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Hypoglycemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarium

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Abstract

The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium barbarum fruit water decoction, crude polysaccharide extracts (crude LBP), and purified polysaccharide fractions (LBP-X) in alloxan-induced diabetic or hyperlipidemic rabbits were investigated through designed sequential trials and by measuring blood glucose and serum lipid parameters. Total antioxidant capacity was also assessed using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. It was found that the three Lycium barbarum fruit extracts/fractions could significantly reduce blood glucose levels and serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations and at same time markedly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels after 10 days treatment in tested rabbits, indicating that there were substantial hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Hypoglycemic effect of LBP-X was more significant than those of water decoction and crude LBP, but its hypolipidemic effect seemed to be weaker. Total antioxidant capacity assay showed that all three Lycium barbarum extracts/fractions possessed antioxidant activity. However, water and methanolc fruit extracts and crude polysaccharide extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than purified polysaccharide fractions because crude extracts were identified to be rich in antioxidants (e.g., carotenoids, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, nicotinic acid). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (glycocojugates), containing several monosaccharides and 17 amino acids, were major bioactive constituents of hypoglycemic effect. Both polysaccharides and vitamin antioxidants from Lycium barbarum fruits were possible active principles of hypolipidemic effect.

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... Previously, these compounds were demonstrated to exert cardiovascular protective benefits in animal studies. These include hypolipidemic effects [11,12], antioxidant functions [13,14] and improvements in endothelial function through an upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and increases in circulating nitric oxide concentrations [15,16]. ...
... These findings however, deviated from the conclusions of Guo et al. [17], the first meta-analysis that investigated the effects of wolfberry on cardiometabolic risk factors and detected non-significant changes to TG. Contrary to the previous review, Yu et al. [34] was omitted as it did not fulfill the present RCT study design criteria, while an additional 4 eligible RCTs were included [2,19,20,26]. The present pooled effects which depict a reduction in blood TG following wolfberry intake corresponds to the observations of earlier animal models that fed wolfberry extract to hyperlipidemic rabbits [12] and LBP extract to diabetic rats [35,36]. Mechanistically, this was postulated to be linked to the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis via transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) inhibition. ...
... This is supported by an earlier hyperlipidemic rabbit model which observed a more prominent decline in blood TG and TC, coupled with a greater rise in HDL-C and antioxidant capacity, when wolfberry was administered as a fruit water decoction or crude extract compared to a purified LBP extract. This implies potential additive and synergistic interactions between bioactive compounds that may amplify the cardiovascular protective benefits of wolfberry [12]. Nevertheless, it should be noted that for subcategory analysis, the lack of RCTs limit robust conclusions that need to be substantiated by more extensive evidence. ...
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PurposeWolfberry is rich in bioactive compounds which may lower cardiovascular disease risk. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of wolfberry-based randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on overall cardiovascular health.Methods Four online databases (PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Medline and Cochrane Library) were searched to shortlist relevant RCTs. Outcomes of interests included blood lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and other cardiovascular health-related indicators. Random-effects models were used to provide a weighted mean difference (WMD) and/or Hedges’ g for quantitative synthesis. This was coupled with subcategory analyses which stratified RCTs according to the form in which wolfberry was administered (whole wolfberry versus wolfberry extract).ResultsFrom the 785 articles identified, 10 were selected for meta-analysis. Compared to the control, groups which consumed wolfberry showed a reduction in blood triglycerides [WMDpooled (95% confidence interval): − 0.14 (− 0.19, − 0.09) mmol/L] and increased blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [WMDpooled: 0.06 (0.02, 0.09) mmol/L]. Notably, effects for both triglycerides [WMDwhole: − 0.14 (− 0.19, − 0.09) mmol/L; WMDextract: − 0.07 (− 0.30, 0.16) mmol/L] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [WMDwhole: 0.06 (0.02, 0.09) mmol/L; WMDextract: 0.05 (− 0.02, 0.13) mmol/L] were more prominent after whole wolfberry interventions. Additionally, blood malondialdehyde equivalents were also significantly decreased in wolfberry consuming groups [Hedges’ gpooled: − 1.45 (− 2.75, − 0.16)]. No changes were observed for the other lipids and lipoproteins as well as blood pressure.Conclusions Wolfberry consumption is effective in improving blood lipids and lipoproteins profile and lowering oxidative stress. This supports the incorporation of wolfberry, particularly as whole fruits, into dietary patterns targeted at improving cardiovascular health.
... However, it seems that polysaccharides (Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, LBPs), of which the fruit is particularly rich, are the primary bioactive components to determine the beneficial pharmacological effects of the berry [11][12][13][14][15]. Previous studies have shown that Goji berries have antioxidant, anti-aging [12], antitumoral [16], anti-inflammatory [17,18], immunomodulatory [19], gastrointestinal-protective [20], cardioprotective [13], retinoprotective [14], and neuroprotective properties [21] as well as beneficial effects on several aspects of the reproductive sphere [22,23]. Last but not least, an increasing number of studies are showing the influence of Goji berries on blood glucose level homeostasis, suggesting antidiabetic [15,[24][25][26][27] and hypolipidemic effects [26,28,29]. For a review, see Kwok et al. [10] and Masci et al. [11]. ...
... However, it seems that polysaccharides (Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, LBPs), of which the fruit is particularly rich, are the primary bioactive components to determine the beneficial pharmacological effects of the berry [11][12][13][14][15]. Previous studies have shown that Goji berries have antioxidant, anti-aging [12], antitumoral [16], anti-inflammatory [17,18], immunomodulatory [19], gastrointestinal-protective [20], cardioprotective [13], retinoprotective [14], and neuroprotective properties [21] as well as beneficial effects on several aspects of the reproductive sphere [22,23]. Last but not least, an increasing number of studies are showing the influence of Goji berries on blood glucose level homeostasis, suggesting antidiabetic [15,[24][25][26][27] and hypolipidemic effects [26,28,29]. For a review, see Kwok et al. [10] and Masci et al. [11]. ...
... Few scientific studies, however, have investigated this, and most of them used rodents with induced diabetes as an experimental model [25,27,56,57]. To our knowledge, only one study has used the rabbit [26], while the effects of Goji berries during pregnancy and on the adult offspring have never been explored. Thus, although our hypotheses were only partially confirmed, the present study maintains the innovative aspects due to the experimental model. ...
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This study investigated the effects of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) dietary supplementation during pregnancy on insulin sensitivity of rabbit does and their offspring. Starting from two months before the artificial insemination, 75 New Zealand White does were fed only commercial standard diet (C) or supplemented with 1% (G1) and 3% (G3) of Goji berries. Their offspring received a standard diet but kept the nomenclature of the mother’s group. Fasting and intravenous glucose tolerance test-derived indices were estimated at 21 days of pregnancy on rabbit does and at 90 days of age on the offspring. No difference was found in the fasting indices, while the diet modulated the response to glucose load of rabbit does. In particular, G3 group had the lowest glucose concentrations 5 min after the bolus administration (p < 0.05) and, as a result, differed in the parameters calculated during the elimination phase such as the elimination rate constant (Kel), the half-life of the exogenous glucose load (t1/2), and apparent volume of distribution (Vd; for all, p < 0.05). The high dose of Goji supplementation could thus enhance the first-phase glucose-induced insulin secretion. Findings on the offspring were inconsistent and therefore a long-term effect of Goji supplementation during pregnancy could not be demonstrated. Further study on the effect of Goji on the secretory pathway of insulin could clarify its hypoglycaemic action, while different protocols are needed to investigate its potential effects on foetal programming.
... Şekil 1. Goji meyvelerinin (Lycium meyveleri, kurt üzümü veya süper meyve) genel görünümü Geleneksel olarak, kurutulmuş meyve veya bitkisel çay olarak tüketilmelerinin yanı sıra; tentür, şarap ve meyve suyu yapımında da kullanılmaktadır. 8,9 Tıp ve eczacılık alanında; yaşlanma karşıtı, yara iyileştirici, antikanser, nöroprotektif, sitoprotektif, anti-diyabetik, anti-inflamatuvar ve immün sistem güçlendirici özellikleri sayesinde özellikle glokom, böbrek yetmezliği, karaciğer hasarı, kanser, hepatit, hiperlipidemi, tromboz, diyabet ve kısırlık tedavisinde kullanım potansiyeline sahip olduğu rapor edilmiştir. [10][11][12] Ayrıca, geleneksel Çin tıbbında retinopatili hastalarda oksidasyonu azaltmaya yardımcı olduğu gösterilmiştir. ...
... İhtiva ettiği makro ve mikro besinler sayesinde güçlü biyolojik aktiviteler sergileyen Lycium meyveleri, insan sağlığı açısından oldukça önemli bir besin kaynağıdır. [6][7][8] Goji meyvelerinde bulunan en önemli biyoaktif bileşenler; polisakkaritler, karotenoidler, flavonoidler ve fenoliklerdir. Bu gruplardan; suda çözünebilir özellikte olan polisakkaritler (arabinoz, galaktoz, glikoz, ramnoz, mannoz, ksiloz ve galakturonik asit), kuru meyvenin yaklaşık %5-8'ini oluşturmaktadır. ...
... Bunun yanı sıra, Goji meyvelerin yüksek kan basıncını düşürücü etkilerinin yanı sıra; karaciğerde toplam kolesterol, trigliserit ve serum düşük yoğunluklu lipoprotein-(LDL-) C düzeylerinin azalmasına da katkı sağladığı ortaya konulmuştur. 8,49 Hiperglisemi olarak da bilinen diabetes mellitus, anormal derecede yüksek kan şekeri seviyeleri ile karakterize bir hastalıktır. 6,35,48 Yapılan hücre ve hayvan çalışmalarında fonksiyonel bir gıda olarak goji berry'nin hipoglisemik bir etkiye sahip olduğu ve glikoz alımı üzerinde konsantrasyona bağlı etki gösterdiği kanıtlanmıştır. ...
... Moreover, GBs are also considered a good source of both carotenoids, with zeaxanthin as the main fraction, and polyphenols, mainly quercetin and kaempferol (72). Different studies have demonstrated that the health benefits deriving from the consumption of GBs are due to a structurally varied range of molecules, which includes all the abovementioned (55,73,74). ...
... There are a few studies regarding the effects of GB on the metabolic homeostasis in rabbits. In a first study, 35 adult rabbits with alloxan-induced hyperglycemia were fed three different GB preparations (fruit water decoction, crude LBPs, and purified LBPs) for 10 days (55). In the GB-treated groups, a significant reduction in glycemia, decrease in lipemia, and increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found. ...
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In the last decades, several nutraceutical substances have received great attention for their potential role in the prevention and treatment of different diseases as well as for their beneficial effects in promoting the health of humans and animals. Goji berries (GBs) are the fruit of Lycium barbarum and other species of Lycium , used in traditional Chinese medicine, and they have recently become very popular in the Occidental world because of their properties, such as anti-aging, antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, cytoprotective, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects are essentially evaluated in clinical trials in humans; in experimental animal models, such as mice and rats; and in cell lines in in vitro studies. Only recently has scientific research evaluated the effects of GBs diet supplementation in livestock animals, including rabbits. Although studies in the zootechnical field are still limited and the investigation of the GB mechanisms of action is in an early stage, the results are encouraging. This review includes a survey of the experimental trials that evaluated the effects of the GBs supplementation on reproductive and productive performances, immune system, metabolic homeostasis, and meat quality principally in the rabbit with also some references to other livestock animal species. Evidence supports the idea that GB supplementation could be used in rabbit breeding, although future studies should be conducted to establish the optimal dose to be administered and to assess the sustainability of the use of GBs in the diet of the rabbit.
