experience. Other instructions such as fingers heating [35], abdominal breathing [36], Expiration prolongation [37], Position stability [38], [39], Nice imagination [40] were given for the subjects to try to change the colour of the robots from blue to red. ...
Chapter
NeuroFeedback Training (NFT) is a type of biofeedback training using Electroencephalogram (EEG) that allows the subjects to do self-regulation during the training according to their real-time brain activities. The purpose of this study is to optimize focused attention in expert rifle shooters with the use of NFT tools and to enhance shooting performance. We designed and implemented an experiment, conducted NFT sessions, and confirmed that NFT can boost performance of the shooters. The efficiency of the NFT was examined by comparing the shooters’ performance, their results of standardized tests of general cognitive abilities on the Vienna Test System (VTS), and the brain patterns in before and after NFT sessions. According to the results, we confirmed that NFT can be used to boost the shooters’ performance. EEG data were recorded during the shooting tasks. We extracted different types of EEG-based indexes and identified the emotion and mental workload levels of the shooters right before they pulled the trigger. These indexes and emotion/workload levels were then correlated with the shooting scores to understand what are the optimal brain states for “good” shots. According to the results, we confirmed that (1) mental workload level is negatively correlated with the shooting performance; (2) the correlations analyses results between EEG-based power features and shooting performance are consistent with the literature review results; (3) the difference of brain states in the before and after NFT shooting session could be because of NFT.
... Increased alpha band activity with decreased theta band activity was obtained in abdominal breathing during Zen practice (Arita, 2012). Comparing alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity Fumoto et al. (2004) showed increases in alpha-1 activity with disappearance of alpha-2 activity in voluntary abdominal breathing. From these results we argue that the found pattern of activation in the alpha-1 and alpha-2 band with stronger increases after 15 min in Liu Zi Jue compared to Wu Qin Xi, reflect modulations of EEG brain activity due to the stronger reinforced attention on breathing in Liu Zi Jue than in Wu Qin Xi. ...
Article
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Health Qigong is a common technique of Traditional Chinese Medicine applied to strengthen mental and physical health. Several studies report increases in EEG theta and alpha activity after meditative Qigong techniques indicating a relaxed state of mind. To date, little is known on the effects of dynamic Health Qigong techniques that comprise bodily movements on brain activity. In the current study, we compared effects of two dynamic Health Qigong techniques on EEG brain activity. Subjects performed the techniques Wu Qin Xi (five animals play) and Liu Zi Jue (six healing sounds) in a within-subjects design. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded before and immediately after each 15-min practice block. Additionally, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was administered at pretest, and after each 15-min practice block. Results show a decrease in alpha activity after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the Health Qigong technique Liu Zi Jue. Theta activity was decreased after 15 min, followed by an increase after 30 min in the technique Wu Qin Xi. Results of the POMS indicated an increased vigor-activity level with decreased fatigue and tension-anxiety levels in both techniques after 30 min of practice. Our results demonstrate different temporal dynamics in EEG theta and alpha activity for the Health Qigong techniques Wu Qin Xi and Liu Zi Jue. We hypothesize that the found brain activation patterns result from different attentional focusing styles and breathing techniques performed during the investigated Health Qigong techniques.
... Increased alpha band activity with decreased theta band activity was achieved by abdominal breathing during Zen practice (Arita, 2012). Comparing alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity Fumoto et al. (2004) showed increases in alpha-1 activity with disappearance of alpha-2 activity in voluntary abdominal breathing. Therefore, a stronger reinforcement of breathing behavior by movement performance in physical training would be a suitable interpretation for the obtained pattern of EEG brain activity. ...
Article
In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and fostering an attentive mind. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have reported changes in spectral band frequencies during Qigong meditation indicating a relaxed state. Much less is reported on effects of brain activation patterns induced by Qigong techniques involving bodily movement. In this study, we tested whether (1) physical Qigong training alters EEG theta and alpha activation, and (2) mental practice induces the same effect as a physical Qigong training. Subjects performed the dynamic Health Qigong technique Wu Qin Xi (five animals) physically and by mental practice in a within-subjects design. Experimental conditions were randomized. Two 2-min (eyes-open, eyes-closed) EEG sequences under resting conditions were recorded before and immediately after each 15-min exercise. Analyses of variance were performed for spectral power density data. Increased alpha power was found in posterior regions in mental practice and physical training for eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Theta power was increased after mental practice in central areas in eyes-open conditions, decreased in fronto-central areas in eyes-closed conditions. Results suggest that mental, as well as physical Qigong training, increases alpha activity and therefore induces a relaxed state of mind. The observed differences in theta activity indicate different attentional processes in physical and mental Qigong training. No difference in theta activity was obtained in physical and mental Qigong training for eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, mental practice of Qigong entails a high degree of internalized attention that correlates with theta activity, and that is dependent on eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state.
