A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and d,l-threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Irvine Child Development Center, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 12/2004; 43(11):1406-14. DOI: 10.1097/01.chi.0000138351.98604.92
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH).
This was a randomized, double-blind study conducted at 12 U.S. centers. One hundred thirty-two subjects received d-MPH (n=44), d,l-MPH (n=46), or placebo (n=42) twice daily for 4 weeks, with titration of the dose based on weekly clinic visits. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline to last study visit on teacher-completed Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (Teacher SNAP). Secondary efficacy measures included the change on parent-completed SNAP (Parent SNAP), Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Improvement (CGI-I) score, and Math Test performance. Assessments at home in late afternoon were included to test the hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of efficacy than d,l-MPH. Safety was assessed through monitoring occurrence and severity of adverse events and discontinuations related to them.
Treatment with either d-MPH (p=.0004) or d,l-MPH (p=.0042) significantly improved Teacher SNAP ratings compared with placebo. The d-MPH group showed significant improvements compared with placebo on the afternoon Parent SNAP ratings (p=.0003) and scores on the Math Test (p=.0236) obtained late in the afternoon at 6:00 p.m. Sixty-seven percent of patients showed improvement on d-MPH and 49% on d,l-MPH based on CGI-I scores. Both d-MPH and d,l-MPH were well tolerated, no patient in the d-MPH group and only two patients each in the d,l-MPH and placebo groups discontinued the study.
For the treatment of ADHD, an average titrated dose of 18.25 mg/day of d-MPH is as efficacious and safe as an average titrated dose of 32.14 mg/day of d,l-MPH. Both active treatments have large effect sizes. Thus, d-MPH and d,l-MPH appear to provide similar efficacy, and d-MPH may have longer duration of action after twice-daily dosing, but additional studies are needed to determine the statistical and clinical significance of this possibility.

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    • "6 trials: Abikoff (2007) Findling (2006) Wigal (2004) Biederman (2003) Wolraich (2001) Pliszka (2000) Newcorn (2008) Dell'Agnello (2009) Martenyl (2010) Gau (2007) Kelsey (2004) Michelson (2001) Kratochvil (2011) Montoya (2009) Takahashi (2009) Block (2009) Weiss (2005) Michelson (2002) Bangs (2008) Spencer (2002) [study 1 & 2] LDX "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:Jump to sectionObjective:Research design and methods:Main outcome measures:Results:Conclusions:IntroductionPatients and methodsResultsDiscussionConclusionTransparencySystematically review and synthesize the clinical evidence of treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by indirectly comparing established treatments in the UK with a drug recently approved in Europe (lisdexamfetamine [LDX]).Research design and methods:Jump to sectionObjective:Research design and methods:Main outcome measures:Results:Conclusions:IntroductionPatients and methodsResultsDiscussionConclusionTransparencyPopulation: children and adolescents. Setting: Europe. Comparators: methylphenidate (MPH), atomoxetine (ATX), and dexamphetamine (DEX). Electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings were searched for randomized, controlled clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety of at least one of the comparators and LDX. Quality assessments for each included trial were performed using criteria recommended by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Network meta-analysis methods for dichotomous outcomes were employed to evaluate treatment efficacy.Main outcome measures:Jump to sectionObjective:Research design and methods:Main outcome measures:Results:Conclusions:IntroductionPatients and methodsResultsDiscussionConclusionTransparencyResponse, as defined by either a reduction from baseline of at least 25% in the ADHD Rating Scale [ADHD-RS] total score or, separately, as assessed on the Clinical Global Impression–Improvement [CGI-I] scale, and safety (all-cause withdrawals and withdrawal due to adverse events).Results:Jump to sectionObjective:Research design and methods:Main outcome measures:Results:Conclusions:IntroductionPatients and methodsResultsDiscussionConclusionTransparencyThe systematic review found 32 trials for the meta-analysis, including data on LDX, ATX, and different formulations of MPH. No trials for DEX meeting the inclusion criteria were found. Sufficient data were identified for each outcome: ADHD-RS, 16 trials; CGI-I, 20 trials; all-cause withdrawals, 28 trials; and withdrawals due to adverse events, 27 trials. The relative probability of treatment response for CGI-I (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for ATX versus LDX was 0.65 (0.53–0.78); for long-acting MPH versus LDX, 0.82 (0.69–0.97); for intermediate release MPH versus LDX, 0.51 (0.40–0.65); and for short-acting MPH versus LDX, 0.62 (0.51–0.76). The relative probabilities of ADHD-RS treatment response also favored LDX.Conclusions:Jump to sectionObjective:Research design and methods:Main outcome measures:Results:Conclusions:IntroductionPatients and methodsResultsDiscussionConclusion TransparencyFor the treatment of ADHD, the synthesis of efficacy data showed statistically significant better probabilities of response with LDX than for formulations of MPH or ATX. The analysis of safety data proved inconclusive due to low event rates. These results may be limited by the studies included, which only investigated the short-term efficacy of medications in patients without comorbid disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Current Medical Research and Opinion
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    • "— +4.1% (Findling et al., 2008; Wigal et al., 2004) — — Euphoria -3.0% (Barkley et al., 1990; Firestone et al., 1998) — — — -5.0% (Barkley et al., 1990) — Rebound — — — — +29.0% (Short et al., 2004) — *Terms used to describe emotional expression varied among studies. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    • "It is worth mentioning that 5 mg D-MPH is equivalent to 10 mg MPH-IR. The drug has been studied and is well tolerated in open trials and controlled studies with minimal side effects (Silva et al., 2004[107]; Wigal et al., 2004[129]). Using the SODAS beaded technique there is an extended release preparation of D-MPH available in 5, 10 and 20 mg capsules (Greenhill et al., 2006[47]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as α-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
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