Predictors of Outcome in Blunt Chest Trauma
Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain. Archivos de Bronconeumología
(Impact Factor: 1.82).
12/2004; 40(11):489-94. DOI: 10.1016/S1579-2129(06)60363-7
Thoracic trauma is often associated with polytrauma. Because mortality is high, the search for prognostic tools is useful.
A total of 108 patients with blunt thoracic trauma, 73 of whom had multiple injuries, were studied in an intensive care unit (ICU). The variables named as potential predictors of outcome were the need for mechanical ventilation, duration of ventilation, and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); the presence of rib fractures, pulmonary contusion, pleural involvement (hemo- and/or pneumothorax), or lung infection; the need for emergency surgery; mean duration of ICU stay, and age. We also studied whether or not the mortality rate was higher in polytrauma patients. Student t and chi2 tests (95% confidence level) and multiple regression analysis (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit) were used to analyze the results.
The need for mechanical ventilation, radiographic evidence of pulmonary contusion, emergency surgery, and hemodynamic instability were risk factors for increased mortality. Higher risk of mortality was not demonstrated for patients with multiple injuries. For patients in need of mechanical ventilation, high PEEP was a predictor of poor prognosis.
The presence of the aforementioned predictors (mechanical ventilation, high PEEP, pulmonary contusion, emergency surgery, and hemodynamic instability) indicate serious injury to the lung parenchyma, which is the main determinant of outcome for patients with thoracic trauma.
Available from: Eyo Ekpe
- "In the present study the ratio of blunt to penetrating injury is about 65%:35%. Other studies had documented proportions ranging from 3:1 to 70:1. Furthermore in agreement with other studies, this study did not find type or mechanism of chest trauma as blunt or penetrating to be of prognostic value. Mortality was not dependent on the type of chest trauma but on the severity of the trauma as determined the extent of involvement assessed with the MEWS score [Tables 2–4]. "
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ABSTRACT: Chest trauma is an important trauma globally accounting for about 10% of trauma admission and 25-50% of trauma death. Different types and severity of chest trauma in different subsets of patients with varying associated injuries result in differing outcomes measured with mortality. Early mitigation of poor prognostic factors could result in improved outcome, therefore the need to know such factors or determinants of mortality in chest trauma patients.
Retrospective and prospective analysis of demographic details, socio-economic, clinical details, modified early warning signs (MEWS) score on presentation, investigation findings, treatment and outcome of chest trauma patients who presented to our cardiothoracic surgery unit was undertaken. Data were collected and were analyzed using WINPEPI Stone Mountain, Georgia: USD Inc; 1995 statistical software.
A total 149 patients with thoracic trauma were studied over a 5 year period constituting 40% of the unit workload. There were 121 males and 28 females (81.2% vs. 18.8%; m: f = 4:1) with age range from 7 to 76 years (mean: 37.42 ± 12.86 years) and about 55% aged 45 years or below and more blunt trauma than penetrating trauma (65.1% vs. 34.9%), but no statistical significance amongst the groups on outcome analysis. Sub-grouping of the 149 patients according to their on-admission MEWS score shows that 141 patients had scores of 9 and less and all survived while the remaining eight had scores >9 but all died. As independent variables, age, sex and type of chest injury did not prove to be correlated with mortality with P values of 0.468, 1.000 and 1.000 respectively. However presence of associated extra thoracic organ injury, high on-admission MEWS score >9, delayed presentation with injury to presentation interval longer than 24 h, and severe chest injury as characterized by bilateral chest involvement correlated positively with mortality with P values of 0.0003, 0.0001, 0.0293 and 0.0236 respectively.
Associated extra thoracic organ injury, high on-admission MEWS score >9, late presentation beyond 24 h post trauma and severe chest injury with bilateral chest involvement were found to be determinants of mortality in chest trauma.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Chest traumas comprise 7.6–15.9% of earthquake-related traumas,1-3 and 10–15% of all other trauma. Patients with chest traumas may carry a mortality rate ranges from 8.2–33.3%.4-7 The incidence of disaster-related crush injuries is high.8 "
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ABSTRACT: Massive earthquakes are harmful to humankind. This study of a historical cohort aimed to investigate the difference between earthquake-related crush thoracic traumas and thoracic traumas unrelated to earthquakes using a multi-detector Computed Tomography (CT).
We retrospectively compared an earthquake-exposed cohort of 215 thoracic trauma crush victims of the Sichuan earthquake to a cohort of 215 non-earthquake-related thoracic trauma patients, focusing on the lesions and coexisting injuries to the thoracic cage and the pulmonary parenchyma and pleura using a multi-detector CT.
The incidence of rib fracture was elevated in the earthquake-exposed cohort (143 vs. 66 patients in the non-earthquake-exposed cohort, Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.2; p<0.001). Among these patients, those with more than 3 fractured ribs (106/143 vs. 41/66 patients, RR=1.2; p<0.05) or flail chest (45/143 vs. 11/66 patients, RR=1.9; p<0.05) were more frequently seen in the earthquake cohort. Earthquake-related crush injuries more frequently resulted in bilateral rib fractures (66/143 vs. 18/66 patients, RR= 1.7; p<0.01). Additionally, the incidence of non-rib fracture was higher in the earthquake cohort (85 vs. 60 patients, RR= 1.4; p<0.01). Pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries were more frequently seen in earthquake-related crush injuries (117 vs. 80 patients, RR=1.5 for parenchymal and 146 vs. 74 patients, RR = 2.0 for pleural injuries; p<0.001). Non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries had significant positive correlation with rib fractures in these two cohorts.
Thoracic crush traumas resulting from the earthquake were life threatening with a high incidence of bony thoracic fractures. The ribs were frequently involved in bilateral and severe types of fractures, which were accompanied by non-rib fractures, pulmonary parenchymal and pleural injuries.
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