... As the anti-aging effects of L. barbarum display a wide range of target tissues, it is believed that it can overall protect cells from oxidative, hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions. According to the results of a previous clinical study conducted in alloxantreated rabbits, the LBP group reduced the blood glucose levels [48]. ...
... Moreover, Zhang et al. [64] suggested that the fraction LBPF4-OL of the LBP promotes lymphocyte proliferation secreting TNF-α and IL-1β. Luo et al. [48] also showed that L. barbarum extracts have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects as well as strong antioxidant activity in rabbits with diabetes and hyperlipidemia from aloxane. ...
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Since ancient times, it has been noticed that Goji berry fruit juice, roots and leaves consist of in-gredients that contain a wide variety of bioactive substances. The consumption of goji berry fruits results in properties which improve the subjective feeling of general well-being. The aim of this work is to present the information from the existing literature on the possible role of goji berry plant parts and their extracts as a functional food. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) and polyphenols are the most researched aspects of fruits associated with the promotion of hu-man health. Goji berry fruits demonstrated anti-oxidative properties that are associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and antitumor and immunoregulatory ac-tivities. Bioactive secondary metabolites contained in fruit lead to positive effects for human vi-sion, while other biochemicals contained in the root bark have shown hepatoprotective and in-hibitory actions on the rennin/angiotensin system. The results presented so far in the literature verify their use in traditional medicine.
... Lycium chinense (LC) and Lycium barbarum (LB) belong to the Solanaceae family and their fruits have long been widely used as various traditional herbal medicines and functional food ingredients under the common name Goji or Boxthorn in China, Gugija in Korea, Kuko in Japan and wolfberries in European countries. Various beneficial health effects of fruits (Goji berries) and leaves of these trees, such as hepatoprotective [11], antioxidant [12,13], immune enhancing [14], and hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities [13], have been reported. Regarding the roots of these traditional medicinal plants, only a small portion of their bark (Lycii Radicis Cortex, LRC) has been traditionally utilized in Korea (under the name of Jigolpi) and China (known as Digupi) for the cure of various symptoms. ...
... Lycium chinense (LC) and Lycium barbarum (LB) belong to the Solanaceae family and their fruits have long been widely used as various traditional herbal medicines and functional food ingredients under the common name Goji or Boxthorn in China, Gugija in Korea, Kuko in Japan and wolfberries in European countries. Various beneficial health effects of fruits (Goji berries) and leaves of these trees, such as hepatoprotective [11], antioxidant [12,13], immune enhancing [14], and hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities [13], have been reported. Regarding the roots of these traditional medicinal plants, only a small portion of their bark (Lycii Radicis Cortex, LRC) has been traditionally utilized in Korea (under the name of Jigolpi) and China (known as Digupi) for the cure of various symptoms. ...
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Particulate matters (PMs) from polluted air cause diverse pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, including lung inflammation. While the fruits (Goji) of Lycium trees are commonly consumed as traditional medicine and functional food ingredients, the majority of their roots are discarded as by-products. To enhance the industrial applicability of Lycium roots, we prepared an ethanol extract (named GR30) of L. chinense Miller roots and evaluated its potential protective effects against particulate matter 10 (PM10)-induced inflammation and immune cell death. The GR30 treatment (0–500 μg/mL) significantly attenuated the PM10-induced cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in RBL-2H3 basophil cells. GR30 also significantly antagonized the PM10-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α) and COX2 expression through downregulation of MAPKs (ERK and JNK) signalling pathway. Oral administration of GR30 (200–400 mg/kg) to PM10 (20 mg/mL)-challenged mice significantly reduced the serum levels of IgE and the expression of TNF-α and Bax in lung tissues, which were elevated by PM10 exposure. These results revealed that the ethanolic extract (GR30) of L. chinense Miller roots exhibited anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective activity against PM10-induced inflammation and basophil cell death, and thus, it would be useful in functional food industries to ameliorate PM-mediated damage to respiratory and immune systems.
... Lycium barbarum is the mature fruit of L. barbarum vine, a deciduous shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family [1]. It is a red fruit that looks a small pepper, is used medicinally in oriental medicine, and is also consumed in large amounts as a tea for the purpose of health promotion. ...
... Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin) is a coumarin derivative and is contained in many medicinal plants, such as L. barbarum, Erycibe obtusifolia, Aster tataricus, and Foeniculum vulgare [6]. A previous report showed that scopoletin had anti-inflammatory effects in the human mast cell line HMC-1 [7], anti-obesity and fatty liver inhibitory effects [8], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects [1], and synergistic antifungal effects [9]. ...
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Lycium barbarum and scopoletin are widely used in oriental Eastern medicine and are often consumed as teas. In this study, proinflammatory cytokines expressed in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were induced by skin diseases caused by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The inhibitory activity of L. barbarum EtOH extract (LBE) and scopoletin on proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was investigated. In the DNCB-induced animal model, oral administration of LBE inhibited skin lesions and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and showed inhibitory effects in vitro. Additionally, as a result of examining the efficacy of scopoletin isolated from L. barbarum, scopoletin in HaCaT cells showed inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. It shows promise in the treatment of chronic skin diseases.
... Red-colored fruits of Lycium barbarum (Gouqizi, Fructus Lycii, or wolfberry) are used as traditional Chinese herbal medicine to promote health and longevity, and as a food supplement for 1,000 of years (Qian, 2019). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the main active constituents of L. barbarum fruits, which possess a variety of pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, anti-stress, neuroprotective activities, anti-aging, antidiabetic activities, immune regulation, protection against liver damage, and reduction of blood glucose level (Luo et al., 2004;Ha et al., 2005). Recent studies have shown that LBPs play a vital role in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism (Jia et al., 2016). ...
... We also found that LBP administration effectively alleviated HFD-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation through decreasing TG, TC, LDL-C, and MDA in the serum and TG, TC, and MDA levels in the liver and increasing the serum HDL-C level in HFD feeding mice. These results are similar to the previous reports that found crude polysaccharide extracts (crude LBP), okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] polysaccharides, Grifola frondosa polysaccharides, and Cipangopaludina chinensis polysaccharides reduced the level of serum lipids in the HFD model (Luo et al., 2004;Li et al., 2019;Liao et al., 2019;Xiong et al., 2019). The possible mechanism of LBP supplementation alleviating hepatic triglyceride production and accumulation is through upregulating lipolysis-degraded enzyme, and boosting fatty acid β-oxidation and inhibiting lipogenic enzyme production in the liver (Xiao et al., 2013;Jia et al., 2016). ...
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been proved to prevent obesity and modulate gut microbiota. However, the underlying mechanisms of LBPs’ regulating lipid metabolism remain entirely unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether LBPs are able to modulate the gut microbiota to prevent obesity. The results showed that oral administration of LBPs alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing the serum levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and elevating the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese mice. Furthermore, LBP treatment decreased the number and size of adipocytes in epididymal adipose tissues and downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that LBPs increased the diversity of bacteria, reduced the Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio, and improved the gut dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet; for example, LBPs increased the production of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Lacticigenium , Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group , and Butyricicoccus . LBPs treatment also increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids, including butyric acid. These findings illustrate that LBPs might be developed as a potential prebiotic to improve lipid metabolism and intestinal diseases.
... According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), LB mainly acted on the liver and kidney meridians, and thus could nourish the liver and kidney [4]. Modern pharmacological studies also confirmed that LB possesses excellent activities including anti-aging and antioxidant properties [5][6][7], neuroprotection effects [8], hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities [9], and beneficial immune regulation [10]. ...
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Given the standard substances of zeaxanthin and its homologues obtained from Lycium barbarum L. (LB) are extremely scarce and unstable, a novel quantitative analysis of carotenoids by single marker method, named QAMS, was established. Four carotenoids including lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and zeaxanthin dipalmitate were determined simultaneously by employing trans-β-apo-8′-carotenal, a carotenoid component which did not exist in LB, as standard reference. Meanwhile, β-carotene, another carotenoid constituent which existed in LB, was determined as contrast. The QAMS methods were fully verified and exhibited low standard method difference with the external standard method (ESM), evidenced by the contents of four carotenoids in 34 batches of LB samples determined using ESM and QAMS methods, respectively. HCA, PCA, and OPLS-DA analysis disclosed that LB samples could be clearly differentiated into two groups: one contained LB samples collected from Ningxia and Gansu; the other was from Qinghai, which was directly related to the different geographical location. Once exposed under high humidity (RH 75 ± 5%) at a high temperature (45 ± 5 °C) as compared with ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C), from day 0 to day 28, zeaxanthin dipalmitate content was significantly decreased, and ultimately, all the decrease rates reached about 80%, regardless of the storage condition. Our results provide a good basis for improving the quality control of LB.
... Wolfberry has a long history in China and has been used for medicine and functional food, and it is listed in the Traditional Chinese Pharmacopeia (TCP) (Amagase & Farnsworth, 2011;Lu et al., 2014). To a certain extent, wolfberry has been one of the most important products exported from these provinces and has provided a significant contribution to the local economy (Ali et al., 2019).Wolfberry dried fruit contains many nutrients, such as polysaccharide, phenolic acid, carotene, betaine and flavonoids (Donno et al., 2016;Qian, 2004;Wang et al., 2010), which possesses many advantages, such as antioxidation, antiradiation, anticancer, anti-ageing characteristics, enhancement of haemopoiesis, brightening of the eyes, etc., which has increased its popularity among consumers (Chiu et al., 2010;Gan et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2004;Zhou et al., 2017). Therefore, wolfberry, as a kind of food with great health benefits, is not only loved by consumers in China and Southeast Asia but also consumed in European and American markets, which is expanding year by year (Potterat, 2010). ...
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Abstract A modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC-MS/MS was developed and validated to detect 31 pesticides in wolfberry. The conditions for extraction solvent and QuEChERS purification were optimized. The validated method was applied to analyse pesticides in 200 wolfberry samples. The risk from chronic and acute dietary intake of the detected pesticide residues was assessed by the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and acute reference dose (ARfD), respectively, and the cumulative intake risk posed by the detected residues was assessed by the hazard index (HI). The results showed that 23 pesticides were detected in all wolfberry samples. The risk from chronic dietary intake was between 0.0001% and 1.6067%, and the risk from acute dietary intake was between 0.0010% and 0.4999%, which were all far below 100%. The HI was 0.02569 for chronic dietary intake and 0.015164 for acute dietary intake, which were both far below 1. The results indicated that the pesticide residues in wolfberry would not cause potential risk to human health. This work not only enhances our understanding of the potential exposure risks of pesticide residues in wolfberry, but also provides an effective method for the risk assessment of pesticide residues in other agricultural products.
... We did not observe improvements in CVD risk-and vascular health-related markers after diet intervention, except for wolfberry consumption improved blood HDL-C concentration ( Table 2). Previous evidence showed that administration of wolfberry polysaccharides to hyperlipidemic rabbits 49 and type 2 diabetic patients 25 or administration of wolfberry zeaxanthin to diabetic rat model 50 enhanced HDL-C levels, indicating that HDL-C beneficial effect of wolfberry may be linked to bioactive compounds that are abundant in wolfberry. ...
