Article

Effects of Music on Work-Rate Distribution During a Cycling Time Trial

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Abstract

Previous research work on the ergogenic effects of music has mainly involved constant power tests to exhaustion as dependent variables. Time trials are more externally valid than constant power tests, may be more reliable and allow the distribution of self-selected work-rate to be explored. We examined whether music improved starting, finishing and/or overall power during a 10-km cycling time trial, and whether heart rate and subjective responses to this time trial were altered by music. Sixteen participants performed two 10-km time trials on a Cybex cycle ergometer with, and without, the presence of a form of dance music known as "trance" (tempo = 142 beats x min (-1), volume at ear = 87 dB). Participants also completed the Brunel music rating inventory (BMRI) after each time trial in the music condition. The mean +/- SD time to complete the time trial was 1030 +/- 79 s in the music condition compared to 1052 +/- 77 s without music (95 % CI of difference = 10 to 34 s, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, ratings of perceived exertion were consistently (0.8 units) higher throughout the time trial with music (p < 0.0005). The interaction between distance and condition was significant for cycling speed measured during the time trial (p = 0.007). The largest music-induced increases in cycling speed and heart rate were observed in the first 3 km of the time trial. After completion of the BMRI, participants rated the "tempo" and "rhythm" of the music as more motivating than the "harmony" and "melody" aspects. These results suggest that music improves cycling speed mostly in the first few minutes of a 10-km time trial. In contrast to the findings of previous research, which suggested that music lowers perceived exertion at a constant work-rate, the participants in our time trials selected higher work-rates with music, whilst at the same time perceived these work-rates as being harder than without music.

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... Coaches and researchers have described a variety of pacing strategies such as the negative, all-out, positive, even, parabolic-shaped (U, J, reverse J), and variable pacing strategies [1]. Previous studies showed that exercise performance and pacing strategies depend on specific factors such as knowledge of the endpoint [6], performance level, competitors [7], and music [8,9]. ...
... Lima-Silva et al. [16] suggested that the manipulation of external cues, such as music, is able to modify RPE during exercise and consequently it may influence the adopted pacing strategy and performance level. Numerous studies have examined the effects of music on RPE and cardiorespiratory variables such as heart rate, arterial pressure, and oxygen uptake [3,8,17]. However, there is a paucity of studies that have examined the effects of music and its relationship with particularly anaerobic metabolism such as blood lactate concentration [9,18]. ...
... Indeed, Elliott et al. [20] reported that music could have a positive effect especially during low-to-moderate intensity exercise (i.e., below the anaerobic threshold). Although numerous studies have examined the effects of music by using low-to-moderate exercise at constant work load and high-intensity exercise [11,21], little is known on the distribution of self-selected work rate during self-paced exercise [8,16]. Listening to music can increase the distance covered during a 15 min self-paced maximal run on a treadmill [10] and improve cycling speed during the first 3 km of a 10 km cycling time trial [8]. ...
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Several studies have investigated the effects of music on both submaximal and maximal exercise performance at a constant work-rate. However, there is a lack of research that has examined the effects of music on the pacing strategy during self-paced exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preferred music on performance and pacing during a 6 min run test (6-MSPRT) in young male adults. Twenty healthy male participants volunteered for this study. They performed two randomly assigned trials (with or without music) of a 6-MSPRT three days apart. Mean running speed, the adopted pacing strategy, total distance covered (TDC), peak and mean heart rate (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3 min after the test), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Listening to preferred music during the 6-MSPRT resulted in significant TDC improvement (?10%; p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.80). A significantly faster mean running speed was observed when listening to music compared with no music. The improvement of TDC in the present study is explained by a significant overall increase in speed (main effect for conditions) during the music trial. Music failed to modify pacing patterns as suggested by the similar reversed “J-shaped” profile during the two conditions. Blood-lactate concentrations were significantly reduced by 9% (p = 0.006, ES = 1.09) after the 6-MSPRT with music compared to those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences were found between the test conditions for HRpeak, HRmean, and RPE. Therefore, listening to preferred music can have positive effects on exercise performance during the 6-MSPRT, such as greater TDC, faster running speeds, and reduced blood lactate levels but has no effect on the pacing strategy.
... Predominantly used measures of performance express as power output, strength, heart rate, time to completion, and speed (Terry et al., 2020), although a large fluctuation of measures appears within literature due to how well they suit the study's chosen sport. Common findings indicate improved performance through listening to music, shown through reduced heart rate and time to completion (Atkinson, Wilson & Eubank, 2004), and increased strength or power (Karageorghis, Cheek, Simpson & Bigliassi, 2018), thus illustrating the broad spectrum of potential physiological adaptations through reliable and valid measurements (Hopkins, Schabort & Hawley, 2011;Schneider et al., 2018). The benefits elicited here however, appear to be mediated by the tempo of music chosen within the study, with higher tempo music tending to elicit more positive implications for performance, opposed to slower tempo music (Bhavsar, Abbange & Afroz, 2014;Copeland & Franks, 1991;Karageorghis & Jones, 2014;Terry et al., 2012). ...
... For example, during exercise heart rate has been shown to increase whilst listening to high-tempo music (Ooishi, Mukai, Watanabe, Kawato & Kashino, 2017), and similarly decrease whilst listening to slow-tempo music (Edworthy & Waring, 2006), in comparison to those not listening to music. Furthermore, cycling work rate, measured through power output, has also shown to increase when influenced by fast tempo music 7 (Atkinson et al., 2004). The reasons behind such benefits can be explained through an array of physiological and psychological concepts, with the first involving the connection between the music and the individual (Thaut, 2005). ...
... Such findings have also been replicated within other studies (Atkinson et al., 2004) and could perhaps be attributable to a range of individual characteristics within the participants (Hutchinson & Karageorghis, 2013). Only trained individuals participated within the study, and hence the individually adopted techniques of dissociation (Rejeski, 1985) may have elicited some effect. ...
... Moreover, music intervention could enhance aerobic (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004) and anaerobic capacities (Ballmann, Maynard, Lafoon, Marshall, Williams, & Rogers, 2019;Jarraya et al., 2012) during exercise. The music-related interventions are suggested as a useful tool to alter psychological responses and fatigue-related symptoms in association enhancing exercise performance and recovery status (Bigliassi, 2015;Karageorghis & Priest, 2012ab). ...
... For example, fast tempo music intervention (130 bpm) during exercise can prolong high-intensity cycling exercise duration and acceleration of heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) (Maddigan, Sullivan, Halperin, Basset, Behm, 2019). Empirical evidence also demonstrated positive benefits of synchronized music intervention while exercise on endurance capacity and exercise motivation (Atkinson et al., 2004;Terry, Karageorghis, Saha, & Auria, 2012). ...
... Krout (2007) reported that music intervention results in psychological relaxation, pleasure mood, and stress relief via limbic system of the brain and it-related neurological responses, consequently change in hormonal responses. Our finding was in agree with previous studies showing positive benefits of music on psychological responses before (Smirmaul, 2017), during (Atkinson et al., 2004;Jones et al., 2017), and after exercise . ...