... Каждая сессия состояла из шести 3- минутных периодов с перерывами для получения самоотчетов об используемых приемах и технике саморегуляции. Испытуемым рекомендовали следовать известным инструкциям, с помощью которых, как было показано ранее [6, 7, 12, 21], можно произвольно увеличить мощность высокочастотного альфадиапазона . Затем вновь проводили психометрическое, электрофизиологическое тестирование. ...
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Comparison the influence of voluntary increasing alpha power and decreasing EMG by using biofeedback (BFB) and usual self-regulation techniques (SRT) on cognitive functions and alpha activity in 27 male subjects was provided. The results show that alpha-BFB improve cognitive task performance and enhance the alpha activity in participants with low alpha frequency. SRT without feedback has no such effect.
... The diaphragm (abdominal), chest (thoracic) and the shoulder (clavicular) breathing have different physiological influences. Activity in the high-frequency alpha band (10-13 Hz) increases during eyes closed voluntary abdominal breathing (Fumoto et al., 2004). Role of uni-nostril or both nostril breathing is known and have important effect on body physiology. ...
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Pranayama practices are being used since ancient times as a holistic approach by saints and yogis to improve and control the subtle phenomenon of the brain and hence to bring mind and body in synchrony using breath as a link. This work is an attempt to understand this subtle phenomenon of the brain and the process of attaining higher state of cognition followed by consciousness. From the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis, it was observed that with the increase in Pranayama practices, the frequency of oscillation shifts from lower-frequency range to higher-frequency range with the significant rise of gamma power (>40 Hz) in frontal, central and also some part of temporal region of the brain. This frequency shifts count for attaining higher cognitive states leading to consciousness of human brain.
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The forebrain plays important roles in many critical functions, including the control of breathing. We propose that the forebrain is important for ensuring that breathing matches current and anticipated behavioral, emotional, and physiological needs. This review will summarize anatomical and functional evidence implicating forebrain regions in the control of breathing. These regions include the cerebral cortex, extended amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus. We will also point out areas where additional research is needed to better understand the specific roles of forebrain regions in the control of breathing.
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As a possible body signal influencing brain dynamics, respiration is fundamental for perception, cognition, and emotion. The olfactory system has recently acquired its credentials by proving to be crucial in the transmission of respiratory influence on the brain via the sensitivity to nasal airflow of its receptor cells. Here, we present recent findings evidencing respiration-related activities in the brain. Then, we review the data explaining the fact that breathing is (i) nasal and (ii) being slow and deep is crucial in its ability to stimulate the olfactory system and consequently influence the brain. In conclusion, we propose a possible scenario explaining how this optimal respiratory regime can promote changes in brain dynamics of an olfacto-limbic-respiratory circuit, providing a possibility to induce calm and relaxation by coordinating breathing regime and brain state.
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This review summarizes my own involvement in heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV biofeedback studies, as a tribute to the late Dr. Evgeny Vaschillo. I first review psychophysiological studies on behavioral stress and relaxation performed in my laboratory using an assessment of cardiac parasympathetic activity. Although magnitude of high-frequency (HF) component of HRV corresponding respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is widely used as an index of cardiac parasympathetic function, a respiratory confound during stress or relaxation may have interfered with the proper assessment of the HF HRV. An enhanced method under frequency-controlled respiration at 0.25 Hz provided a reliable assessment of cardiac parasympathetic activity. I then review findings from HRV biofeedback research in my laboratory. Based on the hypothesis that RSA measured as an HF component of HRV represents cardiorespiratory resting function, it was demonstrated that HRV biofeedback before sleep enhanced the magnitude of HF HRV during sleep, a cardiorespiratory resting function. Moreover, by focusing on the spectral peak of the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV, paced breathing at the LF-peak frequency was shown to increase baroreflex sensitivity. Finally, I describe the potential of slow-paced abdominal breathing (i.e., Tanden breathing) performed in Zen meditation. The concept of Tanden breathing as described in a regimen from early modern Japan is introduced, and recent research findings on slow-paced abdominal breathing are summarized. Future research directions of slow-paced abdominal breathing are also discussed.
