The Early Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping in Term Infants Born to Libyan Mothers

Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
Tropical Doctor (Impact Factor: 0.48). 11/2004; 34(4):218-22.
Source: PubMed


This study was conducted to evaluate the haematological effects of the timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants 24 h after birth in Libya. Mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to early cord clamping (within 10s after delivery) or delayed clamping (after the cord stopped pulsating). Maternal haematological status was assessed on admission in the delivery room. Infant haematological status was evaluated in cord blood and 24 h after birth. Bilirubin concentration was assessed at 24 h. 104 mother-infant pairs were randomized to delayed (n=58) or early cord clamping (n=46). At baseline the groups had similar demographic and biomedical characteristics, except for a difference in maternal haemoglobin, which was significantly higher in the early clamping group (11.7 g/dL, SD 1.3 g/dL versus 10.9 g/dL, SD 1.6 g/dL; P=0.0035). Twenty-four hours after delivery the mean infant haemoglobin level was significantly higher in the delayed clamping group (18.5 g/dL versus 17.1 g/dL; P=0.0005). No significant differences were found in clinical jaundice or plethora. Surprisingly, blood analysis showed that two babies in the early clamping group had total serum bilirubin levels (> 15 mg/dL) that necessitated phototherapy. There were no babies in the late clamping group who required phototherapy. Three infants in the delayed clamping group had polycythaemia without symptoms, for which no partial exchange transfusion was necessary. Delaying cord clamping until the pulsations stop increases the red cell mass in term infants. It is a safe, simple and low cost delivery procedure that should be incorporated in integrated programmes aimed at reducing iron deficiency anaemia in infants in developing countries.

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Available from: Patrick F van Rheenen
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    • "Either the infants outgrow their iron stores, or the infants suffer increased loss of iron via the gastrointestinal tract during episodes of diarrhoea or during the feeding of whole cow's milk (Oski 1993). Neonatal polycythaemia, hyperviscosity and hyperbilirubinaemia are potential consequences of placental transfusion (Behrman et al. 2000), but the safety of DCC in appropriate-for-gestational-age term infants has been demonstrated in several trials (Linderkamp et al. 1992; Nelle et al. 1993, 1995, 1996; Grajeda et al. 1997; Emhamed et al. 2004; van Rheenen & Brabin 2004). However, there is paucity of information on DCC in smallfor-gestational-age (SGA) infants. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to assess whether delaying umbilical cord clamping is effective in improving the haematological status of term infants living in a malaria-endemic area, and whether this is associated with complications in infants and mothers. We randomly assigned women delivering term babies in Mpongwe Mission Hospital, Zambia, to delayed cord clamping (DCC, n = 46) or immediate cord clamping (controls, n = 45) and followed their infants on a bi-monthly basis until the age of 6 months. We compared the haemoglobin (Hb) change from cord values and the proportion of anaemic infants. Secondary outcomes related to infant and maternal safety. Throughout the observation period infant Hb levels in both groups declined, but more rapidly in controls than in the DCC group [difference in Hb change from baseline at 4 months 1.1 g/dl, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2; 2.1]. By 6 months, this difference had disappeared (0.0 g/dl, 95% CI -0.9; 0.8). The odds ratio for iron deficiency anaemia in the DCC group at 4 months was 0.3 (95% CI 0.1; 1.0), but no differences were found between the groups at 6 months. No adverse events were seen in infants and mothers. Our findings indicate that DCC could help improve the haematological status of term infants living in a malaria-endemic region at 4 months of age. However, the beneficial haematological effect disappeared by 6 months. This simple, free and safe delivery procedure might offer a strategy to reduce early infant anaemia risk, when other interventions are not yet feasible.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
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    ABSTRACT: Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Obstetricia y Cirugía. Leída el 25 de abril de 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Although cord cutting has been performed since the beginning of mankind, the timing and advantages of early versus delayed cord clamping are still controversial. Early cord clamping (within the first 30 s after birth) is usually justified for potential prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and for immediate treatment of the newborn, but at the same time, may increase Rh-sensitization. Delayed cord clamping is performed after a period of 30 s during which 'placental transfusion' of approximately 80 mL of blood occurs. This amount seems to protect the baby from childhood anemia without increasing hypervolemia-related risks. In preterm infants, delayed clamping appears to reduce the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the need for neonatal transfusion. Obtaining cord blood for future autologous transplantation of stem cells needs early clamping and seems to conflict with the infant's best interest. Although a tailored approach is required in the case of cord clamping, the balance of available data suggests that delayed cord clamping should be the method of choice.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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