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Background: Music intervention is considered as an optimal modality to improve exercise motivation, exercise performance, and endurance capacity. The aim of this study is to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on post-exercise heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and anxiety after a submaximal intensity of cycling exercise. Methods: Fifty-two healthy adults (males: n= 24, age: 20.6 ± 2 yrs; female: n= 28, 21.8 ± 2.1 yrs) were voluntarily participated this study. A counterbalanced design was used to examine submaximal intensity of cycling exercise with non-music or self-selected music trials at least 48 hours apart. Participants first visit the laboratory to determine individual self-selected music and to complete an incremental exercise test until HR response researched to 80% of heart rate reserve (HRreserve). The 80% HRreserve was used to control the exercise intensity during a subsequent 10-minute stationary cycling exercise. At the beginning of experiment, the participants performed a 5-min cycling warm-up exercise with self-pace. Afterwards, the participants rested in a sitting position for 5-min and then performed 10-min cycling exercise with intensity of 80% HRreserve. After the cycling exercise, 5-min HR recovery (HRR) and 10-min HRV was measured in a sitting position for 15-min. A situational anxiety mass scale (STAI-S) was used immediately after the cycling exercise. Music intervention was applied during 15-min post-exercise recovery. Results: The exercise HR and post-exercise HRV showed no significant differences between self-selected music trial and non-music trial in both groups. In self-selected music trial, HRR was significantly faster after the self-selected music trial than that of non-music trial in female. In addition, the STAI-S scores were significantly lower in the self-selected music trial than that of non-music trial in both groups. Conclusion: Self-selected music intervention can improve HRR in healthy female. Consideration to implement a self-selected music intervention after submaximal intensity of stationary cycling exercise to reduce post-exercise anxiety in male and female is warrant. Resumen: Antecedentes: la intervención musical se considera una modalidad óptima para mejorar la motivación del ejercicio, el rendimiento del ejercicio y la capacidad de resistencia. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar los efectos agudos de la intervención musical autoseleccionada sobre la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) posterior al ejercicio, la variabilidad de la FC (VFC) y la ansiedad después de una intensidad submáxima del ejercicio en bicicleta. Métodos: Cincuenta y dos adultos sanos (hombres: n = 24, edad: 20.6 ± 2 años; mujeres: n = 28, 21.8 ± 2.1 años) participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. Se utilizó un diseño equilibrado para examinar la intensidad submáxima del ejercicio de ciclismo con ensayos musicales no musicales o autoseleccionados con al menos 48 horas de diferencia. Los participantes primero visitan el laboratorio para determinar la música individual seleccionada por ellos mismos y completar una prueba de ejercicio incremental hasta que la respuesta de FC investigue al 80% de la reserva de frecuencia cardíaca (HRreserve). El 80% HRreserve se utilizó para controlar la intensidad del ejercicio durante un ejercicio de ciclismo estacionario de 10 minutos. Al comienzo del experimento, los participantes realizaron un ejercicio de calentamiento en bicicleta de 5 minutos con ritmo propio. Posteriormente, los participantes descansaron sentados durante 5 minutos y luego realizaron 10 minutos de ejercicio en bicicleta con una intensidad de reserva de HR del 80%. Después del ejercicio de ciclismo, se midió la recuperación de la FC de 5 minutos (HRR) y la HRV de 10 minutos en una posición sentada durante 15 minutos. Se utilizó una escala de masa de ansiedad situacional (STAI-S) inmediatamente después del ejercicio de ciclismo. La intervención musical se aplicó durante 15 minutos después de la recuperación del ejercicio. Resultados: El HR de ejercicio y el HRV posterior al ejercicio no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el ensayo musical autoseleccionado y el ensayo no musical en ambos grupos. En la prueba musical autoseleccionada, la HRR fue significativamente más rápida después de la prueba musical autoseleccionada que la de la prueba no musical en mujeres. Además, las puntuaciones de STAI-S fueron significativamente más bajas en la prueba musical autoseleccionada que en la prueba no musical en ambos grupos. Conclusión: la intervención musical autoseleccionada puede mejorar la HRR en mujeres sanas. Se justifica la implementación de una intervención musical autoseleccionada después de la intensidad submáxima del ejercicio de ciclismo estacionario para reducir la ansiedad posterior al ejercicio en hombres y mujeres. Palabras Claves: Intervención musical, recuperación de la frecuencia cardíaca, variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca, intensidad submáxima, ejercicio en bicicleta
... Coaches and researchers have described a variety of pacing strategies such as the negative, allout, positive, even, parabolic-shaped (U, J, reverse J), and variable pacing strategies [1]. Previous studies showed that exercise performance and pacing strategies depend on specific factors such as knowledge of the endpoint [6], performance level, competitors [7], and music [8,9]. ...
... Lima-Silva et al. [16] suggested that the manipulation of external cues, such as music, is able to modify RPE during exercise and consequently it may influence the adopted pacing strategy and performance level. Numerous studies have examined the effects of music on RPE and cardiorespiratory variables such as heart rate, arterial pressure, and oxygen uptake [3,8,17]. However, there is a paucity of studies that have examined the effects of music and its relationship with particularly anaerobic metabolism such as blood lactate concentration [9,18]. ...
... Indeed, Elliott et al. [20] reported that music could have a positive effect especially during low-to-moderate intensity exercise (i.e., below the anaerobic threshold). Although numerous studies have examined the effects of music by using lowto-moderate exercise at constant work load and high-intensity exercise [11,21], little is known on the distribution of self-selected work rate during self-paced exercise [8,16]. Listening to music can increase the distance covered during a 15 min self-paced maximal run on a treadmill [10] and improve cycling speed during the first 3 km of a 10 km cycling time trial [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have investigated the effects of music on both submaximal and maximal exercise performance at a constant work-rate. However, there is a lack of research that has examined the effects of music on the pacing strategy during self-paced exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preferred music on performance and pacing during a 6 min run test (6-MSPRT) in young male adults. Twenty healthy male participants volunteered for this study. They performed two randomly assigned trials (with or without music) of a 6-MSPRT three days apart. Mean running speed, the adopted pacing strategy, total distance covered (TDC), peak and mean heart rate (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3 min after the test), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Listening to preferred music during the 6-MSPRT resulted in significant TDC improvement (Δ10%; p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.80). A significantly faster mean running speed was observed when listening to music compared with no music. The improvement of TDC in the present study is explained by a significant overall increase in speed (main effect for conditions) during the music trial. Music failed to modify pacing patterns as suggested by the similar reversed "J-shaped" profile during the two conditions. Blood-lactate concentrations were significantly reduced by 9% (p = 0.006, ES = 1.09) after the 6-MSPRT with music compared to those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences were found between the test conditions for HRpeak, HRmean, and RPE. Therefore, listening to preferred music can have positive effects on exercise performance during the 6-MSPRT, such as greater TDC, faster running speeds, and reduced blood lactate levels but has no effect on the pacing strategy.
... A music-mediated regulation of central command is also indirectly supported by data suggesting that perceived exertion is affected by music [1], with per-ceived exertion mainly being regulated by central command [35,36]. Music may also affect the motor drive to the locomotor muscles-and the muscle afferent feedback-by favoring a change in the locomotor rhythm [37,38]. Variations in the locomotor rhythm may affect f R both via modulations of central command and muscle afferent feedback, although the latter may provide a greater relative contribution to f R at low to moderate intensities [39]. ...
... A music-mediated regulation of central command is also indirectly supported by data suggesting that perceived exertion is affected by music [1], with perceived exertion mainly being regulated by central command [35,36]. Music may also affect the motor drive to the locomotor muscles-and the muscle afferent feedback-by favoring a change in the locomotor rhythm [37,38]. Variations in the locomotor rhythm may affect fR both via modulations of central command and muscle afferent feedback, although the latter may provide a greater relative contribution to fR at low to moderate intensities [39]. ...
Article
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Music is an invaluable tool to improve affective valence during exercise, with the potential contribution of a mechanism called rhythmic entrainment. However, several methodological limitations impair our current understanding of the effect of music on relevant psychophysiological responses to exercise, including breathing variables. This study presents conceptual, methodological, and operational insight favoring the investigation of the effect of music on breathing during exercise. Three tools were developed for the quantification of the presence, degree, and magnitude of music-locomotor, locomotor-breathing, and music-breathing entrainment. The occurrence of entrainment was assessed during 30 min of moderate cycling exercise performed either when listening to music or not, and was complemented by the recording of relevant psychophysiological and mechanical variables. Respiratory frequency and expiratory time were among the physiological variables that were affected to a greater extent by music during exercise, and a significant (p < 0.05) music-breathing entrainment was found in all 12 participants. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating the effect of music on breathing responses to exercise, with potential implications for exercise prescription and adherence, and for the development of wearable devices simultaneously measuring music, locomotor, and breathing signals.
... ψυχική διάθεση, στοιχεία της προσωπικότητας). Έχει παρατηρηθεί από αρκετούς ερευνητές (Atkinson et al., 2004) ότι η μουσική μπορεί να έχει ποικίλες επιδράσεις στους παράγοντες που καθορίζουν την επίδοση των αθλητών σε διάφορα αθλήματα. Στη διεθνή ερευνητική βιβλιογραφία υπάρχει πλήθος μελετών για τις επιδράσεις της μουσικής που επικεντρώνονται σε φυσικές δραστηριότητες, οι οποίες όμως έχουν πραγματοποιηθεί σε ελεγχόμενα εργαστηριακά περιβάλλοντα, όπως για παράδειγμα σε εργομετρικές δοκιμασίες (Bigliassi et al., 2017;Karageorghis & Jones, 2000;Terry et al., 2012). ...
... Ο προσανατολισμός προς το έργο (task orientation) σχετίζεται με την πεποίθηση πως η επιτυχία είναι άμεσα συνδεδεμένη με την προσπάθεια και την αφοσίωση στο στόχο ενώ ο προσανατολισμός προς το εγώ (ego orientation) αφορά την άποψη ότι η επιτυχία καθορίζεται από τον βαθμό που θα αναδειχθεί το άτομο ανάμεσα στα άλλα άτομα (Nicholls, 1984). Η σημαντικότητα της συγκεκριμένης έρευνας έγκειται στο γεγονός ότι η βιβλιογραφία έχει δείξει πως η συνοδεία μουσικής μπορεί να βελτιώσει την απόδοση τόσο σε αερόβια όσο και σε αναερόβια είδη άσκησης, όπως, επί παραδείγματι, είναι η αντισφαίριση (Atkinson et al., 2004). Παρότι απαγορεύεται η αναπαραγωγή μουσικής κατά τη διάρκεια ενός επίσημου αγώνα έχει παρατηρηθεί ότι αρκετοί επαγγελματίες αθλητές (π.χ. ...