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Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) have received growing attention in relation to the cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of diet intervention, a primary strategy for CVD prevention on BOECs is not reported. This study aims to investigate the effect of following a healthy dietary pattern (HDP) with or without wolfberry consumption, a health food with potential cardiovascular benefits, on the number and function of BOECs in middle-aged and older adults. Twenty-four subjects were consumed either a HDP only (n = 9) or a HDP supplemented with 15 g/day wolfberry (n = 15) for 16 weeks. At pre- and post-intervention, vascular health biomarkers and composite CVD risk indicators were assessed. BOECs were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and their angiogenic and migration activities were measured. Isolated BOECs have typical endothelial cobblestone morphology, express von Willebrand factor and KDR. Consuming a HDP improved BOEC colony’s growth rate, which demonstrated by significant time effects in colony’s culture time between passages 1 and 2 (P = 0.038). Both interventions increased BOECs’ tube formation capacity. Moreover, HDP intervention contributed to a time effect on BOEC migration activity (P = 0.040 for t1/2gap). Correlation analysis revealed that BOEC colony number was positively associated with blood pressure, atherogenic index, vascular age and Framingham risk score. In conclusion, adherence to a HDP improved BOECs’ function in middle-aged and older population while additional wolfberry consumption did not provide enhanced effect. Our results provide a mechanistic dissection of the beneficial effects on BOECs of dietary pattern modification.
... These studies have suggested anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-tumor, and immune stimulating effects of LB extract. These effects are associated with various agents including beta carotene, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine cerebroside and betaine [25][26][27][28][29]. Additionally, the anti-oxidant protective effects of LB extract on the cellular damage that develops in the liver, eyes, small intestine and kidney have also been studied [30][31][32][33]. ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Lycium bar-barum (LB) extract against paracetamol-induced acute oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. The subjects were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. The rats in the LB group were administered a dose of 100 mg/kg LB extract dissolved in saline via the intraperitoneal route for 7 days. Subsequently, after last dose of LB, PCT was given in a single dose of 1 g/kg diluted in saline via the oral route. Twenty-four hours later, blood samples were drawn from all of the subjects for serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS) tests, and liver tissue samples were obtained for histopathological evaluation. The mean TAS level of the group that was subjected to PCT intoxication was significantly lower than those of the other groups. Additionally, the mean TOS, Oxidative stress index (OSI), ALT and AST values were significantly higher in this group. Though the mean TAS level in the PCT + LB group was significantly higher than that of the PCT group, the TOS, OSI, ALT, and AST levels were significantly lower. When the PCT + LB group and the PCT only group were compared in terms of liver damage during the histopathological evaluation, a statistically significant difference was observed in Grade I and Grade III damage (P=0.013 and P=0.038, respectively). We conclude that Lycium barbarum extract leads to a significant improvement in PCT-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of the histopathological results, serum oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes.
... [15] In in vitro and in vivo studies, Lycium barbarum L. exhibited lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. [16,17] However, the results of randomized controlled trials on lycium barbarum L. have been inconsistent in clinical studies. Studies have shown that taking goji berries for 45 days on a healthy diet can significantly improve lipoprotein levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. ...
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Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Lycium barbarum L. are widely used as medicinal and functional food and may be particularly beneficial for patients with dyslipidemia. This systematic review protocol is designed to be used to evaluate the effects of Lycium barbarum L. on plasma lipid concentration through systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The Following electronic databases will be searched from inception to October 2021: the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Wan-fang database. All randomized controlled trial designs evaluated the effects of Lycium barbarum L. on plasma concentrations of lipids will be included. Two researchers will operate literature retrieval, screening, information extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis independently. The analysis will be conducted using Rstudio software (Version 1.4.1717). The findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed publication. This study will provide practical and targeted evidence in investigating the impact of Lycium barbarum L. on plasma lipid concentration in adults. INPLASY2021110043
... This effect was lowest using AJ and AH extracts (45.22 mg/ mL and 58.64 mg/mL, respectively). However, the high activity recorded can be explained by the presence of kaempferol (Luo et al. 2004) and apigenin (Cavin et al. 1998) in high amounts in this extract. These two phenolic compounds were reported to inhibit the oxidation of ß-carotene ( Skerget et al. 2005;Sharififar et al. 2009). ...
Article
Artemisinin, a natural product, has received considerable attention in the last few years as a potent antimalarial drug. This study reports the presence of Artemisinin in three Algerian wild Artemisia species assessed by HPLC method: A. herba-alba (AH), A. campestris subsp. glutinosa (AC), and A. judaica subsp sahariensis (AJ). The HPLC analysis of the hexane extracts, showed a difference in artemisinin content in studied species with a yield of 0.64%, 0.34% and 0.04% for AC, AH and AJ, respectively. Moreover, the level of artemisinin obtained in A. campestris was better than those found in A. sieberi and A. annua. This rate has been reported for the first time. Furthermore, the antiradical activities of methanolic extracts of plants were also tested. There was a remarkable antioxidant capacity found in all Artemisia methanolic extracts analysed.
... Studies had confirmed that LBP, as a bioactive compound, had good antioxidant properties [11][12][13] and similar effects on eye diseases. Published studies had associated LBP intake with a number of therapeutic effects, including antiaging, metabolic effects, neuroprotective effects in neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity [3,[14][15][16][17][18] . Du et al [19] established an age-related macular degeneration model using blue light-induced oxidative stress damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells, and found LBP could reduce cellular oxidative stress damage by enhancing mitochondrial membrane potential through LBP pretreatment. ...
Article
Aim: To investigate the effect of nano-selenium loaded with different concentrations of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP-SeNPs) on the proliferation of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) from UV irradiation. Methods: LBP-SeNPs were prepared and their particle size was detected. HLECs (SRA01/04) were irradiated with UVB for different time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60min) to construct a damaged model, the survival rate of cells was determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The 4',6-Diamidine-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining was used to observe the status of cell nucleus and drug entering cytoplasm through cell membrane in SRA01/04 cells after adding LBP-SENPS loaded with coumarin fluorescence agent 24h under fluorescence microscope. SRA01/04 normal and UVB-damaged cells were treated with different amounts of LBP-SeNPs at different concentrations, cells proliferation were observed. Results: The particle size of LBP-SeNPs was stable in the range of 150-200 nm. The survival rate changes with time after UVB irradiation were statistically significant. The 10min of UVB exposure as the time was chosen to construct the cell damage model. With DAPI staining, LBP-SeNPs were observed to enter the cytoplasm through the cell membrane under fluorescence inverted microscope. Cytotoxicity of SRA01/04 at different concentrations of LBP-SeNPs were measured. Cell survival rate was statistically different compared with the control group. The higher the loading concentration of LBP in nano-Se drugs was, the higher the cell proliferation rate was (P<0.05). The lower the concentration of LBP-SeNPs, the higher the cell proliferation rate, showing a negative growth trend (P<0.05). The group with the highest average cell proliferation rate was 0.5 µmol/L 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs (128.80%). When the 2.0 mg/mL LBP-SeNPs group was selected for cell photography, the cell density was higher at 0.5 µmol/L. With the increase of concentration, SRA01/04 cells appeared more cytoplasm dehydration, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies, and cell density decreased. Conclusion: LBP-SeNPs has moderate particle size and good stability. LBP-SeNPs can protect HLECs (SRA01/04) from UVB-induced damage, and the cell proliferation rate is further increased with increasing the amount of loaded LBP and decreasing nano-selenium concentration.
... In face of the adverse consequences brought by conventional treatments, we aim to propose a novel pre-treatment for corneal surgical procedures that can reduce stromal fibrotic response while conferring minimal toxicity to stromal cells. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), an active natural ingredient found in wolfberries, is a common Traditional Chinese Medicine that consists of a mixture of polysaccharides including glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose (Luo et al., 2004). It is normally used as daily supplements, and has various therapeutic effects such as anti-aging, neuroprotective and anti-cancer (Gan et al., 2004;Mao et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2013). ...
Article
Purpose Cornea epithelial-stromal scarring is related to the differentiation of fibroblasts into opaque myofibroblasts. Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) solution as a pre-treatment in minimizing corneal scarring. Methods Human corneal fibroblasts were cultured in a three-dimensional collagen type I-based hydrogel in an eye-on-a-chip model. Fibroblasts were pre-treated with 2 mg/mL LBP for 24 h, followed by another 24-h incubation with 10 ng/mL transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce relevant physiological events after stromal injury. Intracellular pro-fibrotic proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and pro-inflammatory cytokines that involved in fibrosis, were assessed using immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Compared to the positive control TGF-β1 group, LBP pre-treated cells had a significantly lower expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, marker of myofibroblasts, vimentin (p < 0.05), and also extracellular matrix proteins both collagen type II and type III (p < 0.05) that can be found in scar tissues. Moreover, LBP pre-treated cells had a significantly lower secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 (p < 0.05). The cell-laden hydrogel contraction and stiffness showed no significant difference between LBP pre-treatment and control groups. Fibroblasts pretreated with LBP as well had reduced angiogenic factors expression and suppression of undesired proliferation (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results showed that LBP reduced both pro-fibrotic proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines on corneal injury in vitro. We suggest that LBP, as a natural Traditional Chinese Medicine, may potentially be a novel topical pre-treatment option prior to corneal refractive surgeries with an improved prognosis.
... glucose and lipid level, [12,13] stimulate anticancer cells, [14] protect vision [15] or increase mental efficiency. [16] Goji berry would have the noteworthy potential for staying power as a nutritional food likely to draw more attention to scientific validation and various product developments. ...
Article
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Goji berry, as a kind of typical and special agricultural material, has high water content, high sugar content, thin epidermis with waxy covering, and dense fleshy cell structure, which makes the drying process more complex than the dehydration of other bio-materials. To obtain high drying efficiency and the high quality products, most researchers have paid much attention on the different kinds of pretreatment and drying technology. This study aimed to examine all the corresponding published data in the literature and to compare the drying characteristics and quality of wolfberry dried by conventional and advanced wolfberry drying methods as well as different drying parameters. We conclude that heat pump drying with simultaneous control of temperature and humidity could replace traditional hot air drying in commercial production to increase the drying efficiency and quality of wolfberry. Infrared drying and microwave drying can be combined with other drying methods to improve drying efficiency; freeze drying, pulsed vacuum drying and electro-hydrodynamic drying are conducive to maintain the appearance and nutrients as well as higher rehydration ratio because of more porous microstructure compared with hot air drying. In addition, this study gives some suggestions and new horizons for directed wolfberry drying development both on the research and application in the future. © 2022 Chaojing Cui, Dandan Zhao, Jin Huang and Jianxiong Hao. Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. © 2022, Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
... Phytochemicals present are flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, polysaccharides (LBP), phenolic compounds, and dicaffeoylspermine/spermidines (Byambasuren et al., 2019;Ye and Jiang, 2020). It shows anti-aging, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities (Luo et al., 2004;Chang and So, 2008;As anic a et al. 2016;Mocan et al., 2017;Skenderidis et al., 2017). ...
