Uptake and Effects on Detoxication Enzymes of Cypermethrin in Embryos and Tadpoles of Amphibians
A number of factors have been suggested for recently observed amphibian decreases, and one potential factor is pesticide exposure. We studied the uptake and effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin on two different amphibian species, Bombina variegata and Rana arvalis. The uptake from water of 14C-labeled cypermethrin (0.4 microg/L) by eggs and tadpoles of B. variegata was investigated. After 24 hours of exposure, 153.9 ng cypermethrin/g fresh weight were found in embryos, thus indicating that the jelly mass of the eggs does not act as a sufficient physical barrier to protect embryos from exposure to this compound. Uptake of cypermethrin into tadpoles of both species and in all exposed individuals caused dose-dependent deformities; behavioral abnormalities such as twisting, writhing, and coordinated swimming; and mortality. In tadpoles of B. variegata and R. arvalis, the activity of microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (mGST and sGST, respectively) were measured after treatment with cypermethrin. Activities of both GST systems increased significantly with increasing duration and concentration of cypermethrin exposure, with the reaction seeming stronger in B. variegata than in R. arvalis tadpoles. Alpha-cypermethrin--a racemic mixture of two cis isomers of cypermethrin--induced a stronger enzymatic response in the cytosolic fraction of R. arvalis tadpoles than cypermethrin at the same concentration. The observed physical and behavioral abnormities caused by environmentally relevant concentrations of cypermethrin indicate that despite detoxication of the chemical via GST-system contamination of ponds by cypermethrin could result in adverse effects on the development of amphibian embryos and tadpoles.
Available from: Rafael C Lajmanovich
- "CAT). CAT activity has been analyzed in different organisms exposed to diverse pollutants, including pesticides (Greulich and Pflugmacher, 2004; Ferrari et al., 2011; Peltzer et al., 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: Different enzyme biomarkers (AChE: acetylcholinesterase, CbE: carboxylesterase, GST: glutathione-S-transferase, CAT: catalase) were measured in digestive tissues of Lysapsus limellum frogs collected from a rice field (RF: chlorpyriphos sprayed by aircraft) and a non-contaminated area (RS: reference site), immediately (24h) and 168h after aerial spraying with chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF degradation was also searched in water samples collected from RF and RS, and found that insecticide concentration was reduced to≈6.78% of the original concentration in RF at 168h. A significant reduction of AChE and CbE activities was detected in L. limellum from RF in stomach and liver at 24 and 168h, and in intestine only at 24h, with respect to RS individuals. CAT activity decreased in intestine of L. limellum from RF 24h and 168h after exposure to CPF, whereas GST decreased in that tissue only at 24h. In stomach and liver, a decrease was observed only at 168h in both CAT and GST. The use of biomarkers (AChE, CbE, GST, and CAT) provides different lines of evidences for ecotoxicological risk assessment of wild frog populations at sites contaminated with pesticides.
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Available from: Andrés M Attademo
- "18 ) are a multigene family of cytosolic enzymes involved in the conjugation of electrophilic metabolites with the tripeptide glutathione to yield a water - soluble conjugated metabolite . GST activity is also used as a biomarker in ecological risk assessment of a pesticide - contaminated environment ( Greulich and Pflugmacher 2004 ; Attademo et al . 2007 ) . "
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ABSTRACT: Different biological variables of tadpoles, including survival, development and growth rates, and biomarkers [cholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and blood cell morphology] were evaluated in two anuran species, Scinax squalirostris (Hylidae) and Leptodactylus mystacinus (Leptodactylidae), using in situ experimental chambers in a rice field (RF) sprayed with insecticide Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) by aircraft in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. We found a significant decrease in body weight (0.62 ± 0.04 g) of L. mystacinus and an increased development rate of S. squalirostris in individuals from RF (41 ± 1; Gosner) with respect to individuals from the reference site (RS: 0.93 ± 0.04 g and 37 ± 0; respectively). In S. squalirostris, individuals from RF mean values of butyrylcholinesterase activities decreased at 48 (4.09 ± 0.32 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP) and 96 h (3.74 ± 0.20 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP), whereas inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed at 96 h (47.44 ± 2.78 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP). In L. mystacinus from RF, an induction of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed at 96 h (36.01 ± 1.09 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP). Glutathione-S-transferase levels varied between species, being higher in L. mystacinus individuals but lower in S. squalirostris from RF at 48 (272.29 ±11.78 and 71.87 ± 1.70 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP; respectively) and 96 h (279.25 ± 13.06 and 57.62 ± 4.58 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of TP, respectively). Blood cell parameters revealed a lower number of mitotic cells (MC: 0.36 ± 0.31%o for S. squalirostris and 0.08 ± 0.05 %o for L. mystacinus) and higher number of eosinophils (E: 3.45 ± 1.75 %o for S. squalirostris and 7.64 ± 0.98 %o for L. mystacinus) in individuals from the RF than in individuals from the RS (MC: 2.55 ± 0.74 %o for S. squalirostris and 1.87 ± 0.72%o for L. mystacinus; and E: 0.13 ± 0.09 for S. squalirostris and 3.20 ± 0.80 for L. mystacinus). Overall, our results demonstrate the existence of apparent differences in sensitivity between species in a series of sublethal responses to short-term exposure in RF after the application of Lambda-cyhalothrin. We suggest that the integral use of biological endpoints (development and growth) together with biomarkers (cholinesterase, GST, and blood cell parameters) may be a promising integral procedure for investigating pesticide exposure in wild frog populations.
- "In addition, it was found that food composition and fish size affected bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (Liu et al. 2010). Conversely, a study of tadpoles showed a higher uptake of cypermethrin in the laboratory compared to the field due to adsorption of cypermethrin onto suspended solids, sediment, and aquatic plants in the field (Greulich and Pflugmacher 2004). Thus, both environment and biology are important in explaining why model simulations and laboratory and field measures of bioaccumulation often do not align, and why one measure (model, field, or laboratory) is not always greater than the others. "
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ABSTRACT: In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, deposit-feeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation assessment is reduced most by improved identification of food sources as well as by accounting for the chemical bioavailability in food components. Improvements in the accuracy of aqueous exposure appear to be less relevant when applied to moderate to highly hydrophobic compounds, because this route contributes only marginally to total uptake. The determination of chemical bioavailability and the increase in understanding and qualifying the role of sediment components (black carbon, labile organic matter, and the like) on chemical absorption efficiencies has been identified as a key next steps. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2012;8:42–63. © 2011 SETAC
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