Opportunities for cancer epidemiology in developing countries

ArticleinNature reviews. Cancer 4(11):909-17 · December 2004with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/nrc1475 · Source: PubMed
Most cancer epidemiology studies involve people living in North America and Europe, which represent only a fraction of the global population. The wide variety of dietary, lifestyle and environmental exposures, as well as the genetic variation among people in developing countries can provide valuable new information on factors that contribute to cancer or that protect against it. What are the challenges and advantages to performing large epidemiological studies in developing nations?
    • "The upsurge incidence of cancer predicted 15 million deaths by the year 2020. [1] In India, incidence of cancer is estimated approximately to be 2.5 million every year, which includes 8 lakh new cases and 5.5 lakh deaths. [2] Webster, et al.: Emotional support alleviates serum cortisol level in breast cancer patients "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring female cancer in the world. Research gap exists regarding emotional support for breast cancer patients. Aim: The main aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of Emotional Support- Focused Nurse directed Intervention on serum cortisol among arm I, II and III in breast cancer patients. Methods: The study was designed to compare the effectiveness of emotional support focused nurse directed intervention in terms of verbal, written and telephone basis on serum cortisol among breast cancer patients in Cancer Centre at Erode. Participants were randomly allocated by using Sequentially Numbered Opaque Sealed Envelope (SNOSE) method. 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 30 breast cancer patients who were selected randomly by adopting random number table, 10 in each experimental arm during evening at 18 hour; radioimmunoassay method was used to measure the level of serum cortisol before and after intervention. The intervention was given twice in a week for the duration of 30-45 minutes, in which early 20-30 minutes spares to express thoughts and feelings of the participants and subsequent 10-15 minutes for rendering informational support and later follow up session for the period of 1 month. Results: Emotional support was effective in reducing serum cortisol level among breast cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between arms on serum cortisol levels. Conclusions: Marginal differences were noted between posttest mean scores of serum cortisol among verbal, written and telephone arms. Further emotional support can be rendered according to the preference of the breast cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "Calorie surplus leads to the presence of available resources and is therefore likely to favor invasive cancers that rely on the rapid cellular growth which itself depends on an increase in supply of energy and of substrates for the biosynthesis of all the macromolecules required to build new cells. In accordance with this hypothesis, the incidence of cancer is increasing in developing countries owing to changes in lifestyle and diet that occur with economic development (consumption of highly refined foods, sugars and/or saturated fat; Prentice and Sheppard 1990; Bergstr€ om et al. 2001; Bianchini et al. 2002; Rastogi et al. 2004 ). Cancer progression also likely depends on the energy balance (nutritional excess/lack of activity) and composition of diet rather than simple calorie intake (Holly et al. 2013). "
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Indian Journal of Palliative Care
    • "It is important to highlight that cancer patient services are inherently multidisciplinary, involving the primary care doctor, the pathologist, the oncologist and the surgeon (O'Brien M. et al., 2014; Peterson et al., 2011). The quality of these services has been affected by the limited number of qualified oncology professionals and by the reduced number of research professional networks specialized in complex scientific disciplines that involve cancer treatment (Rastogi, Hildesheim & Sinha, 2004; Lenoir, 1998). The use of information technology can contribute significantly to the improvement of healthcare (Abraham, Nishihara, & Akiyama, 2011; Bardhan & Thouin, 2013; Côrtes & Côrtes, 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information Technologies can provide the basis for new directions in cancer research, supplying tools that identify subtle but important signs from the analysis of clinical, behavioral, environmental and genetic data. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the system developed for managing Banco Nacional de Tumores (SISBNT) – National Tumor Bank System -highlighting its role in the technological innovation of Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA) – Brazilian National Cancer Institute. It is a qualitative empirical theoretical paper, descriptive and exploratory in nature, based on the single case study method and on participant observation. The results show the importance of good practices in information management for the full operation of a biobank in a research-oriented pharmaceutical company. There is also evidence that the implementation of SISBNT has contributed to the improvement of cancer treatment quality and to the support of efforts towards the organization of the integration of clinical, translational and basic research. The non-use of data mining techniques for the identification of molecular patterns and structures associated with the different types of cancer undergoing study at INCA seems to occur due to the early stage of Bioinformatics and translational research, as well as the National Tumor Bank, in the institution.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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