Article
Cancer with a mortality rate bordering on cardiac diseases is a multifaceted health issue that medical science is facing today. Despite various therapies available, its management is still a burning issue due to the side effects of most of the drugs used in its treatment. Plant products have always been favorable in health care management due to their effectiveness, ease of availability, and safety. The present review makes an effort to summarize the research advancements in the anti-cancer domain of Solanaceae family. Research carried out during the last ten years (2011À2020) has been briefed after reading about 320 articles published in different data sources like Google scholar, Wiley online library, Web of Science, Semantic Scholar, Scopus, and Pub Med. Altogether 213 article data have been cited, and comprehensive information of 18 utmost potential anti-cancerous plants of the family has complied. About 63 anti-cancerous compounds have been isolated from these eighteen plants. A total of 32 plant-specific anti-cancerous compounds have been tabulated along with their chemical structure and study design. The mechanism of action of specific compounds that might provoke the researcher's watchfulness for further detailed studies is also proposed. This review will come up with the perception of the role of Solanaceae family in cancer research and point out the lacuna in the ongoing knowledge and will contribute to hereafter research.
... Oligosaccharides, which are one of the main components in its structure, show efficiency in cell-cell interaction and adhesion, cell migration, blood coagulation, immune response, and wound healing, and these activities are some of their many known functions. [23][24][25] LB contains many bioactive vitamins (Vitamin A, B 1 , B 2 , C), carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, cryptoxanthin), cerebroside, β-sitosterol, proline, scoleptin, and betaine, which are known to have strong antioxidant effects. It has been reported that LB shows anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, antisenyl, immunomodulatory, and antiaging effects due to this rich content. ...
... It is widely known for its high antioxidant compounds, primarily phenolics (Yao et al., 2011). Diet including polyphenolics and total antioxidants from goji berries benefits vision, diabetes, kidney, liver, weight control, anti-cancer, and anti-aging (Kulczyński and Gramza-Michałowska, 2016;Luo et al., 2004). Among phenolics, cinnamic acid is the most abundant (461.14 mg/100 g FW), followed by ferulic acid (125.80 mg/100 g FW), catechin (347.94 ...
Article
This study aimed to characterize goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit across different stages of maturity and ripening in terms of color, firmness, phytochemicals, and metabolic behavior. According to the producer's indication, the goji berry fruit was divided into six classes: early immature (green) to fully ripe (full red). Several maturity indexes were monitored for all classes, including dimension, weight, color (hue angle), firmness, soluble solid content (SSC), pH, and titratable acidity (TA). Fruit dimensions on the plant increased from class 1–6 starting from 8.08 mm in length, 3.95 mm in width, and 0.07 g of weight, to 16.26 mm, 13.15 mm, and 1.29 g, respectively. Soluble solids increased from 2.68% to 23.5%; the highest value observed even after storage. Goji berries showed a rise in respiration rate and ethylene production in the early stages of development. Goji berry stored for 8 d at 25 °C showed significant changes in color, soluble solids, TA, respiration, and ethylene production. Soluble solids from class 5 stabilized around the maximum value of 23% after eight days of storage at room temperature. Their high nutritional value was confirmed by the content of vitamin C, which is comparable to that of citrus fruit. It reached the maximum value of 0.52 g/kg at full ripening, whereas the phenolic content decreased during ripening to values of 2.15 g/kg. The latest contributed considerably to the high antioxidant content of the berries. Results obtained in this study contribute to better understand the postharvest behavior of goji fruits enabling a clearer definition of quality attributes during ripening and, in turn, improving postharvest handling and distribution of goji berries as fresh fruit.
... Phytochemicals present are flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, polysaccharides (LBP), phenolic compounds, and dicaffeoylspermine/spermidines (Byambasuren et al., 2019;Ye and Jiang, 2020). It shows anti-aging, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities (Luo et al., 2004;Chang and So, 2008;As anic a et al. 2016;Mocan et al., 2017;Skenderidis et al., 2017). ...
Article
Cancer with a mortality rate bordering on cardiac diseases is a multifaceted health issue that medical science is facing today. Despite various therapies available, its management is still a burning issue due to the side effects of most of the drugs used in its treatment. Plant products have always been favorable in health care management due to their effectiveness, ease of availability, and safety. The present review makes an effort to summarize the research advancements in the anti-cancer domain of Solanaceae family. Research carried out during the last ten years (2011�2020) has been briefed after reading about 320 articles published in different data sources like Google scholar, Wiley online library, Web of Science, Semantic Scholar, Scopus, and Pub Med. Altogether 213 article data have been cited, and comprehensive information of 18 utmost potential anti-cancerous plants of the family has complied. About 63 anti-cancerous compounds have been isolated from these eighteen plants. A total of 32 plant-specific anti-cancerous compounds have been tabulated along with their chemical structure and study design. The mechanism of action of specific compounds that might provoke the researcher’s watchfulness for further detailed studies is also proposed. This review will come up with the perception of the role of Solanaceae family in cancer research and point out the lacuna in the ongoing knowledge and will contribute to hereafter research.
... Its main ingredients include Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), lycium pigment, glycine betaine, atropine, and celestial amines, among which LBP is the main ingredient exerting the pharmacological actions of this drug. LBP, a water-soluble polysaccharide, is capable of fighting against oxidative stress [6], lowering blood glucose and lipids [7], delaying senility [8], protecting nerves [9], treating tumors [10], protecting the liver [11], and improving and regulating immunity [12,13]. Celestial amines have been adopted as the adjuvant drugs applied to diseases correlated to immunosuppression, such as cancers. ...
Article
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Objective: Sepsis, showing high mortality, is a lethal dysfunction of organs caused by an infection-induced disorder in the host response. It has complicated pathogenesis, which has not yet been elucidated completely. Recently, the principal factors causing pathogenesis and even death in sepsis patients are imbalance in inflammatory response and immunosuppression occurring when the host is challenged by infection. Previous studies found that Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) worked well in enhancing immunity. This study aims at exploring the efficacy of pretreatment with LPB in regulating splenic immunity during the pathogenesis of sepsis induced by cecum ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. Methods: This research established the cecum ligation perforation rat model. Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in various doses in influencing splenic immunity and prognosis of sepsis induced by cecum ligation perforation in rats were examined. Results: This study showed that LBP lowered the 72-hour mortality of sepsis rats induced by CLP, relieved systemic inflammation, improved the ratio of T-cell subgroups positive in CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ and expression of HLA-DR protein, and repaired damage to splenic tissue, implying its efficacy in enhancing the immunity of sepsis rats induced by CLP. Conclusions: LBP may ameliorate clinical symptoms of rats with cecum ligation perforation, improve cellular immunity in the spleen, and treat sepsis so as to provide a theoretical basis for the pathogenesis and development of sepsis as well as its diagnosis and treatment, and offer scientific proof for the development and utilization of LBP applied to critical diseases.
... Several studies indicate that the high biological activity components in GBs are polysaccharides (Amagase and Farnsworth, 2011). The mixture of L. barbarum polysaccharides exerts a retinal ganglion cell protection and reduces the oxidative stress in retinal/ reperfusion injury (Li et al., 2011;Mi et al., 2012) and in high-fat diet fed mice (Ming et al., 2009) in which a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol have been observed (Luo et al., 2004). Thanks to the lipid-lowering and hypoglycaemic effects, the GBs exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system (Ma et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Goji berries are the most cultivated fruit crop in Asian countries as they contain many nutrients and health-promoting bioactive compounds. These health-promoting properties have recently stimulated the interest of food and nutraceutical industries in Europe, so this crop has spread within Italy, which has become the largest European producer. Several works on the chemical composition and biological activities of Chinese goji berries are available. In this review, the chemical and the nutritional profile of goji berries from Licium barbarum spp. cultivated in Italy are reported.
... Goji berries have compounds such as polysaccharides, carotenoids, betaine, phenols, and flavonoids [52]. Different bacterial strains SLV (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bacillus velezensis), SZP (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus licheniformis), and SZVP (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus velezensis and Bacillus licheniformis) have been used to ferment goji berries. ...
Article
The cosmetics industry is currently looking for innovative ingredients with higher bioactivity and bioavailability for the masses of natural and organic cosmetics. Bioferments are innovative ingredients extracted from natural raw materials by carrying out a fermentation process with appropriate strains of microorganisms. The review was conducted using the SciFinder database with the keywords "fermented plant", "cosmetics", and "fermentation". Mainly bioferments are made from plant-based raw materials. The review covers a wide range of fermented raw materials, from waste materials (whey with beet pulp) to plant oils (F-Shiunko, F-Artemisia, F-Glycyrrhiza). The spectrum of applications for bioferments is broad and includes properties such as skin whitening, antioxidant properties (blackberry, soybean, goji berry), anti-aging (red ginseng, black ginseng, Citrus unshiu peel), hydrating, and anti-allergic (aloe vera, skimmed milk). Fermentation increases the biochemical and physiological activity of the substrate by converting high-molecular compounds into low-molecular structures, making fermented raw materials more compatible compared to unfermented raw materials.
... LBP-X, purified from the dried fruits of L. barbarum, mainly consisted of xylose, mannose, arabinose, glucose, galactose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 0.38:0.95:1.00:1.38:2.43:4.22. (Luo et al., 2004). LBPs-1, an acidic polysaccharide extracted from L. barbarum fruits, consisted of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid with a molar ratio of 1.00:1.25:1.26:1.91:7.05: ...
Article
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Atherosclerosis is a kind of lipid‐driven chronic inflammatory disease of arteries and is the principal pathological basis of life‐threatening cardiovascular disease events, such as strokes and heart attacks. Clinically, statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of atherosclerosis, but prolonged use of these drugs exhibit many adverse reactions and have limited efficacy. Polysaccharides are important natural biomacromolecules widely existing in plants, animals, microorganisms and algae. They have drawn considerable attention worldwide due to their multiple healthy functions, along with their non‐toxic property. Importantly, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that bioactive polysaccharides exhibit prominent efficiency in controlling atherosclerotic risk factors like hyperlipemia, hypertension, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In recent decades, various bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and anti‐atherosclerotic potential from natural sources have been isolated, purified, and characterized. The aim of this review is to focus on the research progress of natural polysaccharides in reducing the risks of atherosclerosis based on evidence of in vitro and in vivo studies from 1966 to 2022. Practical applications In the future, it is still necessary to strengthen the research on the development and mechanism of polysaccharides with anti‐atherosclerotic potential. These anti‐atherosclerotic polysaccharides with different structural characteristics and physiochemical properties from different sources will constitute a huge source of materials for future applications, especially in functional foods and drugs. The information summarized here may serve as useful reference materials for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.
... LB (glycopeptide and polysaccharide) has cytoprotective and anti-aging properties. It also has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitumor, and immune-boosting properties (Deng et al., 2003;Gan et al., 2004;Luo et al., 2004). Administration of LB glycopeptide (500 g/ml) has a neuroprotective effect in primary neuronal cultures (SD rats) by suppressing DTT-induced phosphorylation of the PERK protein (Yu et al., 2006). ...
Article
The primary aim of this review is to summarize the literature on natural products that are effective in the treatment of various neurological disorders by targeting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Various electronic databases such as SCOPUS, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant publications. ERS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington’s disease. Several natural products targeting ERS signalling pathways provide therapeutic options for neurological diseases, and in this review, the potential neuroprotective properties of these products are discussed.
