Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, β-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment. Water Sci Technol
The removal of commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim) and a biocide (triclosan) in operating wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries has been studied. Under normal operating conditions the acidic drugs and triclosan were partially removed with removal rates varying from ca. 20 to >95%. The highest removal rate was found for ibuprofen and triclosan (>90%) followed by naproxen (80%), gemfibrozil (55%) and diclofenac (39%). Ibuprofen undergoes an oxidative transformation to corresponding hydroxy- and carboxy-metabolites, which contributes to its high removal rate. Disturbances in the activated sludge process resulted in lower removal rates for all acidic drugs, mostly for diclofenac (<10% removed) but also for ibuprofen (<60% removed). The treatment of wastewaters by activated sludge usually did not result in any practical removal (<10%) of neutral carbamazepine or basic atenolol, metoprolol and trimethoprim. The removal rates of the investigated drugs and triclosan are discussed in terms of mechanisms responsible for their removal. Discharges of carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, naproxen, triclosan and trimethoprim from WWTPs to the aquatic environment, expressed as the average concentration in the effluent and the daily discharged quantity per person served by WWTPs were assessed.
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- "These compounds are persistent against biological degradation and natural attenuation, and therefore, may remain in the environment for a long time. Conventional wastewater treatment using activated sludge (Paxeus, 2004) is not effective in removing these compounds completely. The promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals is advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (Dantas et al., 2011; Klavarioti et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Photocatalysis is one of the most effective advanced oxidation processes to remove residual pharmaceuticals from the aquatic environment. β-blockers are the group of pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment and are showing potential risk to the aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This paper provides an overview of different photocatalytic procedures found in the literature for the abatement of β-blockers.
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- "Of the small number of studies that examined the effects of GEM and CBZ in fishes, most involved concentrations well above what would be considered environmentally relevant and most exposure were acute. Both GEM and CBZ have been detected in waste water effluent and surface waters with average effluent concentrations ranging from 0.84 to 4.76 g L −1 and 0.87 to 1.2 g L −1 , respectively (Andreozzi et al., 2003; Kolpin et al., 2002; Metcalfe et al., 2003; Paxéus, 2004; Petroví c et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2008). Like other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, CBZ and GEM enter receiving waters via waste water effluent discharge. "
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ABSTRACT: In this study we explored how parental exposure to pharmaceuticals influences reproduction in offspring. Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 6 weeks to 10 μg L−1 of carbamazepine (CBZ) and gemfibrozil (GEM), two commonly prescribed drugs. Embryos were collected, reared in clean water until sexual maturity and then assessed for reproductive output, courtship, sperm function and organ histology. While 34% of the control pairs produced clutches, only 11% of the fish with CBZ exposed parents or 17% of the fish with GEM exposed parents produced clutches. Reciprocal crosses indicated that exposure in males had more profound reproductive effects. When a control F1 male was crossed with either a F1 female whose parents were CBZ or GEM exposed; no differences were observed in embryo production compared to controls. However, when a control F1 female was crossed with either a CBZ or GEM F1 male, 50% less embryos were produced. Male courtship was reduced in both CBZ and GEM F1 fish but the deficits in courtship displays were drug specific. Compared to control males, the sperm from GEM F1 males had shorter head lengths and midpieces whereas sperm from CBZ F1 males had longer midpeices. Although it remains unclear how specifically these morphological differences influenced sperm velocity, the sperm from GEM F1 males and from CBZ F1 males swam faster than the sperm of control F1 at 20s post activation. No significant differences were observed in the histology of the liver, kidney and gonads across treatment groups. These data are important as they show that chronic, low dose pharmaceutical exposure of parental fish is sufficient to cause significant reproductive effects in offspring.
- "Due to this, pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are classified as emerging micropollutants which have been a significant issue of environmental and public health concerns. The presence of emerging micro pollutants and their potential toxicity is a challenge to the global water industries as there is no unit process specifically designed to remove these pollutants; activated sludge and secondary sedimentation in most wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) seem to not completely eliminate them     . Thus, a number of recent studies have been carried out to explore suitable technologies to treat pharmaceutical residuals from water and wastewater. "
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ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are inevitably emitted into the waters. The adverse environmental and human health effects of pharmaceutical residues in water could take place under a very low concentration range; from several μg L− 1 to ng L− 1. These are challenges to the global water industries as there is no efficient unit process to remove these pollutants. An efficient technology is thus sought to treat these pollutants in water and wastewater.A novel chemical, ferrate(VI) was assessed using a standard jar test procedure for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The analytical protocols of pharmaceuticals were standard solid phase extraction together with various instrumentation methods including LC-MS, HPLC–UV and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Removal of pharmaceuticals by ferrate(VI) was pH dependant and this was in coordinate to the chemical/physical properties of pharmaceuticals and ferrate(VI) speciation. Ferrate(VI) has shown higher capability in the degradation of ciprofloxacin than ibuprofen. Promising performance of ferrate(VI) in the treatment of real wastewater effluent was observed. Removal efficiency of ciprofloxacin was the highest among the target compounds (63%), followed by naproxen (43%). Moreover, both mortality of zebrafish embryo tests and microscopic images clearly demonstrated that raw wastewater effluents possessed toxicity to zebrafish but ferrate(VI) treated effluents had no adverse effects. This finding will encourage the implementation of ferrate(VI) in the treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals.
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