Base rates for panic and depression according to the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire: A population-based study

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 11/2004; 82(2):271-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.11.006
Source: PubMed


Recently published studies analyzing sensitivity and specificity scores have demonstrated that the brief version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ [J. Am. Med. Assoc. 282 (1999) 1734]) is a useful tool for the detection of panic disorder and depression.
We aimed to get normative data for the brief PHQ in a representative population-based sample. Sociodemographic data and PHQ data from 2066 subjects were included.
Base rates for PHQ criteria of major depression were 3.8% with the typical 1:2 ratio between males and females (frequency of minor depressive forms: 9.2%). Normative data for the depression total scores were reported. Marital status, education and family income were significantly associated with depression, even after controlling for age and sex. For panic disorder, base rates were 1.8%; age, gender, and marital status were significant predictors. Frequency for panic attacks as a less restrictively defined version were 4.5%.
The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation of depression and panic scores of the PHQ.

Download full-text


Available from: Winfried Rief
  • Source
    • "Scores ≥10 indicate moderate depression , and scores ≥15 indicate severe depression. The German version[24]shows good internal consistencies with Cronbach's α = 0.89[25]. Anxiety was assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7)[26,27], which measures generalized anxiety disorder on seven items, reflecting DSM-IV symptom criteria. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose This prospective study aimed to determine the extent to which cancer patients experience loss of dignity during primary cancer care (baseline) and at 3-month follow-up and the contribution of positive social support and detrimental social interactions on loss of dignity at follow-up. Methods At baseline, we enrolled N = 270 cancer patients (advanced cancer 57 %) undergoing oncological treatment. At follow-up, n = 178 patients (72 %) participated. Patients completed the following questionnaires: sense of dignity item (SDI), physical problem list of the NCCN Distress Thermometer, Illness-Specific Social Support Scale (SSUK), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7). We conducted ordinal regression analyses controlling for age, gender, tumor stage, number of physical symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Results At baseline, 18 % of the patients experienced moderate to extreme loss of dignity (follow-up 23 %, p = 0.27). Detrimental interactions significantly predicted loss of dignity (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.06–1.90) in a model including positive support (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI 0.82–1.49), depression (OR = 1.55, 95 % CI 0.96–2.51), and anxiety (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 0.83–1.74). Items in relation to detrimental interactions with significant others such as “made you feel like you couldn’t take care of yourself” (r = 0.29, p < 0.001) and “felt uncomfortable in illness conversations” (r = 0.24, p = 0.002) showed the highest associations with perceived loss of dignity. Conclusion Loss of dignity was a frequent problem in our mixed cancer patient sample. Detrimental interactions that weaken the sense of dignity may result from discrepancies with patients’ needs for autonomy and security. Tailoring social support to attachment-related patient needs may help to conserve patients’ sense of dignity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Supportive Care Cancer
  • Source
    • "The interaction style becomes a very important factor to control, since parameters like the gender of the interviewer or, in our case, the interviewer being a virtual agent, can affect the genders' perception [29]. In addition to the above, some pshychological conditions like depression and PTSD have different base rates among the two genders [30], thus making it difficult to produce balanced populations for studies, and this could be seen as an additional motivation why genderdependent analysis might be beneficial. At this point, we would like to mention that the introduced gender-dependent approach does not hinter nor discourage a fully automatic approach for producing indicators for depression and PTSD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we show that gender plays an important role in the automatic assessment of psychological conditions such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We identify a directly interpretable and intuitive set of predictive indicators, selected from three general categories of nonverbal behaviors: affect, expression variability and motor variability. For the analysis, we introduce a semi-structured virtual human interview dataset which includes 53 video recorded interactions. Our experiments on automatic classification of psychological conditions show that a gender-dependent approach significantly improves the performance over a gender agnostic one.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2013
  • Source
    • "The PHQ-9 score can range from 0 to 27. The instrument demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89; Rief et al., 2004). In a study by Martin et al. (2006), the construct validity of the PHQ-9 was assessed by correlating its total score with a shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory (Schmitt and Maes, 2000) (r = 0.73) and the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg and Williams, 1988) (r = 0.59). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: In general, chronic pain is categorized into two mechanism-based groups: nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This dichotomous approach is questioned and a dimensional perspective is suggested. The present study investigated neuropathic characteristics in different syndromes of chronic pain. We also examined the association of neuropathic characteristics with various pain related and psychological variables. Methods: From April 2010 to January 2012, 400 patients suffering from a chronic pain condition enrolled for multidisciplinary pain treatment were considered for inclusion in the study. Criteria for inclusion were age over 18 years and having chronic pain according to ICD-10 (F45.41) criteria. The pain DETECT questionnaire was used to assess neuropathic characteristics of pain. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients with different pain diagnoses demonstrated distinct neuropathic characteristics. The diagnostic groups for neuropathic pain, musculoskeletal pain and post traumatic or surgical pain showed the most neuropathic features. The level of depression, pain chronicity and intensity, disability and length of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients suffering from neuropathic symptoms. A high level of depression and pain chronicity as well as high intensity of pain explained most of the variance in the neuropathic scores. Disability and length of hospital stay significantly predicted neuropathic characteristics only when examined separately, but not if included in a common regression model. Conclusions: Any type of chronic pain may have more or less neuropathic characteristics. The pain-related parameters of high intensity and chronicity as well as negative affectivity and functional disability strongly correlate with neuropathic characteristics of pain.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · European journal of pain (London, England)
Show more