... The goji berries have recently been showcased as dietary and food supplements in numerous nations including Caribbean countries, the European Union, North America, Southeast Asia, New Zealand, and Australia in different retail outlets, involving chief general stores, supermarkets, and direct channels of marketing [118]. The major source of macro-nutrients in goji berries is carbohydrate (46%), protein (13%), fat (1.5%), and dietary fiber (16%), and it is considered as an abundant source of macro-nutrients [119]. The polysaccharides are considered to be the foremost wellresearched chemical component present in goji berries, which are water-soluble glycoconjugate in nature, constitute 5-8% of 100 g of dried fruit, and have the potential to exhibit vital biological actions [120]. ...
Article
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The advancement within the food and nutrition sector has resulted in the development of a special category of food, particularly referred to as “superfoods”. Superfoods are special kind of foods capable of exhibiting different positive effects involving prevention of different ailments, pro- vide impetus to the immune system, and essential macro- and micro-nutrients in ample quantities. Nowadays, these are gaining considerable attention due to the increased health consciousness of consumers. In contrast to their exceptional health or even medicinal benefits, which are based on their long history of use, the concept of superfoods is still little understood. The category of super- foods mainly comprises different types of fruits, vegetables, grains, etc. This review sheds light on the nutritional composition as well as the possible intervention in the prevention of various chronic ailments of some significant superfoods. This manuscript could help consumers to use superfoods as part of their diet more often and very effectively.
... Additionally, oxidative stress conditions assumed to be augmented in the system where the level of free radical production is elevated. According to the recent studies, the oxidative stress-induced free radicals have been associated in the pathology of Type 2 DM (Luo et al., 2004;Valko et al., 2007). ...
Article
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For the first time, five known metabolites - 1 and 5 are reported from the ethyl acetate extract from seaweed Chara baltica (EAE). Both the metabolites and EAE were screened against free- radicals, α-glucosidase enzyme and glycaemia in albino rats. 4, 5 and EAE depicted significant antiradical and α-glucosidase inhibitory profile. Particularly, compound 5 showed equivalent inhibition of superoxide free radical as that of the standard drug with IC50 value of 32.0 µg/mL. In addition, the EAE (200 mg/kg b.w) revealed significant reduction in plasma glucose, body weight, total cholesterol, total glycerides and LDL levels in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The HDL levels were markedly augmented in EAE treated diabetic rats, when compared with control group. EAE abolished the increased lipid peroxidation content in both liver and kidneys. The histopathological examination of pancreas of EAE protected the Langerhans islets with the number of islet cells were found statistically significant, when compared to diabetic control pancreas. This is the first in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic report on C. baltica.
... 1,2 Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease characterized by gross instability in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism; this may be due to deficiency in insulin secretion and/or action. 3 The reasons may be lifestyle and genetic factors. 4 Mammalian α-amylase is a prominent enzyme in the pancreatic juice, breaking down large and insoluble starch molecules into absorbable molecules, ultimately maltose. ...
Article
Objectives: To estimate the existence of phyto-chemicals and then to determine the antidiabetic activity against α-amylase and β-glucosidase inhibition . Methods: The study was carried out by following standard procedures. Results: Phytochemicals analysis indicated the presence of different phytochemicals. The total phenolic content was 6.055 mg GAE/g and the total flavonoid content was 5.706 mg RU/g in the plant extract. The total saponins, alkaloids, and tannins contents were (0.044%), (2.88%) and (2.862 nm) respectively. α-amylase inhibition activity of Calligonum polygonoides (CP) extract was 70% with IC50 of 610 μg/mL and that of β-gluco-sidase inhibition activity was 65% with IC50 of 640 µg/mL. Conclusion: The findings reported for the first time the antidiabetes-promoting effects of an extract of CP, thus validating their promising anti-diabetes potential.
Article
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder, now considered as a major global health problem which is affecting around 9.3% of world population and its incidence is increasing day by day. In India, several plants having hypoglycemic property are traditionally used in management of diabetes. Solanum torvum (Swartz) (ST) plant belonging to family Solanaceae; is medicinally reported and claims to cure various diseases in Indian traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda) and also in folklore and as per previous report, the decoction of its fruits is very useful in the treatment of diabetes. The thrust of this investigation is to examine the hypoglycemic efficacy of methanolic fractions (50, 100 and 200mg/kg body wt.) of ST fruits (MFST) from defatted hydro-alcoholic extract in normoglycemic, followed by Streptozotocin (45mg/kg) induced diabetic, and glucose loaded hyperglycemic rats by single as well as multiple oral administration in contrast to the standard drug glibenclamide (2.5mg/kg body wt.). In the beginning of the investigation, acute oral toxicity study of MFST was carried out in rats to determine the dose for experiment animals. The study report showed that the MFST (200mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05 to p<0.01) declines blood glucose level both in normoglycemic and diabetic rats induced by Streptozotocin, and oral glucose loaded hyperglycemic rats till the end of 8th hour and 3rd hour respectively during the single dose study and from the 15th day to 30th day in multi dose study. The blood glucose level decreasing activity of MFST may be due to the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds present in it. Hence the present investigation report reveals that MFST possess significant hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity which persuades the traditional use of the plant for the treatment or management of diabetes mellitus.
Article
This study investigated the feasibility of sulfate modification of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) and their potential anti‐HIV‐1 application. LBPs with different molecular weights were prepared by fractional precipitation from crude LBP via aqueous extraction, ethanol precipitation, and deproteinization. The purified LBPs (G1, G2, and G3) were sulfated using the chlorosulfonic acid pyridine method to obtain sulfated LBPs (G1S1–G1S4, G2S1–G2S4, and G3S1–G3S4) with different sulfur degrees of substitution. The anti‐HIV‐1 activity in vitro was evaluated via the TD50 from the cytotoxicity test and the IC50 inhibitory activity. The cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity in vitro were carried out using the CCK‐8 assay and MAGI test with Azidothymidine (AZT) as a positive control. The results show that the LBPs and the sulfated derivatives were not toxic towards CCK‐8 cells with TD50>100 μg/mL and they had strong anti‐HIV‐1 activity with IC50 values of 0.02–0.12 μg/mL. Compared with the LBPs, the anti‐HIV‐1 activity of the sulfated LBPs increased with IC50 values from 0.0924–0.1206 μg/mL to 0.0206–0.0722 μg/mL. Sulfate modification of LBPs can increase their anti‐HIV pharmacological activity, the G1S4 (Mw=2.13×104 Da and DS=1.12) showed relatively good in vitro anti‐HIV‐1 activity with an IC50 value near that of AZT (0.0200 μg/mL). The results suggest further detailed in vivo studies are warranted for these promising candidates with anti‐HIV‐1 activity. Sulfated LBPs with different molecular weights (Mw) and sulfur degree of substitution (DS) were prepared via ethanol precipitation, deproteinization, and sulfate modification via the chlorosulfonic acid pyridine method. The anti‐HIV‐1 activity of sulfated LBPs was evaluated via MAGI experiments. The results can serve as a reference for LBP chemical modification, and they suggest that these compounds with anti‐HIV‐1 activity are promising candidates for further detailed in vivo studies.
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Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) fruits are important Ericaceous berries to include in a healthy diet of the Northern Hemisphere as a source of bioactive phenolics. The waste generated by the V. vitis-idaea processing industry is hard-skinned press cake that can be a potential source of dietary fiber and has not been studied thus far. In this study, water-soluble polysaccharides of V. vitis-idaea press cake were isolated, separated, and purified by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The results of elemental composition, monosaccharide analysis, ultraviolet–visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, molecular weight determination, linkage analysis, and alkaline destruction allowed us to characterize two polyphenol–polysaccharide conjugates (PPC) as neutral arabinogalactans cross-linked with monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamate residues with molecular weights of 108 and 157 kDa and two non-esterified galacturonans with molecular weights of 258 and 318 kDa. A combination of in vitro and in vivo assays confirmed that expressed antioxidant activity of PPC was due to phenolic-scavenged free radicals, nitrogen oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and chelate ferrous ions. Additionally, marked hypolipidemic potential of both PPC and acidic polymers bind bile acids, cholesterol, and fat, inhibit pancreatic lipase in the in vitro study, reduce body weight, serum level of cholesterol, triglycerides, low/high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and increase the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the livers of hamsters with a 1% cholesterol diet. Polysaccharides and PPC of V. vitis-idaea fruit press cake can be regarded as new antioxidants and hypolipidemic agents that can be potentially used to cure hyperlipidemic metabolic disorders.
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Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar levels, leading to many undesirable health consequences. There are many herbal formulations, traditionally used by the Northeast Indian population for disease management. These formulations require scientific validations to optimize their efficacy and increase their popularity. In this study, we attempt to scientifically validate a polyherbal formulation traditionally used for the management of diabetes through preliminary phytochemicals investigation, characterization of potential phytochemicals using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HR-LC/MS) analysis, and in silico characterization of physiochemical, drug-likeness, and pharmacokinetic properties of identified phytochemical compounds. Qualitative phytochemical screening of various extracts of the formulation confirmed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and tannins, flavonoids, fats, and oils. Phytochemical quantification of the various extracts showed that the highest total phenolic content is present in the ethanolic extract (35.61 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g), while the highest total flavonoid content is present in the chloroform extract (76.33 ± 2.96 mg QE/g) of the formulation. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed various characteristic band values with various functional groups in the formulation extract such as amines, alcohol, fluoro compounds, phenol, alkane, alkene, and conjugated acid groups. HR-LC/MS analyses identified nearly 51 compounds including 9 small peptides and 42 potential phytochemical compounds. In silico SwissADME analysis of identified compounds revealed 25 potential compounds following Lipinski’s rule and showing drug-like characteristics, and out of them, 16 compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability, as revealed in the bioavailability radar. The overall study showed that the presented polyherbal formulation is enriched with bio-active phytochemical compounds with good pharmaceutical values.
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Lead is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants in the environment. Prolonged exposure to lead will induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidneys, which in turn causes kidney injury. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is well known for its numerous pharmacological properties. This study aims to explore the efficacy and mechanism of LBP against lead-induced kidney damage in mice. Symptoms of renal injury were induced in mice by using 25 mg/kg lead acetate (PbAc2), and different doses of LBP (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg BW) were orally administrated to PbAc2-treated mice for five weeks. The results of the pharmacodynamics experiment showed that the renal pathological damages, serum creatinine (Cre), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and kidney index of PbAc2-treated mice could be significantly alleviated by treatment with LBP. Further, LBP treatment significantly increased the weight and feed intake of PbAc2-treated mice. The dose effect results indicated that a medium dose of LBP was superior to high and low doses. The results of mechanistic experiments showed that LBP could attenuate oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidneys of mice with lead toxicity by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway.