Article
Objectives This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of paced breathing (PB) versus su-soku practice (spontaneous breathing with counting numbers) on autonomic function and brain activity and examine the associations between personality traits, brain activity, and autonomic function. Design A three-way crossover study design. Setting Thirty healthy Korean participants (15 men: 28.5±4.7 years; 15 women: 27.7±4.8 years) were asked to answer the Korean version of the 125-Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Three-way crossover design included normal PB (0.25 Hz), slow PB (0.1 Hz), and su-soku practice. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups (group A: su-soku/normal PB/slow PB; group B: normal PB/slow PB/su-soku; group C: slow PB/su-soku/normal PB). Main outcome measures The Korean version of the 125-TCI scores, electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate variability (HRV), and respiratory curve data. Results EEG parameters between normal PB, slow PB, and su-soku showed no significant differences. High frequency and approximate entropy during normal PB and su-soku were higher than those during slow PB. Alpha band power related to well-focused alertness had strong negative correlations with the standard deviation of R-R intervals and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-R intervals during su-soku practice, while theta band power related to drowsiness had strong positive correlations with very low-frequency power during normal PB. Reflective and analytical individuals tended to be highly focused and alert during su-soku and normal PB, while anxious and unwilling individuals tended to focus on counting in and be drowsier during normal PB. Conclusions This study’s findings suggest that the association between brain activity and autonomic function is affected by meditation type and personality traits.
Thesis
Le stress est un enjeu majeur de santé public, responsable du développement et de l’aggravation d’un grand nombre de troubles somatiques (maladies cardio-vasculaires,cancers, maladies infectieuses …) et psychiatriques (anxiété, dépression …). La gestion du stress par les thérapies comportementales, cognitives et émotionnelles (TCCE) est efficace pour réduire les conséquences négatives du stress et prévenir les troubles chez les sujets àrisque, mais son accès reste limité. Internet et les nouvelles technologies du numérique,notamment les self-help, les e-TCC et le biofeedback de variabilité de fréquence cardiaque(biofeedback de VFC) peuvent enrichir les programmes de gestion du stress par les TCCEet faciliter leur accès. Dans ce contexte, l’objectif de ce travail de thèse était de développeret d’évaluer des formats de traitements novateurs combinant TCCE et nouvellestechnologies.Dans un premier temps, le programme Seren@ctif, premier programme francophone de e-TCC dédié à la gestion du stress, a fait l’objet d’un essai contrôlé randomisé sur 120patients répondant au diagnostic de trouble d’adaptation avec anxiété (TAA) selon lescritères du DSM-5 et venant consulter en service de psychiatrie ambulatoire du CHU deLille. Les résultats ont mis en évidence que la TCCE administrée sur internet et guidée parun temps de contact humain en face-à-face avec un professionnel de santé supervisé(TCCE mixte) est tout aussi efficace que la TCCE entièrement administrée en face-à-facepour le traitement du TAA, par comparaison à un groupe contrôle de patients bénéficiantd’un suivi habituel par leur médecin généraliste.Dans un second temps, un nouveau biofeedback de VFC directement basé sur l’activationvagale, a été élaboré à partir d’une nouvelle mesure d’activation parasympathiquedéveloppée par l’équipe du centre d’investigation clinique, innovations technologiques deLille. Cette thèse présente les étapes d’élaboration de ce nouveau biofeedback, suiviesd’une preuve de concept portant sur plusieurs patients présentant divers troubles anxieuxet dépressifs. Ce nouveau biofeedback de VFC constitue une approche prometteusepermettant de stimuler de manière non-invasive le nerf vague. Il pourrait permettreégalement d’améliorer durablement l’activation vagale et d’objectiver physiologiquementl’effet bénéfique de la Mindful Breathing. Cette approche pourrait être complémentaire autraditionnel biofeedback d’arythmie sinusale respiratoire et permettrait de diversifier lestechniques comportementales associées au biofeedback.Les recherches présentées dans cette thèse contribuent à faire avancer la recherche dans ledomaine des technologies de l’information appliquées à la santé mentale etcomportementale. Elles ouvrent des perspectives innovantes sur une nouvelle façond’administrer les TCCE sur internet, sur l’efficacité potentielle d’un nouveau biofeedbackde VFC, ou encore, sur l’intérêt d’un nouveau marqueur de flexibilité du système nerveuxautonome dans l’évaluation objective de l’efficacité des TCC de troisième vague, notammentla Mindfulness
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Dyspnea or breathlessness is a symptom occurring in multiple acute and chronic illnesses, however, the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying its subjective experience is limited. In this topical review, we propose neural oscillatory dynamics and cross-frequency coupling as viable candidates for a neural mechanism underlying respiratory perception, and a technique warranting more attention in respiration research. With the evidence for the potential of neural oscillations in the study of normal and disordered breathing coming from disparate research fields with a limited history of interdisciplinary collaboration, the main objective of the review was to converge the existing research and suggest future directions. The existing findings show that distinct limbic and cortical activations, as measured by hemodynamic responses, underlie dyspnea, however, the time-scale of these activations is not well understood. The recent findings of oscillatory neural activity coupled with the respiratory rhythm could provide the solution to this problem, however, more research with a focus on dyspnea is needed. We also touch on the findings of distinct spectral patterns underlying the changes in breathing due to experimental manipulations, meditation and disease. Subsequently, we suggest general research directions and specific research designs to supplement the current knowledge using neural oscillation techniques. We argue for the benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration and the converging of neuroimaging and behavioral methods to best explain the emergence of the subjective and aversive individual experience of dyspnea.