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Research findings have supported the notion that music positively affects hitting accuracy of young tennis players. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine during a training session the effect of athletes’ music preference on tennis shot accuracy; second, to investigate the relationship between tennis performance on specific tennis shots (Forehand Drive-“FD”, Backhand Drive-“BD”, Forehand Volley-“FV”, Backhand Volley- “BV”, Overhead Smash-“OS”, Serve on Deuce court-“SD”, Serve on Advantage court-“SA”) and self-confidence, anxiety, flow and goal orientation. 11 right-handed tennis players (three boys, eight girls), aged 14-17 years old (M = 13.91, SD = 1.81) voluntarily participated in this study. Initially, the athletes completed the following questionnaires: Brunel Music Rating Inventory–2 (Karageorghis et al., 1999), State-Trait Sport Self-Confidence Inventory for Children (Psychountaki & Zervas, 1998), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Smith et al., 2006), Flow State Scale-Short Form (Jackson et al., 2008; Stavrou, 2016) and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire; TEOSQ (Duda & Nicholls, 1992). Afterwards, their performance on the main tennis shots was evaluated under three field conditions. 1st condition: Without music they were fed by the coach ten balls per each shot type, whose performance was measured with an out-of-ten scoring system, according to which the athletes should guide the ball to bounce beyond the service line (no music condition). 2nd condition: Τhe athletes executed in the same order the main shots after having listened to one of their selected favorite songs wherever in the court they wanted to (music before condition). 3rd condition: Participants practiced the same tennis shots in the same order while their favorite songs were playing on court in the order of their preference on speakers (music on court condition). The results indicated statistically significant correlations between sport-confidence, goal orientation, anxiety and flow with some of the main tennis shots (“FD”, “BV”, “OS”, “SA”, “BD”). Statistically significant difference was found between the “no music” and the “music before” condition in “FD”. Moreover, statistically significant was the difference in performance at “FV” between the “no music” and “music on court” condition. The results indicate the importance of athletes’ emotional state and the way it affects their performance on the tennis shots as well as music’s positive effect on the way young tennis athletes perform on court. Those findings may seem valuable in a theoretical and a practical manner for both coaches and athletes. Keywords: music, performance, teenagers, tennis, anxiety, sport confidence, flow, goal orientation
... Athletes of diverse ability levels use MUS before or during exercise to enhance performance, motivation, and enjoyment in their training. Listening to MUS can improve endurance performance (Atkinson et al., 2004), explosive power production (Biagini et al., 2012) and skill-based performance (Alrashid, 2015). MUS may help optimize an athlete's state of arousal for exercise, which can confer performance gains (Karageorghis and Priest, 2012). ...
... Cycling cadence was also unaffected, indicating that the kinematics by which participants achieved these power outputs was unchanged. In one previous study, improvements in 10-km cycling performance with MUS listening during exercise resulted from a faster opening 3 km (Atkinson et al., 2004). The authors suggested that MUS might have higher ergogenic effects at the onset of maximal cycling or in shorter maximal cycling bouts. ...
Article
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Methods to enhance the ergogenic effects of music are of interest to athletes of all abilities. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of two commercially available methods of music augmentation: auditory beats and vibrotactile stimulation. Six male and five female cyclists/triathletes cycled for 7 minutes at three different intensities: a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11 (“light”), RPE of 15 (“hard”), and a 7-minute time-trial. Before each 7-minute bout of cycling, participants listened to 10 minutes of self-selected music (MUS), or the same music with the addition of either isochronic auditory beats (ABS) or vibrotactile stimulation via SUBPAC TM (VIB). MUS, ABS and VIB trials were performed in a randomized order. Power output was measured during cycling and felt arousal and feeling scores were recorded at timepoints throughout the protocol. The results found the augmented MUS interventions did not influence power output with no significant main effect of trial ( p = 0.44, η ² = 0.09) or trial × cycling intensity interaction ( p = 0.11, η ² = 0.20). Similarly, both felt arousal and feeling scores were unchanged between the MUS, ABS, and VIB trials ( p > 0.05). In conclusion, this pilot study indicated an ineffectiveness of the ABS and VIB to affect subsequent 7-min cycling performance compared to self-selected MUS alone.
... First, music may allow individuals to separate thoughts from feelings. This divergence can change ones perception of unpleasant feelings, narrowing the performers attention, and reducing the sensations of fatigue during exercise (Atkinson, Wilson & Eubank, 2004;Edworthy & Waring, 2006;Yamashita et al., 2006;Murrock & Higgins, 2009). Second, the divergent stimulus (i.e., music) can alter psychomotor arousal (movement or muscular activity associated with mental processes) and therefore can act as either a stimulant or a sedative prior to and during physical activity (Bigliassi et al., in press;Carmichael et al., 2018;Szmedra & Bacharach, 1998;Yamamoto et al., 2003;Schücker et al., 2009). ...
... A possible explanation for the participants increased exercise duration while experiencing a build-up of peripheral metabolites (increased BL), albeit still reporting comparable RPE scores, can be attributed to a number of psychological influences music had on participants. These include distraction from the sensation of fatigue (Atkinson, Wilson & Eubank, 2004;Bigliassi et al., in press;Edworthy & Waring, 2006), greater arousal and positive affect (Bigliassi et al., in press;Carmichael et al., 2018;Yamamoto et al., 2003;Schücker et al., 2009), and better synchronization between music and the motor tasks allowing the activity to be more efficient (Nikol et al., 2018;Rendi, Szabo & Szaba, 2008;Waterhouse, Hudson & Edwards, 2010). Furthermore, models that emphasise the role of the brain in exercise performance and regulation have pointed to the lack of clear peripherally based fatigue reasons to explain why participants reach the point of exercise failure (i.e., inability to continue exercising) since not all muscle fibers are recruited at the point of exhaustion (Kayser, 2003;Noakes, 2000Noakes, , 2012. ...
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Music has been shown to reduce rating of perceived exertion, increase exercise enjoyment and enhance exercise performance, mainly in low-moderate intensity exercises. However, the effects of music are less conclusive with high-intensity activities. The purpose of this with-participant design study was to compare the effects of high tempo music (130 bpm) to a no-music condition during repeated high intensity cycling bouts (80% of peak power output (PPO)) on the following measures: time to exercise end-point, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), breathing frequency, ventilatory kinetics and blood lactate (BL). Under the music condition, participants exercised 10.7% longer ( p = 0.035; Effect size (ES) = 0.28) (increase of 1 min) and had higher HR (4%; p = 0.043; ES = 0.25), breathing frequency (11.6%; p < 0.001; ES = 0.57), and RER (7% at TTF; p = 0.021; ES = 1.1) during exercise, as measured at the exercise end-point. Trivial differences were observed between conditions in RPE and other ventilatory kinetics during exercise. Interestingly, 5 min post-exercise termination, HR recovery was 13.0% faster following the music condition ( p < 0.05) despite that music was not played during this period. These results strengthen the notion that music can alter the association between central motor drive, central cardiovascular command and perceived exertion, and contribute to prolonged exercise durations at higher intensities along with a quicken HR recovery.
... Até o momento existem algumas evidências que consolidem esta teoria Macone, Baldari, Zelli, & Guidetti, 2006;Yamamoto et al., 2003). Entretanto, alguns pesquisadores vêm demonstrando interesse e dessa forma investigando a capacidade de sincronização musical com o desempenho ou respostas afetivas (estado de humor, motivação e ansiedade) ao exercício (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004;Lim, Atkinson, Karageorghis, & Eubank, 2009;Mohammadzadeh, Tartibiyan, & Ahmadi, 2008). ...
... Com relação aos estudos que se utilizaram da interação música e Time Trial (Contra-relógio), esses apresentam benefícios decorrente do uso da música (Atkinson et al., 2004;Lim et al., 2009), demonstrando velocidade média maior, sem diferenças na percepção subjetiva de esforço e outras variáveis fisiológica com utilização da música, demonstrando um efeito positivo na estratégia de pacing dos voluntários. ...
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The use of music has been identified as a potential ergogenic aid that helps to improve performance during exercise. In this context, the objective of this study is to present and discuss the main evidence of the ergogenic effect of music on exercise performance. Thus, the use of music as an ergogenic aid has proved effective during the exercises mainly submaximal (≤70% VO2máx). However, during maximal exercise (≥100% VO2máx), although it is found positive effects, their effects have been presented in a smaller magnitude. Furthermore, mechanisms of action of this ergogenic effect remain unclear, demonstrating the need for future studies.