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The effects of lactic acid bacteria strains from Lactiplantibacillus, Lactobacillus, Fructobacillus and Weissella on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of goji berry juice were evaluated. The goji berry juice was fermented for 24 h at 30 °C and aged 21 days at 4 °C. All studied strains showed good growth in goji berry juice. The chemical components (93 volatile compounds, seven non-volatile acids and two sugars) exhibited 8 evolution groups, and different strains resulted in different flavor features. The juices fermented with L. plantarum or L. acidophilus were described with ‘honey’, ‘wild jujube’ odors and ‘sour’ taste in Flash-Profile test, whereas the juices with L. helveticus presented ‘goji berry’, ‘floral’ and sweetness, and the juices with F. fructosus or W. cibaria had ‘vinegar’ and sweetness. In a PLS regression model, the ‘goji berry’ odor correlated positively with hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, benzaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, α-calacorene and negatively with acetoin and acetic acid. In this study, L. helveticus strain 6024 was more effectively able to retain or enrich the key compounds positively associated with ‘goji berry’ note compared to other strains. This study enables more extensive utilization of goji berry in the food industry and helps to improve the flavor of goji berry products.
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Goji berries represent a valuable source of phenolic compounds with a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity combined to huge quantities of small sugars. This study was aimed at evaluating the potential of three tight ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 1.0 to 3.5 kDa in the fractionation of phenolic compounds from sugars in the aqueous extract of dried goji berries. The aqueous extract produced in optimized conditions of water-to-solid ratio and temperature (6.66 mL/g and 65 °C, respectively) was preliminarily clarified by UF in order to remove suspended solids and colloidal particles. A membrane diafiltration (DF) process was developed in order to fractionate phenolic compounds from sugars with selected UF membranes from the clarified extract. The membrane performance was evaluated in terms of productivity and selectivity towards target compounds. All selected membranes allowed high recovery (more than 80%) of phenolic compounds into the retentate. On the other hand, the yield of carbohydrates increased in the permeate by increasing the diafiltration volume. Among the selected membranes, the 2.5 kDa membrane allowed to reduce the concentration of total carbohydrates from 26.5 up to 2.2 g glucose/L (a reduction of 91.7%) in a diafiltration/batch concentration process producing a concentrated extract enriched in phenolic compounds of interest for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical applications.
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The interest in incorporating carotenoids into foods and beverages is growing due to their potential health benefits. However, the poor water solubility and low bioavailability of carotenoids are still challenges in food application. This work aimed to study the influence of system composition and preparation conditions on the physical properties of carotenoids‐loaded nanoemulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification. Furthermore, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids in the nanoemulsions was evaluated. The nanoemulsions with the smallest droplet size were produced when the ratio of Span 80:Tween 80 was 1.5:8.5. The droplet size increased slightly with the increase of organic phase content (24%–40%). The droplet size decreased gradually with the increase of stirring speed (200–1000 rpm (revolutions per minute)). The ratio of mixed surfactants and surfactant‐to‐oil ratio (SOR) had an appreciable impact on the droplet size. Carotenoids‐loaded nanoemulsions with small mean droplet size (d < 50 nm) could be prepared with the optimized conditions. The initial digestion rate decreased as the SOR increased. The bioaccessibility could reach up to about 80% at SOR=2–5 in vitro digestion. These results have important implications for the design of effective delivery systems to encapsulate carotenoids and other lipophilic bioactive components in food applications. Carotenoids‐loaded nanoemulsions with small mean droplet size (d < 50 nm) could be prepared after the optimization of preparation conditions. The high bioaccessibility could reach up to about 80% at SOR=2–5 in vitro digestion.
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Goji berries have several bioactivities and are consumed as food or used in folk medicine. In this study, the methanolic extracts from red and black goji berries were compared regarding their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Black goji berries extract has revealed significantly higher anti-inflammatory activity, in either biochemical assays or via decreasing the release of nitric oxide and inhibiting the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells, in comparison with the red goji berries extract. Black goji berries’ extract has also revealed a significantly higher antioxidant activity, in comparison with the red goji one. Inflammation and related oxidative stress have been brought to light as underlying mechanisms in several chronic diseases, e.g. neurodegenerative diseases. Our results show that these goji berries, particularly the black ones, can have the potential to be a source of pharmacologically active compounds in diseases with an inflammatory and oxidative background.
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Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries are well known for their biological activities and health-promoting antioxidant properties. Environmental and climatic factors can greatly affect accumulation of secondary metabolites, carotenoids and other antioxidants in plants. We determined the content and composition of main functional constituents of goji berries produced in central Italy in relation to the time of harvesting during two ripening seasons by analyzing the main environmental variables involved. The highest flavonoids content (0,19 ± 0,006 mg QE/g) and antioxidant power (0,03 ± 0,001 mmol Fe²⁺eq/g) were found at the beginning of the fruiting season. In September, berries show the highest total polyphenols (3,22 ± 0,09 mg GAE/g) and zeaxanthin contents (339,79 ± 14,12 μg/g). Our study focused on some important aspects related to the production of goji fruits with high nutraceutical characteristics in a non-experimental cultivation. Our results could provide reliable information on Goji performance in the European climate to be used for the exploitation of the species suggesting the best harvesting timing in terms of antioxidant power and nutraceutical features of berries. This information could be particularly useful for farmers eager to improve the quality of their products.
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Ageratum houstonianum leaves are a common poisonous weeds found on the vast valley of Kangra in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh State, India. Freshly harvested leaves sample of Ageratum houstonionum were dried under shade and powdered. Leaf sample of A. houstonionum was extracted by process of hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for the preparation of essential oil. Extract from A. houstonianum was prepared by dissolving 5 μL of the essential oil in 10 mL methanol. All the sample was filtered through a Whatman (Maidstone, England) stainless steel syringe assembly using a 0.22 μm Durapore (Millipore: Milford, USA) membrane filter. Purification processes via column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography were done. Reverse phase HPLC analysis was carried out via a Waters HPLC system consisting of model 510 and 515 pumps, a Rheodyne injector, a Novapak C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d.; 4 μm), a model 490E multi-channel detector and Millennium 2010 sata manager. The mobile phase constituents were filtered using a Durapore 0.22 μm membrane filter. The elution was carried out with a linear gradient of acetonitrile: water (40:60) to pure acetonitrile in 60 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. detection was at 210, 240, 280 and 320 nm. The precocene was eluted within 25 min, the peak areas showed good reproducibility (average relative standard deviation were 0.78%), and the calibration curves (i.e. mass of precocene standard injected vs. peak area detected at 210 nm) were linear over the range of 0.05- 10 μg (for precocene I, y = 6654454 x + 176626, r2 = 0.99 and for precocene II, y = 4618457 x + 133472, r2 = 0.99). Standard sample containing precocene I (1 mg/mL) and precocene II (1 mg/mL) obtained from Sigma (St Louis, MO, USA) were prepared in methanol. Identified precocene I was screened against Trypanosoma evansi for trypanocidal activity on Vero cells grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and supplemented with foetal calf serum (FCS) 20-40% at appropriate conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity test of precocene I at concentrations (1.56-100 μg ml-1) was done on Vero cells but without FCS. In vitro trypanocidal activity varied from immobilization, reduction and to the killing of trypanosomes in corresponding ELISA plate wells. At 250 μg ml-1of purified precocene I, there was drastic reduction of average mean trypanosomes count to complete killing of trypanosomes (40.±0.0 to 0.00±0.00) at 9 h of incubation, which was statistically the same as diminazine aceturate (50 μg ml-1) at 4 h. Trypanosomes counts decreased in concentration and time –dependent manner with significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 to 0. 01)). During in vitro cytotoxicity test, Purified precocene I and diminazine aceturate standard drug, were cytotoxic to Vero cells at all concentrations except at concentrations of 6.25-1.56 μg ml-1 and 1.56 μg ml-1, respectively. Precocene I was responsible for higher anti-trypanosomal activity. Precocene I could be near futurtrypanocidal compound for a new trypanocide. To attest its full and firm trypanocidal activity potential, in vivo test need to be conducted alongside the in vitro method.
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The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing, which is concerning because IBD is a known risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence highlights environmental factors, particularly dietary factors and gut microbiota dysbiosis, as pivotal inducers of IBD onset. Goji berry, an ancient tonic food and a nutraceutical supplement, contains a range of phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Among these phytochemicals, L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the most important functional constituents, which have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Recently, the beneficial effects of goji berry and associated LBPs consumption were linked to prebiotic effects, which can prevent dysbiosis associated with IBD. This review assessed pertinent literature on the protective effects of goji berry against IBD focusing on the gut microbiota and their metabolites in mediating the observed beneficial effects.
Chapter
Lycium spp. are woody shrubs that belong to the family Solanaceae. Two species, Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. are distributed at an altitude of about 1500-2000 m in the subtropical region of China, Korea, Japan, and East Asia. They are cultivated for their fruits and have a high significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phytochemical studies have revealed that this plant contains various classes of phytoconstituents, such as polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenols and flavonoids. These phytochemicals are of greater health benefits as they show various pharmacological activities, such as hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, nephroprotective and various other activities. This chapter focuses on the scientific progress on the fruits of two species of Lycium (L. barbarum and L. chinense) related to nutraceutical and phytochemical composition, and the potential in the nutritional and functional food market in the near future.
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Diabetes is a major public health concern with a high risk of onset. It can lead to glycometabolism disorders. Improvement in diet is an effective way to regulate metabolic disorders. The fruits of Lycium barbarum, an ancient tonic and a traditional Chinese medicine, have shown beneficial effects against chronic metabolic diseases. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, polyphenols, carotenoids and amino acids are the major natural bioactive compounds in the fruits of Lycium barbarum. They have many physiological activities and medicinal value and have shown significant anti-diabetic effects. This article reviews the effective actions of the main bioactive compounds in Lycium barbarum fruits in reducing blood glucose, intestinal and renal inflammation, retinal damage and other complications, discusses the possible metabolism of these bioactive compounds in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and explains the basic mechanism of regulation of blood glucose. Although the current research is limited to animal experiments and in vitro cell experiments, we have provided reliable evidence for our reports based on previous studies. Lycium barbarum fruits is a beneficial food that can interfere with carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, a significant direction for the development of Lycium barbarum, and can be used as a potential target for treating diabetes.
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Background and objective: Goji could be a promising plant in Egypt due to the suitable climate. To spread plantation of goji in Egypt, propagation of this plant must be done. Micropropagation is a unique technique which could be used for this purpose. The aim of this investigation was establishing an in vitro culturing protocol for goji fruit in Egypt. Materials and methods: Benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/l were studied for multiplication. For rooting stage, Indole butyric acid (IBA), Indole acetic acid (IAA) or naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) as auxins with concentrations of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/l; with or without activated charcoal were studied. Results: Results showed that BAP, at all concentrations used, enhanced multiplication rate comparing with the control (0.0 mg/l BAP). The highest average shoot number was obtained with BAP at 1.0 mg/l as well as number of leaves and chlorophyll score. Meanwhile, the highest shoot length was achieved with the control and BAP at 0.25 mg/l. Full MS strength was superior for average number of shoots, length of shoots and moderate number of leaves. IBA at 0.5 mg/l without AC gave the highest rooting percentage (50%), root number per rooted shoots (5.67). Conclusion: a complete in vitro protocol was determined for goji berry plant.