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[Purpose] To clarify the effects of abdominal breathing on mood and cerebral blood flow. [Participants and Methods] Ten healthy adult subjects performed slow abdominal breathing or normal control breathing in a sitting position for 10 minutes. This was followed by a Stroop task for 3 minutes. During the experiments, frontal oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) was continuously measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The mood state was evaluated using a mood profile test before and after the abdominal or control breathing, and after the Stroop tasks. [Results] Confusion-bewilderment, tension-anxiety, and total mood disturbance decreased after abdominal breathing, and the decrease in tension-anxiety persisted after the Stroop task. Oxy-Hb decreased after abdominal breathing, but increased after normal breathing. Oxy-Hb increased after the Stroop task under both breathing conditions. [Conclusion] 1) Abdominal breathing improves mood and inhibits blood flow to the frontal lobe. 2) When psychological stress was applied after abdominal breathing, the decrease in tension-anxiety persisted, suggesting that mood continued to improve and that blood flow to the frontal lobe was slightly reduced.
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Objective. To study the electroencephalographic signs of the early stages of emotional burnout syndrome (EBS). Materials and methods. Quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram was carried out in 131 patients with EBS aged 25–45 years. The control group consisted of 143 healthy subjects. Results and conclusions. Patients at different stages of EBS showed increases in dysfunction of the regulatory systems of the brain corresponding to increases in the severity of the clinical signs of this disorder. This indicates an increase in the level of exhaustion of the regulatory systems of the brain and the formation of a stable pathological state.
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Objective: To study the electroencephalographic manifestations of the various stages of burnout syndrome (BS). Material and methods: A quantitative analysis of the EEG of 131 patients, aged 25 to 45 years, with BS was performed. The control group included 143 people. Results and conclusion: An increase in dysfunction of the regulatory systems of the brain, which is correlated with an increase in the severity of the clinical manifestations of BS, is identified at different stages of this disorder. An increase in exhaustion of the regulatory systems of the brain is observed and a steady pathological condition is formed.
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Objective There have been multiple criticisms against commonly used theories of coping limiting their usefulness in research and practice. Method This paper describes and evaluates a new functional conceptualisation of reactions to reduce distress or unpleasant emotions, the Health Theory of Coping. Results The theory recognises that all coping reactions are adaptive and may initially reduce distress and categorises these strategies as either healthy or unhealthy, depending on their likelihood of adverse consequences. Categories are conceptually clear, mutually exclusive, comprehensive, functionally homogenous, functionally distinct, generative and flexible, overcoming limitations of previous theories. The theory captures a hierarchy of strategies across the continua of internality, intensity, and adversity. Healthy coping categories are self‐soothing, relaxing or distracting activities, social support, and professional support. Unhealthy categories are negative self‐talk, harmful activities, social withdrawal, and suicidality. All coping strategies fit within one of these categories. Conclusions The categorisation of coping strategies as either healthy or unhealthy is empirically supported. The Health Theory of Coping has clinical utility in stigma reduction, suicide prevention, and treatment of physical and psychiatric illnesses.
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We studied the effects of the controlled abdominal breathing using the diaphragm on the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular responses in elderly subjects. Study subjects were 14 participants aged 65-75 years. The subjects seated comfortably on a reclining chair and carried out spontaneous breathing or controlled abdominal breathing at 6 bpm for 15 min after 5 min of spontaneous breathing. Cardiovascular responses during the abdominal breathing were similar to those responses during the spontaneous breathing. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure during abdominal breathing decreased significantly than those at the resting state before abdominal breathing. Using the Lorenz plot methods of the heart rate variability, we analysed the autonomic nervous responses during the abdominal breathing. Abdominal breathing increased significantly log(L × T), which indicated augmented cardiac parasympathetic nervous activities compared to those in the resting state. We also demonstrated that abdominal breathing, but not spontaneous breathing, induced statistically significant changes in both urine noradrenalin and in salivary cortisol in accordance with the decline of stress levels. Our results suggest that abdominal breathing of 6 bpm might actually be opposite to a stressor and could even heighten the managing capacity of stress through the augmented parasympathetic activities.