... While a lab-based study by showed that using an audio helmet shows no significant impact on skier reaction times, listening to music has been associated with fewerbut more seriousinjuries among snowboarders in terrain parks (Russell et al., 2014). Listening to music has been shown to have almost no impact on the speed of cyclists in a field setting (De Waard, Schepers, Ormel, & Brookhuis, 2010), but Atkinson, Wilson & Eubank (2004) found that music resulted in increased cycling speed on an ergometer. A positive effect of listening to music on speed has also been established for runners (Edworthy & Waring, 2006). ...
... A positive effect of music on speed was previously shown in running (Edworthy & Waring, 2006) and cycling (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004). Our analysis confirms these results by showing that beginner/intermediate skiers listening to music ski or snowboard significantly faster (at all quantiles) than without music. ...
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This study empirically explores whether the use of heads-up-display (HUD) goggles increases the risk in ski areas by increasing skiing and snowboarding speeds. Twenty-seven skiers and snowboarders participated in a repeated measures experiment that included a control session without the HUD goggle and three sessions with the HUD goggle under a variety of conditions. The skiing behaviour of each participant was monitored using a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker. The runs of the ski area were divided into 51 homogeneous run sections and speed quantiles (median to maximum in 5 percentage point intervals) were calculated for each individual pass through these run sections (n=4,451). A mixed-effects model was then applied to examine the effect of HUD goggles on skiing speeds for each quantile in combination with various personal (e.g., skiing ability) and external factors (e.g., terrain). Among the variables tested, ability level had the strongest positive effect on skiing speeds, while terrain characteristics including steep gradients, ungroomed runs, and treed areas, were all associated with slower skiing speeds. No long-term effect of HUD goggle use on skiing speeds was found, but advanced/expert skiers did appear to benchmark ‘personal best’ speeds during first HUD use – particularly on long straight run sections – before returning to slower speeds during subsequent HUD use. Whereas no significant HUD effect was observed among beginners/intermediates, skiing speeds were significantly faster among beginners/intermediates listening to music during the sessions. The potential for distraction as a result of HUD use still requires investigation.
... (12)(13)(14) Music, as an attentional distractor, has been of particular interest in recent decades as its use during exercise has become ubiquitous with accelerating technological advances in portable audio devices. The dissociative effects of music elicit psychological benefits by promoting positive affective states, (16) and physiological improvements through prolonging time to fatigue (17) and improving work capacity.(18) Additionally, the unique extraneous noise-cancelling effects of music delivery via high-quality headphones or earbuds, reduces or even eliminates the ventilatory feedback cue of hearing oneself breathe. ...
Article
Purpose: To determine whether listening to music through headphones: a) affects the sensory (breathing intensity; BI) and/or affective (breathing unpleasantness; BU) components of dyspnea during exercise at different intensities and b) impacts exercise performance. Methods: Twenty-two recreationally active individuals (24 ± 3 yr, 10 women) performed two, 5 min constant loads (10% below/above gas exchange threshold-GET) and an 8 km cycling time trial with ambient lab noise or self-selected music in a randomized crossover design. BI, BU, and ventilation (V̇E) were measured at each minute of the constant loads and every 2 km of the time trial. Ratios of BU/V̇E and BI/V̇E were used to examine the gain in dyspnea during the time trial. Results: In the 10% below GET trial, BU was reduced in the first (p = 0.03) and final (p = 0.04) minute. In the 10% above GET trial, BU and BI were reduced with music (p < 0.05). During the time trial with music, BU/V̇E was significantly attenuated by 9-13% (p < 0.05) despite a greater heart rate and self-selected power output (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Music through headphones mitigated the sensation of dyspnea and changed the accretion of dyspnea per unit increase in V̇E leading to a higher self-selected workload during self-paced exercise. The dyspnea-reducing intervention of self-selected music may improve exercise tolerance, performance, and promote adherence to regular aerobic exercise.
... In a study conducted by Atkison, Wilson, and Eubank [27], participants completed a 10 km cycling time trial. The control group listened to no music, while the experimental group listened to upbeat music. ...
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The number of participants in popular races has increased in recent years, with most of them being amateurs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a high percentage of injuries among them, and some of these injuries may be related to a low stride frequency. The aim of this research was to check if a continuous running training program with a musical base improves the stride frequency of popular runners. For this purpose, the effect of a 6 week continuous running training program with the help of a musical track with a constant rhythm that was 10% higher than the preferred stride frequency of the subjects was analyzed and compared to a control group that performed the continuous running training without sound stimuli. Significant increases were found in the evolution of stride frequency in the experimental group between the pre- and post-test (p = 0.002). No significant changes were observed in the stride frequency of the control group. These results show that training with music feedback helps to improve stride frequency in recreational runners. Future research should study the evolution of the improvement obtained in time as it is unknown if the increase in stride rate has been integrated in the runner’s technique, making the improvement obtained permanent. Future research is needed to confirm these results by enlarging the sample and carrying out an exhaustive biomechanical study.
... First, different types of music have different effects on the brain. For example, funk music may make people active, and up-tempo beats make people passionate for working out [22][23][24]. The tone of the music is connected with certain emotions in the music field. ...
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Music can generate a positive effect in runners’ performance and motivation. However, the practical implementation of music intervention during exercise is mostly absent from the literature. Therefore, this paper designs a playback sequence system for joggers by considering music emotion and physiological signals. This playback sequence is implemented by a music selection module that combines artificial intelligence techniques with physiological data and emotional music. In order to make the system operate for a long time, this paper improves the model and selection music module to achieve lower energy consumption. The proposed model obtains fewer FLOPs and parameters by using logarithm scaled Mel-spectrogram as input features. The accuracy, computational complexity, trainable parameters, and inference time are evaluated on the Bi-modal, 4Q emotion, and Soundtrack datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model is better than that of Sarkar et al. and achieves competitive performance on Bi-modal (84.91%), 4Q emotion (92.04%), and Soundtrack (87.24%) datasets. More specifically, the proposed model reduces the computational complexity and inference time while maintaining the classification accuracy, compared to other models. Moreover, the size of the proposed model for network training is small, which can be applied to mobiles and other devices with limited computing resources. This study designed the overall playback sequence system by considering the relationship between music emotion and physiological situation during exercise. The playback sequence system can be adopted directly during exercise to improve users’ exercise efficiency.
... The mixed findings of music as a performance aid for maximal intensity exercise may be due to the protocol because subjects are often required to exercise to exhaustion (10,15,31). However, in authentic settings, athletes rarely compete to exhaustion, and some researchers have acknowledged this design limitation by studying the effects of music on time-trial performance (1,18). Hagen et al. (18) suggested that a closed-loop session such as a time trial would more closely model the conditions that athletes face in competition. ...
Article
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Run-tracking devices are used by athletes and exercisers to monitor various metrics of human locomotion such as pace and distance. This study sought to determine the effects of pace monitoring on run performance and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Participants were 41 (17 male, 24 female) recreationally fit runners, age 19-40 years (M = 22.4, SD = 4.4), who completed the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) to determine individual attentional focus. They then completed an associative condition (AC) 1-mile time trial and a dissociative condition (DC) 1-mile time trial 24-36 hours apart. Individual, independent t-tests compared completion time means between conditions. The internalizers group (AC) performed significantly faster in the associative condition (M = 496.10, SD = 105.05 seconds) than in the dissociative condition (M = 525.00, SD = 109.67 seconds), t(20) = 5.79, p < .001. The externalizers group (DC) performed significantly faster in the dissociative condition (M = 522.70, SD = 97.37 seconds) than in the associative condition (M = 556.90, SD = 116.62), t(19) = -4.92, p < .001. Results support the value of identifying an individual’s preferred attentional focus to place them in the optimal environment for success. While the study showed no significant difference in RPE scores between conditions, there may be practical implications of similar RPE scores when accompanied by significant changes in performance.
... Music intervention might provide physiological and psychological recovery via respiratory rhythms with music tempo. Music has been documented as an optimal modality to enhance strength performance [4][5][6], swimming [7,8], cycling [9,10], running [11][12][13], circuit exercise [14,15], Wingate anaerobic test [16][17][18][19], and skills acquisitions [20,21]. This evidence demonstrates that music intervention is a useful tool to alter psychological responses and fatigue-related symptoms in association enhancing exercise performance and recovery status. ...
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Music has been reported as a positive intervention for improving psychophysiological conditions and exercise performance. However, the effects of music intervention on golf performance in association with psychophysiological responses have not been well examined in the literature. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on golf swing and putting performance, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and anxiety. Twenty collegiate golfers voluntarily participated in this study (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 171.7 ± 8.0 cm, body weight = 69.5 ± 14.6 kg, golf experience = 7.5 ± 2.1 years). A cross-over and within-subject design was used in this study. Participants performed a non-music trial (T1), pre-exercise music trial (T2), and simultaneous music trial (T3) in a randomized order with 48-72 h apart. The participants were attached to a HR monitor to record the HR and HRV during the measurement. The golf swing and putting performance was assessed by using the Golfzon golf simulator system. The state-trait anxiety inventory-state questionnaire (STAI-S) was used to evaluate anxiety state. All measurements were taken during baseline (phase one) and after resting or music intervention (phase two). Repeated measurement of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen's effect size (ES) were used for statistical analyses. The results show no significant differences in golf swing and putting performance (p > 0.05). However, significant decrease in STAI-S score was found in T2 (p = 0.047, ES = 0.32). A significant increase in the standard deviation of normal R-R interval (SDNN), low-frequency power spectrum (LF), standard deviation of along the line-of-identity (SD2) in T2 and T3 were observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a single pre-exercise or simultaneous self-selected music intervention contributes minor effects to golf performance in collegiate golfers. The positive benefits of self-selected music intervention on the psychological condition and cardia-related modulation while practicing golf is warranted.