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Background: Despite the availability of synthetic antihyperglycaemic medications on the market, diabetes is on the rise. Though not scientifically proven, the Crinum abyssinicum Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Amaryllidaceae) has been used traditionally to treat diabetes. Crinum abyssinicum was tested in mice to see if it had anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Methods: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Crinum abyssinicum shoot tips doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) were administered to normoglycemic, oral glucose-loaded mice, and single and repeated dose-treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Then, the blood glucose levels were measured for normoglycemic, oral glucose loaded and single dose treated streptozotocin model. Whereas in repeated dose-treated streptozotocin induced diabetic model, blood glucose level, body weight, and lipid profiles were measured. Results: After oral administration, all extract doses (100 mg/kg (p < 0.01), 200 mg/kg (p < 0.001), and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.001)) significantly reduced blood glucose level of normal mice as compared to the control group. Significant reduction of post-prandial glucose was achieved with crude extract at a tested dose of 100 mg/kg (p < 0.05) both at 1st and 2nd hours; 200 mg/kg (p < 0.01) at the 1st hour and (p < 0.001) 2nd hours, and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.001) at the 1st and 2nd hours as compared to the negative control. In diabetic mice, the crude extract 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg; and glibenclamide 5 mg/kg significantly reduced (p < 0.001) blood glucose level on the 14th day as compared to the negative control. All doses of crude extract significantly improved the lipid profiles and the bodyweight of diabetic mice. Conclusion: These findings revealed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Crinum abyssinicum shoot tips possess significant antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and body weight improvements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Besides, it showed hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic activities on normoglycemic and oral glucose loaded mice, respectively. These justify the claimed use of the plant in ameliorating diabetes mellitus in Ethiopian folk medicine.
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Sorghum bran (SB) and sorghum spent grain (SSG), the main by-products of sorghum grains (SG) processing, are important sources of dietary fibre (DF). In this research communication, the proximate composition of materials and the antioxidant activities of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) derived from SB, SSG and SG were evaluated by the reducing power and the scavenging capacities by the DPPH and ABTS radical methods. SSG contained higher amount of proteins (23.85 g/100g), lipids (8.24 g/100g), ash (6.80 g/100g) and total dietary fibre (56.25 g/100g); SB and SSG contained respectively two and three-times more fibres than the SG. Among isolated NSP, the calcium hydroxide extractable polysaccharides (CHEP) were found to be richer in total phenolic contents (580.40–1183.17 Ferulic acid equivalents/g sample) and exhibited the highest antioxidant activities (210.25–249.35 μmol Fe²⁺E/g sample, 311.35–381.10 μmol TE/g sample and 0.29–0.34 mg/mL for the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH IC50 values, respectively). The study revealed that NSP from sorghum by-products especially the CHEP fractions have significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These non-starch polysaccharide–phenolic acid complexes from bran and spent grain can be used in various fibre depleted foods while contribute preventing their oxidation. The high antioxidant activity exhibited by NSP isolated from sorghum by-products is mainly due to their high bound phenolic acid contents. This is an added advantage in using these DF as food additives.
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Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is an important economic crop widely grown in China. The effects of salt-alkaline stress on metabolites accumulation in the salt-tolerant Ningqi1 wolfberry fruits were evaluated across 12 salt-alkaline stress gradients. The soil pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3− contents decreased at a gradient across the salt-alkaline stress gradients. Based on the widely-targeted metabolomics approach, we identified 457 diverse metabolites, 53% of which were affected by salt-alkaline stress. Remarkably, soil salt-alkaline stress enhanced metabolites accumulation in wolfberry fruits. Amino acids, alkaloids, organic acids, and polyphenols contents increased proportionally across the salt-alkaline stress gradients. In contrast, nucleic acids, lipids, hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives, organic acids and derivatives and vitamins were significantly reduced by high salt-alkaline stress. A total of 13 salt-responsive metabolites represent potential biomarkers for salt-alkaline stress tolerance in wolfberry. Specifically, we found that constant reductions of lipids and chlorogenic acids; up-regulation of abscisic acid and accumulation of polyamines are essential mechanisms for salt-alkaline stress tolerance in Ningqi1. Overall, we provide for the first time some extensive metabolic insights into salt-alkaline stress tolerance and key metabolite biomarkers which may be useful for improving wolfberry tolerance to salt-alkaline stress.
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Phytobased bioactive compounds are herbal scavengers and beneficial in skin disorders, aging and oxidative damage. Himalayan Cherry (Prinsepia utilis) is a good source of fatty acids; however, screening and optimization of polyphenolics in leftover waste of seeds after oil extraction have not been studied. The present study focuses on the optimization of antioxidant polyphenolics of leftover oil residue of Prinsepia utilis. The leftover oil residue optimized through Response Surface Model (RSM) using ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) with four-factors in Plackett-Burman (PBD) and three-factors in Central composite design (CCD). The model showed good fitness under optimum extraction conditions and total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidant activity were closely fit with the model predicted values. HPLC-PDA analysis detects ten polyphenolic compounds under optimized extraction conditions. The anti-aging activity by tyrosinase and hyaluronidase indicated that extract is good in inhibiting tyrosinase (IC50-1.81 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and hyaluronidase (IC50-0.90 ± 0.03 mg/mL) enzyme. The extract prevented UV damage and showed good sun protection (SP) at value of 11.00 ± 0.03 at a dose of 1000 μg/mL. The study provides the potential use of leftover residue in water for obtaining antioxidant activity and alleviating oxidative stress, which will be beneficial in the prospect of phyto-nutrients at the Industrial level. Also, the method of extraction was used to promote green extraction, which can be sustainably used for harnessing the waste residue in developing byproducts such as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals in a safer environment.
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More than 400 traditional plant treatments for diabetes mellitus have been recorded, but only a small number of these have received scientific and medical evaluation to assess their efficacy. Traditional treatments have mostly disappeared in occidental societies, but some are prescribed by practitioners of alternative medicine or taken by patients as supplements to conventional therapy. However, plant remedies are the mainstay of treatment in underdeveloped regions. A hypoglycemic action from some treatments has been confirmed in animal models and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, and various hypoglycemic compounds have been identified. A botanical substitute for insulin seems unlikely, but traditional treatments may provide valuable clues for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agents and simple dietary adjuncts.
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Procedures are described for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions and divalent cations. A mixture of low and very low density lipoproteins can be prepared without ultracentrifugation by precipitation with heparin and either MnCl(2) alone or MgCl(2) plus sucrose. In both cases the precipitation is reversible, selective, and complete. The highly concentrated isolated lipoproteins are free of other plasma proteins as judged by immunological and electrophoretic methods. The low density and very low density lipoproteins can then be separated from each other by ultracentrifugation. The advantage of the method is that large amounts of lipoproteins can be prepared with only a single preparative ultracentrifugation. Polyanions other than heparin may also be used; when the precipitation of the low and very low density lipoproteins is achieved with dextran sulfate and MnCl(2), or sodium phosphotungstate and MgCl(2), the high density lipoproteins can subsequently be precipitated by increasing the concentrations of the reagents. These lipoproteins, containing small amounts of protein contaminants, are further purified by ultracentrifugation at d 1.22. With a single preparative ultracentrifugation, immunologically pure high density lipoproteins can be isolated from large volumes of serum.
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Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. Many spices and herbs are known to be hypoglycaemic. Cuminum cyminum belonging to the family Apiaceae is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and jaundice. The present work was done to study the role of C. cyminum supplementation on the plasma and tissue lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. Oral administration of 0.25 g kg(-1) body weight of C. cyminum for 6 weeks to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin. It also prevented a decrease in body weight. C. cyminum treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Histological observations demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in diabetic rat pancreas. But supplementation with C. cyminum to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Moreover, C. cyminum supplementation was found to be more effective than glibenclamide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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More than 400 plants with suspected glucose-lowering potential are known. In most cases, the evidence for this action is based purely on animal experiments or traditional use. This, however, provides only limited information about its clinical usefullness. Therefore this paper reviews direct evidence from clinical trials. A systematic literature search identified 22 such papers. The majority reported positive effects. However, much of the data are of poor methodological quality. Only five randomised controlled trials were found, and even these do not convincingly demonstrate the usefulness of the remedies in question. It is concluded that the use of hypoglycemic plant remedies is not supported by results from rigorous clinical trials and requires further investigation.
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The influence of dietary fiber on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in animals and on lipid metabolism in man is reviewed. Pectin, guar gum, and lignin lower serum and liver cholesterol in cholesterol-fed rats. Agar increases liver cholesterol in rats. Bran has no effect on serum lipid levels in rats or monkeys. Vegetarians have long been known to exhibit cholesterol levels lower than those of comparable populations who subsist on a mixed diet. Pectin and guar gum lower cholesterol levels in man whereas cellulose and bran have no effect. Rabbits fed a semipurified diet containing saturated fat become atherosclerotic, but addition of the same fat to laboratory ration has no effect; it has been shown that the residue in laboratory ration is the cause of the difference. Semipurified diets containing cellulose are more atherogenic than those containing wheat straw or alfalfa. The semipurified diets also cause aortic sudanophilia or atherosclerosis in baboons and vervet monkeys. One possible mechanism of hypolipemic action of fiber involves the binding of bile acids, which would result in reduced absorption of cholesterol, resulting in lower levels of serum cholesterol.
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Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) results from an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the earliest detectable abnormality in NIDDM is an impairment in the body's ability to respond to insulin. Because the pancreas is able to appropriately augment its secretion of insulin to offset the insulin resistance, glucose tolerance remains normal. With time, however, the beta-cell fails to maintain its high rate of insulin secretion and the relative insulinopenia (i.e., relative to the degree of insulin resistance) leads to the development of impaired glucose tolerance and eventually overt diabetes mellitus. The cause of pancreatic "exhaustion" remains unknown but may be related to the effect of glucose toxicity in a genetically predisposed beta-cell. Information concerning the loss of first-phase insulin secretion, altered pulsatility of insulin release, and enhanced proinsulin-insulin secretory ratio is discussed as it pertains to altered beta-cell function in NIDDM. Insulin resistance in NIDDM involves both hepatic and peripheral, muscle, tissues. In the postabsorptive state hepatic glucose output is normal or increased, despite the presence of fasting hyperinsulinemia, whereas the efficiency of tissue glucose uptake is reduced. In response to both endogenously secreted or exogenously administered insulin, hepatic glucose production fails to suppress normally and muscle glucose uptake is diminished. The accelerated rate of hepatic glucose output is due entirely to augmented gluconeogenesis. In muscle many cellular defects in insulin action have been described including impaired insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, diminished glucose transport, and reduced glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. The abnormalities account for disturbances in the two major intracellular pathways of glucose disposal, glycogen synthesis, and glucose oxidation. In the earliest stages of NIDDM, the major defect involves the inability of insulin to promote glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Other potential mechanisms that have been put forward to explain the insulin resistance, include increased lipid oxidation, altered skeletal muscle capillary density/fiber type/blood flow, impaired insulin transport across the vascular endothelium, increased amylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide levels, and glucose toxicity.
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We have modified an ultramicro method for determining glucose with glucose oxidase—peroxidase—odianisidine. Capillary blood is diluted in isotonic NaF (17.6-17.8 g/ liter), the cells are removed, and glucose is determined after a 20-min incubation with enzyme-containing reagent. Increasing the enzyme concentration fourfold nullifies interference from ascorbic acid and hemolysis, while greatly decreasing interference from bilirubinemia. If necessary, bilirubin is removed completely by coprecipitation with protein. Interference from uric acid is minimized by incorporating it into the standards. Several other suspected interferences proved inconsequential. Isotonic NaF does not inhibit the enzymes used, and preserves glucose in blood for at least 2 h. Avoiding protein precipitation and shortening the incubating time significantly lessens analytical time without affecting precision.