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While the neurophysiology of respiration has traditionally focused on automatic brainstem processes, higher brain mechanisms underlying the cognitive aspects of breathing are gaining increasing interest. Therapeutic techniques have used conscious control and awareness of breathing for millennia with little understanding of the mechanisms underlying their efficacy. Using direct intracranial recordings in humans, we correlated cortical and limbic neuronal activity as measured by the intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) with the breathing cycle. We show this to be the direct result of neuronal activity, as demonstrated both by the specificity of the finding to the cortical grey matter and the tracking of breath by the gamma band (40-150 Hz) envelope in these structures. We extend prior observations by showing the iEEG signal to track the breathing cycle across a widespread network of cortical and limbic structures. We further demonstrate a sensitivity of this tracking to cognitive factors using tasks adapted from cognitive behavioral therapy and meditative practice. Specifically, volitional control and awareness of breathing engage distinct but overlapping brain circuits. During volitionally-paced breathing, iEEG-breath coherence increases in a fronto-temporal-insular network, and during attention to breathing, we demonstrate increased coherence in the anterior cingulate, premotor, insular and hippocampal cortices. Our findings suggest that breathing can act as an organizing hierarchical principle for neuronal oscillations throughout the brain, and detail mechanisms of how cognitive factors impact otherwise-automatic neuronal processes during interoceptive attention.
Chapter
Generally speaking, Zen has become associated with greater physical and mental wellness as well as health-related products in modern culture. Given the widespread assumption that Zen is good for health, it is not surprising that Zen principles—especially the meditative technique of zazen—has been applied in clinical settings. The intent of this chapter, Zen and Behavioral Health: A Review of the Evidence, is to update the previous reviews on the topic by including scientific literature on zazen published since 2009. This chapter also expands former works by including meditation research that does involve rigorously controlled methodology. The implications of the current state of the evidence on clinical practice, on future research and the on the practice of Zen Buddhism are discussed.
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Although self-controlled breathing is a widely used relaxation technique, little is known about the mechanisms underlying its clinical effects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of paced breathing (PB) on the respiratory system. Following a 20-min rest, 10 healthy males and females engaged in slow PB, moving progressively from 12 through 2 cpm. We found the following: 1) subjects progressively reduced their respiration rate (RR) (p < .05); 2) the pressure of the end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) was maintained under PB conditions, whereas the constant error and coefficient of variation of RR increased markedly under the 2-cpm PB condition (p < .05); 3) minute ventilation (VE), CO2 output (VCO2), and CO2 equivalence (VE/VCO2) decreased significantly under the 2-cpm condition (p < .05), demonstrating gas-exchange efficiency; and 4) the total power of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were highest under the 4-cpm breathing condition. These results suggest that PB does not affect the respiratory gas-exchange system but does affect respiratory sensations, such as suffocation.
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The loss of self-control is defined as a state in which impulsive aggressive behavior induced by stress cannot be restrained. The ventrolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), where projections from serotonin neurons in dorsal raphe nuclei are present, plays an important role in switching actions and controlling this impulsive aggressive behavior. Studies of the brains of individuals who have committed suicide demonstrated that serotonin secretion was deficient in the ventrolateral PFC. Since suicide is considered to be an impulsive aggressive behavior toward the self, decreased activity of serotonin neurons (5-HT-deficient brain) seems to underlie the pathologic condition of suicide. The activity of serotonin neurons is related to the arousal state because continuous activity is present during waking. Factors that further enhance the activity of serotonin neurons are the rhythmic motor exercises of walking, respiration, and mastication, in addition to sunshine. Walking in the sunshine is good for serotonin activity. However, in modern society, sitting at a personal computer and watching the display in a lifestyle that reverses day and night is common for many. Such a lifestyle carries the risk of creating the 5-HT-deficient brain. Rapid increases in the number of individuals with depressive disorder or poor anger management have recently been seen in Japan, and it seems that the 5-HT-deficient brains are involved in these symptoms. We have demonstrated with experimental data that Zen meditation, yoga, and rhythmic motor exercises such as walking are effective for preventing these conditions. There is also increasing evidence that solar irradiation and rhythmic motor exercises are important for the healthy postnatal development of brain serotonin neurons.