... Music has been associated with improved performance in short-duration physical activities, such as 60-yard sprinting [11], 400-metre running [8], grip strength [12], and the Wingate anaerobic test [13]. Performance improvements in long duration activities have also been shown in activities such as cycling [14]- [16], rowing ergometer [17], treadmill running [18], and treadmill Walking [9]. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in Gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10) experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 6 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.
... As stated in a previous study that analysed 109 different studies in 37 countries, motivation should be crucial to achieve the higher stages of the cardiorespiratory fitness test (20 mSRT-original) (Olds et al., 2006). Moreover, it stated that music should be related to volitional effects (Atkinson et al., 2004) and a distraction from monotony (Tenenbaum et al., 2004), and therefore, allows the individual to better perform in the test. ...
Article
The purpose was to examine the feasibility of the 20m shuttle run test with music and to test its concurrent validity with the original 20m shuttle run test. A total of 386 adolescents (14.5±1.6 years old, 48.9% boys) participated in our study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess student’s perception about the 20m shuttle run test with music and the original and to assess perceived exertion. Participants performed randomly the 20m shuttle run test with music and original two weeks apart. Average and maximum heart rate were monitored with heart rate monitors. The 20m shuttle run with music was a feasible test for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. The concurrent validity showed mean differences of 5.1±14.6 for shuttles, 0.3±0.8 km/h for speed, 0.5±4.1 for stages, and 1.5±4.1 for VO2max (all p<0.001) in favour of the 20m shuttle run with music vs. the original 20m shuttle run test. Mean difference for the rating of perceived exertion was 0.4±2.5 points (p=0.003). No significant difference was found between boys and girls. In conclusion, the 20mSRT-music is feasible and presents a good concurrent validity in adolescents, independently of the sex and it will be an alternative and good approach to assess cardiorespiratory fitness.
... Our daily activities can benefit much by listening to music. Research from music psychology and sports psychology shows that music can regulate moods and emotions [17][18][19], increase productivity, increase the intensity or endurance of exercise [20,21], encourage rhythmic movement, and evoke memories and raise spirits [2]. Motivated by this line of theoretical work, we base our classifier on features informed by psychometric measures reflecting motivational properties of music (Sect. ...
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Music can motivate many daily activities as it can regulate mood, increase productivity and sports performance, and raise spirits. However, we know little about how to recommend songs that are motivational for people given their contexts and activities. As a first step towards dealing with this issue, we adopt a theory-driven approach and operationalize the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI) to identify motivational qualities of music from the audio signal. When we look at frequently listened songs for 14 common daily activities through the lens of motivational music qualities, we find that they are clustered into three high-level latent activity groups: calm, vibrant, and intense. We show that our BMRI features can accurately classify songs in the three classes, thus enabling tools to select and recommend activity-specific songs from existing music libraries without any input required from user. We present the results of a preliminary user evaluation of our song recommender (called PepMusic) and discuss the implications for recommending songs for daily activities.
... Athletes with different levels of experience use to listen to music to increase motivation during training sessions 3 . Among the beneficial effects of listening to music are the improvement of mood 4 , excitatory control 5,6 and improved physical performance 7 , as music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system (CNS) 8 . A possible mechanism of action of music during exercise is related to increased release of excitatory neurotransmitters (e.g. ...
... Ha тај начин музика утиче на избор вежби, креира стил кретања tokom вежбања, док њен темпо одређује брзину покрета и кретања (Sharma & Black, 2001). За већину вежбача има пресудну улогу y динамици вежбања (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004). Поред тога, код вежбача музика изазива осећај опуштености и слободе изражавања позитивног емотивног стања. ...
... Athletes with different levels of experience use to listen to music to increase motivation during training sessions 3 . Among the beneficial effects of listening to music are the improvement of mood 4 , excitatory control 5,6 and improved physical performance 7 , as music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system (CNS) 8 . A possible mechanism of action of music during exercise is related to increased release of excitatory neurotransmitters (e.g. ...
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Music can be considered as an ergogenic aid of psychological nature. Currently, athletes of different training status regularly use music as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in different exercise models in their training sessions. In order to understand the effect of music on psychophysiological responses to physical exercise, a music-oriented search was performed on the Pubmed and Web of Science databases to select relevant articles to this theme, thus enabling to present a critical review to explain the three main suggested ergogenic mechanisms of music: 1) Music and perceptive responses during exercise; 2) Influence of music on exercise in different intensities; 3) Action of music on the central nervous system. One of the reasons to listening to music during training sessions is the strong motivational factor during the practice of physical activity. Studies have pointed out benefits such as an improved mood, excitatory control, reduced subjective perception of effort, increased motivation and improved physical performance. In this sense, although the real mechanisms that lead music to be considered as an ergogenic aid to improve performance remain unknown, music seems to have important effects on psychological responses generated in the central nervous system, thus acting as a stimulating agent for the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as serotonin and endorphin. On the other hand, according to the theory of parallel processing / dissociation, the main mechanism of music to improve physical performance is the increased dissociative thoughts to exercise, thereby reducing perceptual responses processed through the brain that result in increased positive emotional responses to exercise. Key Words: Physical exercise; Central nervous system; Physical training. FRANCO-ALVARENGA PE, BRIEZTKE C, CANESTRI R, PIRES FO. Psychophysiological responses of music on physical performance: a critical review. R. bras. Ci. e Mov 2019;27(2):218-224. RESUMO: A música pode ser considerada como um recurso ergogênico de natureza psicológica. Atualmente, atletas de diferentes níveis de treinamento utilizam a música como um recurso ergogênico em suas sessões de treinamento em diferentes modelos de exercício para melhorar o desempenho. Para entender o efeito da música nas respostas psicofisiológicas no desempenho físico foi realizada uma busca intencional nas bases de dados 'Pubmed' e 'Web of Science' de artigos relevantes ao tema, desse modo, a presente revisão foi conduzida de maneira crítica para explanar os principais mecanismos sugeridos para a ação ergogênica da música em 3 tópicos: 1) Músicas e respostas perceptivas durante o exercício; 2) Influência da música sobre o exercício em diferentes intensidades; 3) Ação da música sobre o sistema nervoso central. Um dos motivos da utilização da música durante as sessões de treinamento é o forte fator motivacional durante a prática da atividade física. Estudos apontam alguns benefícios como a melhora do humor, controle excitatório, redução da percepção subjetiva de esforço, aumento da motivação e melhora do desempenho físico. Nesse sentido, embora os reais mecanismos que levam a música a ser considerada um recurso ergogênico ainda permanecem desconhecidos, a música parece ter importantes efeitos sobre as respostas psicológicas geradas no sistema nervoso central, atuando como um agente estimulante para a liberação de neurotransmissores excitatórios como a serotonina e endorfina. Por outro lado, de acordo com a teoria do processamento paralelo/dissociação, o principal mecanismo da música sobre o desempenho físico é o aumento da dissociação durante o exercício, reduzindo as respostas perceptivas processadas no cérebro, com a resultante do aumento de respostas emocionais positivas ao longo da tarefa. Palavras-chave: Exercício físico; Sistema nervoso central; Treinamento físico. 219 Psychophysiological responses of music on performance R. bras. Ci. e Mov 2019;27(2):218-224.
... It is also important to control for the effects of auditory distraction per se (Bigliassi, Karageorghis, Wright, Orgs, & Nowicky, 2017;Chanda & Levitin, 2010). It has been suggested that during high-intensity exercise, the psychological effects of music are driven by the motivational qualities of the music as opposed to the dissociative effects of music (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004;Hutchinson & Karageorghis, 2013). If this explanation is sound (i.e., that music functions to motivate rather than dissociate during SIT), then SIT performed in the presence of music should elicit greater psychological and physiological benefits than when SIT is performed in the presence of a non-musical auditory distraction. ...
