Shaw, C. J. & Lupski, J. R. Non-recurrent 17p11.2 deletions are generated by homologous and non-homologous mechanisms. Hum. Genet. 116, 1-7
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Room 604B, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Human Genetics
(Impact Factor: 4.82).
02/2005; 116(1-2):1-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-004-1204-9
Several recurrent common chromosomal deletion and duplication breakpoints have been localized to large, highly homologous, low-copy repeats (LCRs). The mechanism responsible for these rearrangements, viz., non-allelic homologous recombination between LCR copies, has been well established. However, fewer studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for non-recurrent rearrangements with non-homologous breakpoint regions. Here, we have analyzed four uncommon deletions of 17p11.2, involving the Smith-Magenis syndrome region. Using somatic cell hybrid lines created from patient lymphoblasts, we have utilized a strategy based on the polymerase chain reaction to refine the deletion breakpoints and to obtain sequence data at the deletion junction. Our analyses have revealed that two of the four deletions are a product of Alu/Alu recombination, whereas the remaining two deletions result from a non-homologous end-joining mechanism. Of the breakpoints studied, three of eight are located in LCRs, and five of eight are within repetitive elements, including Alu and MER5B sequences. These findings suggest that higher-order genomic architecture, such as LCRs, and smaller repetitive sequences, such as Alu elements, can mediate chromosomal deletions via homologous and non-homologous mechanisms. These data further implicate homologous recombination as the predominant mechanism of deletion formation in this genomic interval.
Available from: Chiara Castronovo
- "bkp on chromosome der(8) at approximately 300 kb from the TRPS1 5′ end, thus pointing to TRPS1 as the gene responsible for the proband’s TRPS I phenotype. In addition, nucleotide base pair additions and deletions were detected, thus indicating that the translocation was likely mediated by the Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) mechanism . "
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Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterised by distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. TRPS is generally associated with mutations in the TRPS1 gene at 8q23.3 or microdeletions of the 8q23.3-q24.11 region. However, three deletions affecting the same chromosome region and a familial translocation t(8;13) co-segregating with TRPS, which do not encompass or disrupt the TRPS1 gene, have been reported. A deregulated expression of TRPS1 has been hypothesised as cause of the TRPS phenotype of these patients.
We report the clinical and molecular characterisation of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman carrying the t(2;8)(p16.1;q23.3) de novo balanced translocation. The proband presented with peculiar clinical features (severe craniofacial dysmorphism, alopecia universalis, severe scoliosis, mitral valve prolapse, mild mental impairment and normal growth parameters) that partially overlap with TRPS I. Mutational and array CGH analyses ruled out any genetic defect affecting TRPS1 or genomic alteration at the translocation breakpoint or elsewhere in the genome. Breakpoint mapping excluded disruption of TRPS1, and revealed that the chromosome 8q23.3 breakpoint was located within the IVS10 of the long intergenic non-coding RNA LINC00536, at approximately 300 kb from the TRPS1 5’ end. Conversely, the 2p16.1 breakpoint mapped within a LINE sequence, in a region that lacks transcriptional regulatory elements. As a result of the translocation, nucleotide base pair additions and deletions were detected at both breakpoint junction fragments, and an evolutionarily conserved VISTA enhancer element from 2p16.1 was relocated at approximately 325 kb from the TRPS1 promoter.
We suggest that the disruption of the genomic architecture of cis regulatory elements downstream the TRPS1 5′ region, combined with the translocation of a novel enhancer element nearby TRPS1, might be the pathogenetic mechanism underpinning the proband’s phenotype. The clinical and genetic characterisation of the present subject allowed us to make a genetic diagnosis in the context of a known syndrome, contributing to a better comprehension of the complex transcriptional regulation of TRPS1 and TRPS ethiopathogenesis.
Available from: Louise Kristine Enggaard Hoeffding
- "However, since none of the NRXN1 deletions give rise to complex rearrangements but rather deletions with two well-defined breakpoints together with the absence of nearby regional LCR, simpler models, such as NHEJ could also explain their formation. NHEJ have been implicated in a variety of non-recurrent rearrangements that is in Duchene muscular dystrophy [Toffolatti et al., 2002] and Smith–Magenis syndrome [Shaw and Lupski, 2005]. Similar to FoSTeS and MMBIR, NHEJ has been suggested to reassemble free DNA terminus caused by DSBs in the presence of short microhomology to overcome a genetic lesion. "
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ABSTRACT: Genome instability plays fundamental roles in human evolution and phenotypic variation within our population. This instability leads to genomic rearrangements that are involved in a wide variety of human disorders, including congenital and neurodevelopmental disorders, and cancers. Insight into the molecular mechanisms governing such genomic rearrangements may increase our understanding of disease pathology and evolutionary processes. Here we analyse 17 carriers of non-recurrent deletions in the NRXN1 gene, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, autism and epilepsies.
17 non-recurrent NRXN1 deletions identified by GWA were sequenced to map the breakpoints of each. Meme … etc. was used to identify shared patterns between the deletions and compare these were previously studies on non-recurrent deletions.
We discovered two novel sequence motifs shared between all 17 NRXN1 deletions and a significantly higher AT nucleotide content at the breakpoints, compared to the overall nucleotide content on chromosome 2. We found different alteration of sequence at the breakpoint; small insertions and duplications giving rise to short microhomology sequences.
No single mechanism seems to be implicated in the deletion events, but the results suggest that NHEJ, FoSTeS or MMBIR is implicated. The two novel sequence motifs together with a high AT content in all in NRXN1 deletions may lead to increased instability leading to a increase susceptibility to a single stranded structures. This favours potentially repaired by NHEJ mechanism of double strand breaks or may leading to replication errors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Available from: Derek M Bickhart
- "(D) Retrotransposition involves an RNA intermediate (red dashed lines) that is reverse transcribed into cDNA and is subsequently inserted into the genome, thereby causing a duplication of the original endogenous retrovirus. the end-repair of the previous DSB fragments (Gu et al., 2008). NHEJ is more often associated with deletions (Inoue et al., 2002; Shaw and Lupski, 2005) and chromosomal translocations (Lieber et al., 2010); however, complicated DNA intermediates have been proposed as a method for duplications to occur through NHEJ as well (Lee et al., 2006). The final mechanism, MEI, is the subject of extensive review. "
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs) comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to copy number variations (CNVs) in cattle, sheep, and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the agouti signaling protein gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection.
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