Article
Yoga mainly consists of postures (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditations. Among these techniques, breathing exercises is useful to practice in terms of mild intensity and doing without circumstance. Many studies have demonstrated effects of breathing exercises on physiologic parameters, but the fundamental mechanisms have not been clarified so far. Some factors are speculated as their effects, however, we will focus on a speed of breathing in this study. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effects of speed of breathing on electroencephalogram (EEG) as physiological parameter while the mood changes were tested using the two-dimensional mood scale (TDMS). To confirm the effect of the differences of breathing speed, three different speeds of breathing exercises were adopted: natural breathing (NB: approximately 12-15 breaths /min), slow breathing (SB: approximately 4 breaths /min) and fast breathing (FB: approximately 120 breaths /min) were performed by 10 healthy subjects for 10 minutes in an eye-closed condition on different days. Significant changes in the time course of alpha power during FB compared to NB at 3 min and 5-9 min, revealed significant increase at 5 min compared to SB. There were no significant difference in the effect alpha power in NB and SB. FB significantly improved on positive arousal level after and after 30min. As for NB and SB, there were no significant difference in the mood changes. Subjects had a feeling of positive tone with a tendency of increased modest arousal level, during and/or after FB. These results suggested that the increase in alpha power is considered to be linked to this state of positive tone. Furthermore, FB induce a increase of alpha power and positive arousal level. Since the volume of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (ETCO2) significantly increased in SB, decreased in FB, we speculate that the change in ETCO2 may produce the changes in the EEG pattern.
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Unlabelled: Individual alpha frequency (IAF) of electroencephalogram (EEG) is regarded as a neurophysiological endophenotypic indicator of cognitive activity featuring individual propensity to efficient cognitive performance and creativity. Considering that cognitive coping style is intrinsic part of emotional regulation, defining medical aspects of individual health as well as risks of psychosomatic diseases, we intended to assess IAF contribution into mechanisms of individual emotional reactivity. Participants and methods: As participants was healthy man subjects (n = 62). Three models of laboratory induced emotions were used: emotional perception (1); anxious apprehension (awaiting of inescapable aversive punishment) (2); experience of discrete emotions of anger and joy (3). Results: It was revealed that high IAF individuals exhibit predisposition to prevalence of parasympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, proactive-like coping with inescapable threat, prevailing contribution of the positive emotional stance and better accessibility of recent positive memories. By contrast, low IAF subjects manifested predisposition to prevalence of sympathetic activity in the global circuit of autonomous regulation, maladaptive avoidance-like coping with inescapable threat, insufficiency positive emotional arousal mechanisms. Conclusions: It is suggested that IAF creates a "hardware" construct featuring individual emotional space and adaptability of coping styles to emotional challenges.
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The present study aimed to develop a short-form self-report measure to assess relaxation effects (S-MARE). Participants (N = 190) responded to a questionnaire comprised of 45 items assessing relaxation and non-relaxation based on the Relaxation Inventory (Crist et al., 1989). Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors: physiological tension, psychological relaxation, and anxiety. Each factor was related to 5 items and each had an acceptable Cronbach's coefficient (alpha = .93, .94, and .85). S-MARE scores pre- and post- relaxation instruction were significantly correlated with the Emotional Relaxation Scale (Tokuda, 2011) (r = .446) and with State Anxiety (r = -.531) (N = 172). There was a significant correlation between the amplitude of the high frequency component of heart rate variability during relaxation instruction and physiological tension scores on the S-MARE (r = .456-.474, N = 24). These results confirmed the reliability and validity of the S-MARE in terms of physiological correlation with cardiac parasympathetic tone, suggesting that the S-MARE is a valid measure of relaxation effects.