Article
Background While sprint interval training (SIT) is time-efficient and can elicit meaningful health benefits among adults who are insufficiently active, one major drawback is that people can find it to be unpleasant. Consequently, researchers have begun to investigate the use of music to enhance people’s pleasure during SIT. Presently, little is known about the application of music to SIT protocols designed for insufficiently active individuals. Purpose To investigate the psychological (affective valence, arousal, enjoyment), psychophysical (perceived exertion), and physiological (heart rate [HR], power output) effects of researcher-selected motivational music during a low-volume SIT protocol performed by insufficiently active adults. Methods Using a randomized, fully-counterbalanced design, 24 insufficiently active adults (12 women, 12 men; 24.08 ±4.61 years) inexperienced with SIT completed three SIT trials (3 × 20-s “all-out” sprints with 2-min recovery periods) under different conditions: motivational music, podcast control, no-audio control. Results Post-exercise enjoyment was greater in the music condition (M = 89.58 ± 17.33) compared to podcast (M = 83.92 ± 19.49; p = .04, ηp² = 0.18) and no-audio (M = 85.28 ± 17.92; p = .04, ηp² = 0.17) controls. Over the course of the SIT trial, HR responses were elevated in the music condition in comparison to the podcast (p = .02, ηp² = 0.23) and no-audio (p = .03, ηp² = 0.21) controls, and peak power output was higher in the music condition when compared to the podcast (p = .02, ηp² = 0.23) and no-audio (p = .01, ηp² = 0.25) controls. Affective responses over the course of the SIT trial were more positive in the music condition when compared to the no-audio control (p = .03, ηp² = 0.18), and tended to be more positive in the music condition when compared to the podcast control (p = .11, ηp² = 0.11). Moreover, a rebound toward more positive affect was observed post-exercise in all conditions. Conclusions The application of music during SIT has the potential to enhance feelings of pleasure, improve enjoyment, and elevate performance of SIT for adults who are insufficiently active, which may ultimately lead to better adherence to this type of exercise.
... The current data are at odds with those of Chtourou et al. [20] and Eliakim et al. [36] during which participants underwent a Wingate test. After the 5-m multiple shuttle run test, in agreement with Atkinson et al. [39] and Chtourou et al. [20], the RPE scores were higher after WUNM than WUWM in the morning. However, Eliakim et al. [36] and Jarraya et al. [37] were unable to show that the RPE scores were unaffected by listening to music. ...
Article
The present experiment examined the effects of listening to different types of music during warm-up on the diurnal variation of short-term maximal performance (STMP) in soccer players, using a 3×2 mixed design with factors “Condition” (warm-up with self-selected motivational-music (WUMM) vs. warm-up with neutral-music (WUNM) vs. warm-up without-music (WUWM) and “Time of Day” (07h00 vs. 17h00). In a random order, twelve male soccer players performed a 5-m shuttle run test after a 10 min of WUMM, a 10 min of WUNM and a 10 min WUWM at 07h00 and 17h00. The higher distance (HD) and total distance (TD) were measured during the test, and the rated perceived exertion (RPE) and the feelings states (FS) were obtained immediately after the warm-up and the test. The results revealed that HD and TD were higher at 17h00 than 07h00 in all conditions (p<0.01). At 07h00 and 17h00, TD and HD were higher after WUMM and WUNM than WUWM and after WUMM than WUNM (p<0.01). This improvement was greater at 07h00 than 17h00 (e.g., 6.97% vs. 5.26% for TD). Moreover, FS were more positive after WUNM than WUWM only at 07h00, after WUMM than WUWM at the two time-of-day (p<0.01), and after WUMM than WUNM at 17h00 (p<0.01). After the 5-m shuttle run test, FS were more negative and the RPE scores were higher with WUMM than WUWM at 07h00 (p<0.01). The findings suggested that STMP and feelings depend on types of music listened during a warm-up. A warm-up with self-selected motivational-music improves STMP and feelings at 07h00 and 17h00 with greater enhancement in the morning. However, a warm-up with neutral-music improves STMP and feelings only at 07h00.
... The mixed findings of music as a performance aid for maximal intensity exercise may be due to the protocol because participants are often required to exercise to exhaustion (10,15,31). However, in authentic settings, athletes rarely compete to exhaustion, and some researchers have acknowledged this design limitation by studying the effects of music on time-trial performance (1,18). Hagen et al. (18) suggested that a closed-loop session such as a time trial would more closely model the conditions that athletes face in competition. ...
Article
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Clark, JC, Baghurst, T, and Redus, BS. Self-selected motivational music on the performance and perceived exertion of runners. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1656-1661, 2021-Music is used by athletes and exercisers to improve performance outcomes, but it is less known whether its properties can enhance performance at maximal intensity. This study measured subjects' performance time, average heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on a 1.5-mile running trial when listening to self-selected motivational music vs. no music. Subjects were 17 runners (male = 8, female = 9) who completed 2, 1.5-mile time trials in a repeated-measures randomized crossover design. For the music trial, subjects were asked to select and listen to a motivational song, which was scored by the subject for its motivational quotient using the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2. Subjects improved mean performance time by 10 seconds and increased average heart rate by 4.5 b·min-1 in the motivational music condition, but neither were significantly different (p = 0.09, 0.10). However, the music condition significantly lowered subjects' RPE by 0.5 points (p = 0.02). That motivational music improved performance time, although not significant, is noteworthy considering the significantly lower RPE reported. Therefore, ergogenic qualities of motivational music may elicit a greater performance from experienced runners while simultaneously lowering perception of effort when working at maximal intensity.
... Similarly, the result of this research is supported by Nakamura et al., (2010) who found that total distance covered during constant-load exercise performed at critical power (207 ± 53 W) was not increased compared to the control group, irrespective of listening to preferred or non-preferred music. In contrast, there was a study done by Atkinson et al. (2004), when athletes listened to music, there was an improvement in performance during a 10km cycling time trial compared to no music. ...
... A great deal of runners exercise while listening to music. This should not come as a surprise, since music listening during sport activities is believed to capture attention (Priest and Karageorghis, 2008), distract from fatigue and discomfort (Yamashita, Iwai, Akimoto, Sugawara, and Kono, 2006), prompt and alter mood states (Edworthy and Waring, 2006;Shaulov and Lufi, 2009), enhance work output (Rendi, Szabo, and Szabó, 2008;Priest, Karageorghis, and Sharp, 2004), increase arousal (Lim, Karageorghis, Romer, and Bishop, 2014), relieve stress (Särkämö, Tervaniemi, Laitinen, Forsblom, Soinila, Mikkonen, Autti, Silvennoinen, Erkkilä, Laine, et al., 2008), stimulate rhythmic movement (Atkinson, Wilson, and Eubank, 2004), and evoke a sense of power and produce power-related cognition and behaviour (Hsu, Huang, Nordgren, Rucker, and Galinsky, 2015). Simpson and Karageorghis (2006), for instance, examined the effect of music on a 400 m sprint performance while controlling for pre-performance mood. ...
... This effects may indirectly divert attention from internal signals (physical) to external signs (music) (Simpson, Karageorghis, 2006). So, listening to music during exercise can improve performance especially aerobic (Atkinson, Wilson, Eubank, 2004;Ghaderi, Rahimi, Azarbayjany, 2009) and anaerobic activities (McMordie, 2009;Simpson, Karageorghis, 2006). Music effectiveness, related to function and characteristic features of music listener, music with slow rhythm leads to relaxation and reduce tension in the listener (Labbe, Schmidt, Babin, Pharr, 2007) while fast-paced music is provocative and can increase muscles tension (Makoto, Asami, Chie, 2005) Barwood and colleagues (2009) reported that in terms of stimulating listening to music, attendees who were running on a treadmill can travel farther, they were less lactate accumulation and in contrast, perceived exertion did not change significantly (Barwood at al,. 2009). ...
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Listening to music can be useful for athletic performance because of the similarities between the rhythm of the music and the movements of the human body. Given the ambiguity in the lead for better music, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of fast, light and favorite music on physiological function and physical performance of the male athlete students. 25 healthy male athlete students with the age of 20.8 ±1.20 years, height of 180.5 ±7.02 cm and weight of 70.8 ±10.9 kg participated in this study voluntarily. The present study was a repeated based test (4 times without music, fast, light and favorite music in 4 consecutive weeks with a one week rest apart them to control the effects of fatigue during the test). Results showed that fast music caused a significant changes in anaerobic power, sprint, agility, muscular endurance, aerobic power, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (p < 0.05). Also, favorite music caused significant changes in explosive power and agility (p < 0.05). But, light music just made significant effect on minimum power (p < 0.05). According to this study, it seems that listening to fast music before aerobic and anaerobic activities can be effective on maximum and submaximal functions.
... The benefits of music in the sports and exercise context have been studied mostly in adults. The effects of music on PA and motivation have been studied, for example, in individual exercise and workouts, such as warm-up [6] and cool-down routines [7,8], strength-based workouts [9], cardio-respiratory workouts, especially running [10,11] and cycling [12,13], and classes and group activities with music, specifically aerobics [14] and circuit training [15]. It has been found that during exercise, motivational music may enhance the effect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency, and lead to increased work output [8,16,17]. ...
