Article

Base rates for panic and depression according to the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire: A population-based study

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 11/2004; 82(2):271-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.11.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recently published studies analyzing sensitivity and specificity scores have demonstrated that the brief version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ [J. Am. Med. Assoc. 282 (1999) 1734]) is a useful tool for the detection of panic disorder and depression.
We aimed to get normative data for the brief PHQ in a representative population-based sample. Sociodemographic data and PHQ data from 2066 subjects were included.
Base rates for PHQ criteria of major depression were 3.8% with the typical 1:2 ratio between males and females (frequency of minor depressive forms: 9.2%). Normative data for the depression total scores were reported. Marital status, education and family income were significantly associated with depression, even after controlling for age and sex. For panic disorder, base rates were 1.8%; age, gender, and marital status were significant predictors. Frequency for panic attacks as a less restrictively defined version were 4.5%.
The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation of depression and panic scores of the PHQ.

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    • "Scores ≥10 indicate moderate depression , and scores ≥15 indicate severe depression. The German version[24]shows good internal consistencies with Cronbach's α = 0.89[25]. Anxiety was assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7)[26,27], which measures generalized anxiety disorder on seven items, reflecting DSM-IV symptom criteria. "
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    • "The interaction style becomes a very important factor to control, since parameters like the gender of the interviewer or, in our case, the interviewer being a virtual agent, can affect the genders' perception [29]. In addition to the above, some pshychological conditions like depression and PTSD have different base rates among the two genders [30], thus making it difficult to produce balanced populations for studies, and this could be seen as an additional motivation why genderdependent analysis might be beneficial. At this point, we would like to mention that the introduced gender-dependent approach does not hinter nor discourage a fully automatic approach for producing indicators for depression and PTSD. "
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    • "The PHQ-9 score can range from 0 to 27. The instrument demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89; Rief et al., 2004). In a study by Martin et al. (2006), the construct validity of the PHQ-9 was assessed by correlating its total score with a shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory (Schmitt and Maes, 2000) (r = 0.73) and the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg and Williams, 1988) (r = 0.59). "
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