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Serotonergic neuronal responses during three specific motor activities were studied in nuclei raphe obscurus (NRO) and raphe pallidus (NRP) of freely moving cats by means of extracellular single-unit recordings. Responses to treadmill-induced locomotion were primarily excitatory, with 21 of 24 neurons displaying increased firing rates, directly related to treadmill speed. Individual regression analyses determined three response patterns: maximal activation at low speed (0.25 m/sec), augmentation of neuronal activity only at high treadmill speed (0.77 m/sec), and a linear increase. A smaller fraction of NRO and NRP serotonergic neurons (6 of 27) also responded to hypercarbic ventilatory challenge with increased firing rates. The magnitude of neuronal response was dependent upon the fraction of inspired CO2 and was related to ventilatory motor output, specifically, inspiratory amplitude. A subgroup of neurons responsive to hypercarbia in wakefulness demonstrated significant reductions in neuronal response to hypercarbia in slow-wave sleep. Finally, unit activity for 12 of 29 cells increased in response to spontaneous feeding, displaying two distinct patterns of neuronal response in relation to onset and termination of feeding: rapid activation and deactivation versus a gradual increase and decrease. More than half of the cells studied under all three conditions were responsive to more than one motor task. These results indicate that serotonergic caudal raphe neurons are responsive to specific motor system challenges, with many neurons responsive to multiple motor tasks, and that the responsiveness of serotonergic neurons to at least one motor task, hypercarbic ventilatory challenge, is state dependent.
Article
Zen meditation (ZAZEN) is a spiritual exercise held in the Zen sect of Buddhism. Apart from its religious significance, the training of Zen meditation produces changes not only in the mind but also in the body—these influences are of interest to scientific studies, from the stand point of psychology and physiology. In the present study the EEG changes accompanied with Zen meditation have been revealed and described in detail. The authors discussed further these electro-graphic changes in relation to the consciousness with its underlying neurophysiological background, comparing with that of the hypnotic trance and sleep. In our study, 48 priests and disciples of Zen sects of Buddhism were selected as the subjects and their EEGs were continuously recorded before, during and after Zen meditation. The following results were obtained; These electroencephalographic findings lead to the following conclusions; In Zen meditation, the slowing of EEG pattern is confirmed on the one hand, and the dehabituation of the alpha blocking on the other. These indicate the specific change of consciousness. The authors further discussed the state of mind during Zen meditation from the psychophysiological point of view.
Article
Recent evidence indicates that neocortical electrocorticographic (ECoG) activation depends critically on cholinergic (ACh) inputs from the basal forebrain and serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) inputs from the midbrain raphe to the neocortex. It appears that ACh and 5-HT block synchronized ECoG activity and induce cortical activation by a direct, local action in the neocortex that is not mediated by secondary systems. Concurrent blockade of cholinergic and serotonergic inputs to the cortex abolishes all ECoG activation, suggesting that: (a) together, ACh and 5-HT are essential for cortical activation to occur; and (b) other systems cannot maintain cortical activation in the absence of the cholinergic and serotonergic inputs. Nevertheless, additional neural systems (amygdala, locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (-NA), superior colliculus, orbitofrontal cortex, dopamine, histamine, glutamate) also modulate the ECoG and can produce cortical activation. In contrast to ACh and 5-HT, however, none of these systems are essential for the maintenance of cortical activation. Further, rather than producing activation via direct inputs to the neocortex, these systems appear to produce cortical activation by stimulating the cholinergic or serotonergic inputs to cortex. Thus, neocortical activation is maintained by multiple, parallel systems; cholinergic and serotonergic pathways are essential for activation and produce activation directly and locally in the neocortex, whereas additional pathways are not essential and contribute to activation indirectly by acting through these two direct activating inputs to the cortex.
Article
The influence of the circadian pacemaker and of the duration of time awake on the electroencephalogram (EEG) was investigated in 19 humans during approximately 40 h of sustained wakefulness. Two circadian rhythms in spectral power density were educed. The first rhythm was centered in the theta band (4.25-8.0 Hz) and exhibited a minimum approximately 1 h after the onset of melatonin secretion. The second rhythm was centered in the high-frequency alpha band (10.25-13.0 Hz) and exhibited a minimum close to the body temperature minimum. The latter rhythm showed a close temporal association with the rhythms in subjective alertness, plasma melatonin, and body temperature. In addition, increasing time awake was associated with an increase of power density in the 0.25- to 9.0-Hz and 13.25- to 20. 0-Hz ranges. It is concluded that the waking EEG undergoes changes that can be attributed to circadian and homeostatic (i.e., sleep-wake dependent) processes. The distinct circadian variations of EEG activity in the theta band and in the high-frequency alpha band may represent electrophysiological correlates of different aspects of the circadian rhythm in arousal.
Analyses of serotonin and other 5-hydroxyindoles, such as its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), are indispensable for the elucidation of their (patho)physiological roles. In clinical chemistry attention is mainly focused on the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoid tumours. For this most laboratories routinely measure urinary 5-HIAA. More recently, measurements of serotonin in platelets and urine have been advocated. Platelet serotonin may be the most sensitive indole marker for the detection of carcinoid tumours that secrete only small amounts of serotonin and/or its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Although several chromatographic techniques have emerged for the analysis of tryptophan-related indoles, HPLC with either electrochemical or fluorometric detection have become the methods of choice for their quantification. HPLC-based methods combine selectivity, sensitivity and high precision, and enable the simultaneous investigation of several metabolically related indoles. This review aims to place the analysis of indoles in biological matrices in a biochemical, physiological and clinical perspective and highlights several important steps in their chromatographic analysis and quantification.