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Regular physical activity (PA) and the avoidance of prolonged sitting are essential for children’s healthy growth, and for the physical and mental wellbeing of both children and adults. In the context of exercise, music may promote behavioral change through increased exercise adherence and participation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a movement-to-music video program could reduce sedentary behavior (SB) and increase PA in mother-child pairs in the home environment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Pirkanmaa region, Finland, in 2014–2016. The participants consisted of 228 mother-child pairs (child age 5–7 years). The primary outcomes of interest were tri-axial accelerometer-derived SB and PA, which were measured in weeks one (baseline), two, and eight in both the intervention and control groups. Further, the mothers and children in the intervention group used a movement-to-music video program from the beginning of week two to the end of week eight. Secondary outcomes included self-reported screen time. The statistical methods employed comprised an intention-to-treat and linear mixed effects model design. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in primary or secondary outcomes. Among the children in the control group, light PA decreased significantly over time and screen time increased from 89 (standard deviation, SD 37) to 99 (SD 41) min/d. Among mothers and children in the intervention group, no statistical differences were found. In supplementary analysis, the children who stayed at home instead of attending daycare/preschool had on average 25 (95% confidence interval, CI 19–30) min/d more sedentary time and 11 (95% CI 8–14) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA than those who were at daycare/preschool. The higher body mass index of mothers was related with 5 (95% CI 2–7) min/d more sedentary time and 1 (95% CI 0–2) min/d less moderate-to-vigorous PA. The movement-to-music video program did not change the objectively measured SB or PA of the mother-child pairs. However, mothers and children seemed to be more sedentary at home, and therefore interventions for decreasing SB and increasing PA should be targeted in the home environment.
... La situación previa a la competencia está cargada para los participantes de una extrema tensión y el empleo de la música, además, es un medio posible de implementar, porque el propio deportista puede asistirse a sí mismo sin la mediación de otras personas. Atkinson, Wilson & Eubank (2004) investigaron el efecto de una música bailable durante una prueba de 10 kilómetros a contrarreloj realizada en bicicleta ergometría. Hubo un grupo bajo los efectos de esta variable independiente y otro grupo control. ...
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This article is a theoretical review. It is intended to present the ways of using music as an intervention in psychological preparation for sports competitions. Music is described as holding an explicit and direct influence on affective, cognitive and behavioral processes in athletes. It allows regulation of motivation and emotion, reduces perceived exertion, increases the amount of exercise performed, focuses the attention and improves recovery after exercise. The paper points out the advantages, possible disadvantages and limitations to the use of music in sports. It was found that music is an important element for regulation of emotional states before competitions. The results show the complexity of the methods for selecting music, as well as the instruments for assessing their impact. Additionally, they suggest that a theoretical model is required to resolve the contradictions in music use trends in sports. Finally, it also demonstrates that some topics have hitherto been poorly investigated. These subjects are the use of music in combination with other psychological interventions, the effect of song lyrics and the consequences of music on athletic performance when combined with additional tasks related to music therapy.
... In recent years, a number of studies have shown that physiological, psychological and environmental factors can affect overall performance and pacing (Tucker and Noakes, 2009). These factors include oxygen availability (Amann et al., 2006; Clark et al., 2007; Tucker et al., 2007; Périard and Racinais, 2016), heat-stress (Peiffer and Abbiss, 2011), wind velocity (Teunissen et al., 2013), hydration status (Dugas et al., 2009), carbohydrate () and caffeine ingestion (Wiles et al., 2006), pre-cooling strategies (Duffield et al., 2010), motivation (Corbett et al., 2012), fatigue (Skorski et al., 2015), deception (Stone et al., 2012; Jones et al., 2016b; Shei et al., 2016), pacing feedback (Thompson et al., 2003Thompson et al., , 2004) and music (Atkinson et al., 2004). However, on the basis of existing studies it is still difficult to arrive at an overall conclusion as to whether these manipulations have a negative or positive effect on pacing and performance, and indeed which part of the pacing strategy changes (start, middle and end) during trials. ...
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In search of their optimal performance athletes will alter their pacing strategy according to intrinsic and extrinsic physiological, psychological and environmental factors. However, the effect of some of these variables on pacing and exercise performance remains somewhat unclear. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an overview as to how manipulation of different extrinsic factors affects pacing strategy and exercise performance. Only self-paced exercise studies that provided control and intervention group(s), reported trial variance for power output, disclosed the type of feedback received or withheld, and where time-trial power output data could be segmented into start, middle and end sections; were included in the meta-analysis. Studies with similar themes were grouped together to determine the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between control and intervention trials for: hypoxia, hyperoxia, heat-stress, pre-cooling and various forms of feedback. A total of 26 studies with cycling as the exercise modality were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, four studies manipulated oxygen availability, eleven manipulated heat-stress, four implemented pre-cooling interventions and seven studies manipulated various forms of feedback. Mean power output (MPO) was significantly reduced in the middle and end sections (p < 0.05), but not the start section of hypoxia and heat-stress trials compared to the control trials. In contrast, there was no significant change in trial or section MPO for hyperoxic or pre-cooling conditions compared to the control condition (p > 0.05). Negative feedback improved overall trial MPO and MPO in the middle section of trials (p < 0.05), while informed feedback improved overall trial MPO (p < 0.05). However, positive, neutral and no feedback had no significant effect on overall trial or section MPO (p > 0.05). The available data suggests exercise regulation in hypoxia and heat-stress is delayed in the start section of trials, before significant reductions in MPO occur in the middle and end of the trial. Additionally, negative feedback involving performance deception may afford an upward shift in MPO in the middle section of the trial improving overall performance. Finally, performance improvements can be retained when participants are informed of the deception.
... Also, there is an increased interest in studying music type and preference in sports activities (see Gfeller, 1988;Tenenbaum et al. 2004;McGuinness, 2009). The function and contribution of music in sports and its results in delivering ergogenic, psychological, psychophysical, and psychophysiological effects have been studied by scholars (Atkinson et al. 2004;Karageorghis et al. 2010;Szmedra & Bacharach, 1998). ...
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Since the marching band was first introduced in Malaysia during the British colonial period, there has been a progressively increased interest in marching bands in the country. Although bands range in style, the most commonly found bands in Malaysia are military bands or traditional parade units. The recent years however, has seen a rise in the number of marching show bands and drum corps units in Malaysia which integrate a theatrical performance expressed through music. Although the Ministry of Education, Malaysia and other organizations have made consistent efforts to organize competitions as an avenue for bands to showcase their abilities, Developing Malaysian High School Marching Bands 40 many issues have arisen due to the nature of the competition. The system in use then appeared to discourage creativity in performance and hence the development of bands in line with current trends of marching show bands and drum corps. This prompted the Malaysia Band Association to introduce a change in the judging system as well as to train judges with contemporary marching band techniques. The Drum Corps Europe (DCE) judging system was selected partly as this system is a means of encouraging new standards of creativity, artistry and excellence in design and performance while also providing a vehicle that will educate beginners to grow and evolve to the greatest level of their potential. After two years since its implementation for the National Band Competition, it is important to gauge if and how this new judging system is contributing towards the development of marching bands. The purpose of this study was to examine issues and challenges associated with the implementation of the DCE judging system in terms of improving the quality and standards of bands and to identify strategies for the development of marching bands in Malaysia. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection in this study. A survey questionnaire was distributed to band directors and band managers to elicit responses in three areas namely the assessment criteria, feedback system by judges and suggestions for future developments. Interviews were also conducted with selected individuals regarding the challenges of organizing competitions and strategies for the development of marching bands. Results indicate that band directors and managers generally accepted the DCE system in terms of the assessment criteria and competition rules. Via the issues and challenges identified, nine strategies are suggested for the continuous development of Malaysian high school marching bands.
... In their research, Atkinson, Wilson and Eubank (2004) conducted a study with 16 male subjects who had to pedal a stationary bicycle with the goal of completing 10 kilometers of distance in the least amount of time possible. The participants were divided into two groups and performed under a condition without music during one week and a condition with music during the other week with the conditions alternated between the groups. ...
... Environmental conditions were standardised between the experimental trials, with barometric pressure (741 ± 9 and 741 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.7), ambient temperature (19.8 ± 0.9 and 19.8 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.9) and humidity not statistically different (47 ± 7 and 47 ± 8 %; P = 0.9) between T1 and T2, respectively. Background music and verbal encouragement was standardised between trials [4] and participants were unaware of the time elapsed during the exercise capacity test. ...