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An enzymatic method is described for determination of total serum cholesterol by use of a single aqueous reagent. The method requires no prior treatment of sample and the calibration curve is linear to 600 mg/dl. Cholesterol esters are hydrolized to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.13). The free cholesterol produced is oxidized by cholesterol oxidase to cholest 4 en 3 one with the simultaneous production of hydrogen peroxide, which oxidatively couples with 4 aminoantipyrine and phenol in the presence of peroxidase to yield a chromogen with maximum absorption at 500 nm. The method is reproducible, and the results correlate well with those obtained by automated Liebermann Burchard procedures and the method of Abell et al. The present method affords better specificity than those previously reported and has excellent precision.
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This paper describes a laboratory trial of a glucose analyser (Beckman Instruments Ltd.), an instrument specifically designed to measure serum or plasma glucose.
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In this direct colorimetric procedure, serum triglycerides are hydrolyzed by lipase, and the released glycerol is assayed in a reaction catalyzed by glycerol kinase and L-alpha-glycerol-phosphate oxidase in a system that generates hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is monitored in the presence of horseradish peroxidase with 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-aminophenazone as the chromogenic system. The high absorbance of this chromogen system at 510 nm affords useful results with a sample/reagent volume ratio as low as 1:150, and a blank sample measurement is not needed. A single, stable working reagent is used; the reaction is complete in 15 min at room temperature. The standard curve is linear for triglyceride concentrations as great as 13.6 mmol/L. Average analytical recovery of triglycerides in human sera is 100.1%, and within-run and between-run precision studies showed CVs of less than or equal to 1.6 and less than or equal to 3.0%, respectively. The method is suitable for automation.
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A relatively simple but sensitive and reliable method of quantitating the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) of antioxidants in serum using a few microliter is described. In this assay system, beta-phycoerythrin (beta-PE) is used as an indicator protein, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) as a peroxyl radical generator, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue) as a control standard. Results are expressed as ORAC units, where 1 ORAC unit equals the net protection produced by 1 microM Trolox. The uniqueness of this assay is that total antioxidant capacity of a sample is estimated by taking the oxidation reaction to completion. At this point all of the nonprotein antioxidants (which include alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene, uric acid, and bilirubin) and most of the albumin in the sample are oxidized by the peroxyl radical. Results are quantified by measuring the protection produced by antioxidants. This solves many problems associated with kinetics or lag-time measurements. A linear correlation of ORAC value with concentration of serum. Trolox, vitamin C, uric acid, and bovine albumin is demonstrated. The coefficient of variation within a run is found to be about 2% and from run to run about 5%. Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene, uric acid, and bilirubin completely protect beta-PE from oxidation, while bovine albumin protects beta-PE only partially. On a molar basis, the relative peroxyl radical absorbance capacity of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol acid succinate, uric acid, bilirubin, and vitamin C is 1:1:0.92:0.84:0.52. Bovine albumin per unit weight has a lower peroxyl absorbing capacity than these antioxidants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The effects of Psacalium decompositum, Psacalium peltatum and Acourtia thurberi (Asteraceae) on blood glucose levels were investigated in fasting mice and temporally hyperglycemic rabbits. The root decoction of P. decompositum reduced the blood glucose of normal mice from 49.1 +/- 3.8 to 35.7 +/- 2.0 mg/dl after intraperitoneal administration (P < or = 0.005) and significantly lowered the hyperglycemic peak (17.1%) in rabbits with temporal hyperglycemia. P. peltatum and A. thurberi decoctions also diminished fasting glycemia in mice and hyperglycemia in rabbits, but the effects were minor. A preliminary phytochemical study using thin layer chromatography showed that water decoctions of the three roots contained alkaloids and sugars. P. decompositum and P. peltatum showed the presence of maturine. However, other furoeremophylanes, such as cacalol and cacalone were only present in P. decompositum. A. thurberi root water decoction showed the presence of the benzoquinone perezone, and its derivative pipitzol.
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The ethanolic extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) was studied in albino rabbits for its effects on experimentally induced hyperlipidaemia. After inducing hyperlipidaemia in 12 rabbits a dose of 500 mg/kg of the extract was administered orally daily for a period of 60 days in 6 rabbits (experimental group); the rest of the rabbits were observed as controls. When compared with the control of rabbits the levels of lipoprotein lipids were significantly lower in the experimental group after 60 days; total cholesterol 573 +/- 61 vs. 209 +/- 27 mg/dl, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 493 +/- 57 vs. 131 +/- 25 mg/dl, and triglycerides 108 +/- 14 vs. 67 +/- 9 mg/dl P < 0.001). High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were not significantly different (59 +/- 7 vs. 65 +/- 4 mg/dl, P = n.s.). Total cholesterol:HDL ratio and LDL:HDL ratio were significantly lower in the experimental group. The Myristica fragrans extract showed platelet anti-aggregatory ability. There were significantly lower levels of total cholesterol in heart (3.7 +/- 0.5 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.5 mg/100 g) and liver (11.9 +/- 1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g). The toxicity studies showed absence of any adverse effects on various haematological and biochemical parameters.
Article
The hypoglycemic effect of water-soluble polysaccharide(FA) from fruiting bodies of Auricularia auricula-judae Quel. was investigated on genetically diabetic mice (KK-Ay) from 10 to 14 weeks of age. Male mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group and FA-fed group having free access to the control diet or FA diet (30 g of FA/kg of diet). The food-restricted group had restricted access to the control diet at the level of the diet consumed by the FA-fed group. Compared with the control group, FA supplementation had a significant effect in lowering plasma glucose, insulin, urinary glucose, and food intake. FA administration also increased the tolerance to intraperitoneal glucose loading and the hepatic glycogen content. In the food-restricted group, the reduced food intake slightly lowered the plasma and urinary glucose levels, but did not improve hyperinsulinemia and glucose tolerance. This study shows that FA had a hypoglycemic effect on KK-Ay mice, and the reduced food consumption was not a major factor which contributed to the hypoglycemic action of FA.
Article
This article reviews compounds of botanical origin which are capable of lowering plasma levels of glucose and cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as compounds inhibiting atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Hypoglycemic natural products comprise flavonoids, xanthones, triterpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, alkyldisulfides, aminobutyric acid derivatives, guanidine, polysaccharides and peptides. Hypotensive compounds include flavonoids, diterpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, polysaccharides and proteins. Among natural products with hypocholesterolemic activity are beta-carotene, lycopene, cycloartenol, beta-sitosterol, sitostanol, saponin, soybean protein, indoles, dietary fiber, propionate, mevinolin (beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor) and polysaccharides. Heparins, flavonoids, tocotrienols, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), garlic compounds and fungal proteases exert antithrombotic action. Statins and garlic compounds also possess antiatherosclerotic activity.
Article
A glycoconjugate with pronounced immunoactivity, designated as LbGp2, was isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration. Its carbohydrate content is up to 90.71% composed of Ara, Gal and amino acids. The molecular weight is 68.2 kDa as determined by size exclusive chromatography (SEC). The complete structure of the repeat unit of the glycan of LbGp2 was elucidated based on glycosidic linkage analysis, total acid hydrolysis, partial acid hydrolysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. According to the experiments, the glycan possesses a backbone consisting of (1-->6)-beta-galactosyl residues, about fifty percent of which are substituted at C-3 by galactosyl or arabinosyl groups and the major nonreducing end being made of Ara (1 -->.
Article
Thirty-five plant species were selected from the published literature as traditionally used by the Indigenous Peoples of the boreal forest in Canada for three or more symptoms of diabetes or its complications. Antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts support the contribution of these traditional medicines in a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes. In a DPPH assay of free radical scavenging activity 89% of the methanol extracts had activity significantly greater than common modern dietary components, 14% were statistically equal to ascorbic acid and 23% had activities similar to green tea and a Trolox positive control. Superoxides produced with an NBT/xanthine oxidase assay found scavenging was significantly higher in 29% of the species as compared with the modern dietary components and Trolox. The methanol extracts of Rhus hirta, Quercus alba and Cornus stolonifera performed similarly to green tea's in this assay. Assessment of peroxyl radical scavenging using a DCF/AAPH assay showed 60% of the plant extracts statistically similar to Trolox while R. hirta and Solidago canadensis extracts were greater than green tea, ascorbic acid and Trolox. The majority of the species (63 and 97%, respectively) had scavenging activities similar to ascorbic acid in the superoxide and peroxyl radical scavenging assays.
Article
Lycium barbarum L. (Solanaceae) is a Chinese medicinal plant whose fruits (Fructus Lycii) are used by Chinese physicians for treatment of infertility. However, the active ingredients and the mechanism of action underlying Lycium's fertility-facilitating effects remain unknown. Here we report that Fructus Lycii polysaccharides (FLPS) inhibit time- and hyperthermia-induced structural damage in murine seminiferous epithelium, in vitro. Moreover, we found that FLPS delayed apoptosis in this system, both at normothermic and hyperthermic culture conditions. Oxidative stress was reported to be a major cause of structural degradation and apoptosis in hyperthermic testes, and thus the protective effect of FLPS could implicate an antioxidant mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis we assayed the effect of FLPS on ultraviolet light-induced lipid peroxidation, and cytochrome c reduction by free radicals. We found that FLPS is a potent inhibitor of both of these reactions. Together, these results demonstrate the protective effect of FLPS on time- and hyperthermia-induced testicular degeneration in vitro, indicate the potential mechanism of action for this protective effect, and provide a scientific basis for the traditional use of this plant.
Article
The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract obtained from seeds of E. jambolana was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Hypoglycaemic activity was assessed by reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) at 90min and also fall in peak blood glucose during glucose tolerance test (GTT) in sub-diabetic and mild diabetic (MD) rabbits, but in severe diabetic (SD) rabbits by reduction in FBG at 90min. Ethanolic extract (100mg/kg body weight) when given orally to sub-diabetic (AR) for 1 day, MD for 7 days and SD for 15 days showed significant fall in FBG at 90min (12% AR, 18.9% MD and 29% SD) and also produced 16.9% fall in peak blood glucose in AR and 21% in MD rabbits during GTT. When administered daily for 15 days to MD and SD rabbits, significant fall in FBG (41.3% MD, 31.6% SD) and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHb) levels (23.3% MD, 26.6% SD) were observed, while serum insulin level showed significant increase (32.8% MD, 26.9% SD). Liver and muscle glycogen content also increased. The ethanolic extract of seeds also exhibited significant hypolipidemic effect as evident from fall in total serum cholesterol (TC)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase. The histopathological studies of liver, pancreas and aorta in alcoholic extract treated diabetic groups revealed almost normal appearance.
Article
Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS(*+) method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values and total phenolic content for methanolic extracts of herbs ranged from 46.7 to 17,323 micromol Trolox equivalent/100 g dry weight (DW), and from 0.22 to 50.3 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW, respectively. A positive, significant linear relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (all R(2) values>/=0.95) showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in the tested medicinal herbs. Major types of phenolic compounds from most of the tested herbs were preliminarily identified and analyzed, and mainly included phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, lignans, quinones, stilbenes, and curcuminoids. These medicinal herbs exhibited far stronger antioxidant activity and contained significantly higher levels of phenolics than common vegetables and fruits. Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer might be potential sources of potent natural antioxidants and beneficial chemopreventive agents.
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