Article
Cortical oscillations in the range of alpha activity (8-13 Hz) are one of the fundamental electrophysiological phenomena of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Evidence from quantitative EEG data has shown that their electrophysiological features, cortical generation mechanisms, and therefore, their functional correlates vary along the sleep-wake continuum. Specifically, spectral microstructure and EEG coherence levels between anterior and posterior cortical regions permit to differentiate among alpha activity spontaneously appearing in relaxed wakefulness with eyes closed, drowsiness period, and REM sleep, by reflecting distinct properties of neural networks involved in its cortical generation as well as a different interplay between cortical generators, respectively. Besides, the dissimilar spatiotemporal features of brain electrical microstates within the alpha range reveals a different geometry of active neural structures underlying each alpha variant or, simply, changes in the stability level of neural networks during each brain state. Studies reviewed in this paper support the hypothesis that two different alpha variants occur during human REM sleep: 'background responsive alpha activity', blocked over occipital regions when rapid eye movements are present, and 'REM-alpha bursts', non modulated by the alteration of tonic and phasic periods. Altogether, evidence suggests that electrophysiological features of human cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency range vary across different behavioural states, as well as within state, reflecting different cerebral phenomena with probably dissimilar functional meaning.
Article
Monoamines function as a vasoactive modulator in the central nervous system (CNS) and are believed to regulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Although monoamine transport is an essential process for regulating the extracellular monoamine concentration, the transport systems for monoamines at the BBB are poorly understood. mRNA expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) has been detected in a conditionally immortalized mouse brain capillary endothelial cell line (TM-BBB4) used as an in vitro model of the BBB, whereas no dopamine transporter (DAT) was detected. Western blot analysis showed the expression of NET and SERT protein in the membrane fraction of mouse brain capillaries and TM-BBB4 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NET and SERT are localized at the brain capillaries in the mouse cerebral cortex, and suggests that NET is localized at the abluminal side of brain capillary endothelial cells, and SERT is localized at the luminal and abluminal sides. NET and SERT expressed at the BBB may be involved in the inactivation of monoamines released from neurons around the BBB.
01) from the mean value obtained before VAB. ## Significant difference (P < 0.01) from the mean value obtained when resting at each measuring time Two circadian rhythms in the human electro-encephalogram during wakefulness
  • Significant
  • D Matthews
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** Significant difference (P < 0.01) from the mean value obtained before VAB. ## Significant difference (P < 0.01) from the mean value obtained when resting at each measuring time. References Aeschbach, D., Matthews, J.R., Postolache, T.T., Jackson, M.A., Giesen, H.A., Wehr, T.A., 1999. Two circadian rhythms in the human electro-encephalogram during wakefulness. Am. J. Physiol. 277, R1771– R1779.
Cellular substrates of oscillations in corticothalamic systems during states of vigilance Handbook of Behavioral State Control: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms
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Steriade, M., 1998. Cellular substrates of oscillations in corticothalamic systems during states of vigilance. In: Lydic, R., Baghdoyan, H.A. (Eds.), Handbook of Behavioral State Control: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms, CRC Press, Florida, pp. 327–348.
Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons of the basal forebra: role in cortical activation
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Jones, B.E., Mü, M., 1998. Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons of the basal forebra: role in cortical activation. In: Lydic, R., Baghdoyan, H.A. (Eds.), Handbook of Behavioral State Control: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms, CRC Press, Florida, pp. 327–348.
Time course of mean relative power of low-frequency (8–10 Hz, left panel) and high-frequency (10–13 Hz, right panel) alpha bands during VAB-EO (closed circles), compared to those during resting (open circles). The hatched bar represents a period of VAB or resting
  • Fig
Fig. 7. Time course of mean relative power of low-frequency (8–10 Hz, left panel) and high-frequency (10–13 Hz, right panel) alpha bands during VAB-EO (closed circles), compared to those during resting (open circles). The hatched bar represents a period of VAB or resting. Data are expressed as the mean AE S.E. (n = 11).
Localization of norepinephrine and serotonin transporter in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells
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Cellular substrates of oscillations in corticothalamic systems during states of vigilance
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