... Environmental conditions were standardised between the experimental trials, with barometric pressure (741 ± 9 and 741 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.7), ambient temperature (19.8 ± 0.9 and 19.8 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.9) and humidity not statistically different (47 ± 7 and 47 ± 8 %; P = 0.9) between T1 and T2, respectively. Background music and verbal encouragement was standardised between trials [4] and participants were unaware of the time elapsed during the exercise capacity test. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening to preferred music during a warm up or exercise, on performance during a 6-min all-out exercise test (6-MT) in young adult males. Twenty-five healthy males volunteered to participate in this study. Following a within subject design, participants performed three test conditions (MDT: music during the test; MDW: music during the warm-up; WM: without music) in random order. Outcomes included mean running speed over the 6-min test (MRS6), total distance covered (TDC), heart rate responses (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3-min after the test), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE); additionally, feeling scale scores were recorded. Listening to preferred music during running resulted in significant TDC (∆↑10%, p = 0.006, ES = 0.80) and MRS6 (∆↑14%, p = 0.012, ES = 1.02) improvement during the 6-MT, improvement was also noted for the warm-up with music condition (TDC: ∆↑8%, p = 0.028, ES = 0.63; MRS6: ∆↑8%, p = 0.032, ES = 0.61). A similar reverse "J-shaped" pacing profile was detected during the three conditions. Blood lactate was lower in the MDT condition by 8% (p = 0.01, ES = 1.10), but not the MDW condition, compared to MW. In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between the test sessions for the HR, RPE, and feeling scale scores. In conclusion, listening to music during exercise testing would be more beneficial for optimal TDC and MRS6 performances compared to MDW and WM.
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Matching exercise behavior to musical beats has been shown to favorably affect repetitive endurance tasks. In this study, our aim was to explore the role of spontaneous versus instructed entrainment, focusing on self-paced exercise of healthy, recreational runners. For three 4-min running tasks, 33 recreational participants were either running in silence or with music; when running with music, either no instructions were given to entrain to the music, or participants were instructed to match their running cadence with the tempo of the music. The results indicated that less entrainment occurred when no instruction to match the exercise with the musical tempo was provided. In addition, similar to the condition without music, lower speeds and shorter step lengths were observed when runners were instructed to match their running behavior to the musical tempo when compared with the condition without such instruction. Our findings demonstrate the impact of instruction on running performance and stress the importance of intention to entrain running behavior to musical beats.
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Music has been shown to reduce rating of perceived exertion, increase exercise enjoyment and enhance exercise performance, mainly in low-moderate intensity exercises. However, the effects of music are less conclusive with high-intensity activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high tempo music (130 bpm) to a no-music condition during repeated high intensity cycling bouts (80% of peak power output (PPO)) on the following measures: time to task failure (TTF), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), breathing frequency, ventilatory kinetics and blood lactate (BL). Under the music condition, participants exercised 10.7% longer (p = 0.035; Effect size (ES)= 0.28) (increase of one minute) and had higher HR (4%; p= 0.043; ES= 0.25), breathing frequency (11.6%; p= 0.0006; ES= 0.57), and RER (7% at TTF; p= 0.021; ES=1 .1) during exercise. Trivial differences were observed between conditions in RPE and other ventilatory kinetics during exercise. Interestingly, HR recovery was 13.0% faster following the music condition (p< 0.05). These results strengthen the notion that music can alter the association between central motor drive, central cardiovascular command and perceived exertion, and contribute to prolonged exercise duration at higher intensities along with a quicken HR recovery.
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This chapter illustrates how researchers reflect on links between music and public health. Music enters the brain in a different way than do conversations based on words, and since the brain tends to react more directly and rapidly to music, this may sometimes create a basis for surprise and unexpected reorientation in life.
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Musik am Arbeitsplatz wird in der Industrie seit 1915 eingesetzt und die Erforschung ihrer Wirkung begann in den 30er-Jahren. Die Studien beschäftigen sich vor allem mit der Veränderung der Quantität und der Qualität der Produktion durch den Musikeinsatz und mit der Veränderung der subjektiven Befindlichkeit, für die es viele Belege gibt. Eine Anzahl von kommerziellen Anbietern für Musik am Arbeitsplatz existiert und wird hier beschrieben.
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With the incessant search for improved performance, studies have been devoted to explore the influence of music on exercise, aiming to the psychophysical gain of samples, such as speed and time limit of exhaustion. Studies have shown, however, that several parameters have been used to evaluate the same physical valences, leading to divergent results. The aim of this study was to propose a conceptual framework facilitator, dividing the work into two main broad classes (independent variables): music synchronized and asynchronous music, focusing on responses to humor, excitement and psychological ergogenic effects, and provide guidelines and limitations the application of music on exercise. We conclude the review confirming the effects of music on exercise, which are inversely proportional to the intensity of exercise.
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Musik am Arbeitsplatz wird in der Industrie seit 1915 eingesetzt und die Erforschung ihrer Wirkung begann in den 30er-Jahren. Die Studien beschäftigen sich vor allem mit der Veränderung der Quantität und der Qualität der Produktion durch den Musikeinsatz und mit der Veränderung der subjektiven Befindlichkeit, für die es viele Belege gibt. Eine Anzahl von kommerziellen Anbietern für Musik am Arbeitsplatz existiert und wird hier beschrieben.
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In this chapter the foundations are laid for a discussion regarding the relationships between working conditions, leadership and cultural activities in relation to employee health. The first part is about cultural activities in the history of leadership. This is followed by a scientific review of cultural activities and their possible role in public health – what is the evidence for a relationship? In the third part the stress concept is discussed in relation to stress prevention in the workplace. It is emphasised that long-term reactions to adverse job conditions arise in a balance between energy mobilisation and regeneration. Cultural activities (such as music, writing, dance, theatre and visual art) could have a role both in strengthening regeneration and in lowering energy mobilisation. Leaders could play a central role in these processes and they could also be activated to become engaged and empathic leaders by means of cultural activities.
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Music impulses are transmitted in the brain via two different routes labelled “upper” (cognitive and relatively slow) and “lower” (emotional and relatively fast). The fact that the emotional processes are much faster than the cognitive ones is the basis for the “emotional surprises” that cultural experiences can offer. Part of the music experience literally speaks more directly to the brain than does cognitive reasoning. This creates the basis of the therapeutic principles in music therapy. There are diversified effects of music listening (sad, joyful, anxiety provoking etc.) on heart rate, heart rate variability, hormones related to energy mobilisation and hormones associated with regeneration/anabolism. Dance movements and music experiences are closely correlated in complicated ways. Individuals have very different reaction patterns, but some general principles can still be formulated
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We examined the effects of listening to headphone music in ten well trained men (25.1 +/- 6 years) during treadmill running. Maximal oxygen consumption, determined by open circuit spirometry, was followed by two submaximal work bouts 72 hours apart. The work bouts consisted of a supine rest, a 15 minute run at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, and a three minute active recovery period. Participants listened to music during one of the two trials. Hemodynamic variables and perceived exertion were recorded at three minute intervals during each trial. A venous blood sample, obtained prior to and following each trial, was assayed for norepinephrine and plasma lactate. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the no music versus the exercise with music trial for (aggregate data 3,6,9,12,15 minutes): heart rate 152.9 +/- 5.3 to 145.9 +/- 4.7 beats x min(-1); systolic blood pressure, 158.1 +/- 3.7 to 151.7 +/- 3.3 mmHg; rate-pressure product 242.2 +/- 11.5 to 222.1 +/- 11.4; exercise lactate 2.75 +/- 0.15 to 2.13 +/- 0.18 mmol x l(-1); and perceived exertion 14.4 +/- 0.4 to 12.9 +/- 0.4. A 17.5% lower level of norepinephrine (841.5 +/- 314.7 to 694.1 +/- 254.5 pg x ml[-1]) in the exercise and music trial was not statistically significant (p<0.05); however a moderate effect size (ES = 0.52) was calculated and may be of practical significance considering the variability of the sample. Higher values for hemodynamics and lactate in the no music trial is suggestive of a greater metabolic demand; however, oxygen consumption was not different. Perhaps the music allowed individuals to relax reducing muscle tension thereby increasing blood flow and lactate clearance while decreasing lactate production in working muscle. The combined results of this study suggest the introduction of music has a psychobiological impact on the exerciser demonstrated by changes in perceived effort, lactate and norepinephrine.
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The aim of this review is to discuss some issues in the design and statistical analysis of sport performance research, rather than to supply an authoritative 'cookbook' of methods. In general, we try to communicate some possible solutions to the conundrum of how to maintain both internal and external validity, as well as optimize statistical power, in applied sport performance research. We start by arguing that some sport performance research has been overly concerned with physiological predictors of performance, at the expense of not providing a valid and reliable description of the exact nature of the task in question. We show how the influence of certain factors on competitive performances can be described using linear or logistic regression. We discuss the choice of analysis for factorial repeated-measures designs, which is complicated by the assumption of 'sphericity' in a univariate general linear model, and the relatively low statistical power of the multivariate approach when used with small samples. We consider a little-used and simpler technique known as 'analysis of summary statistics'. In multi-group pre- and post-test designs, a useful technique can be to pair-match individuals on their performance scores in a counterbalanced fashion before the intervention or control has been introduced. Finally, we outline how confidence intervals can help in making statements about the probability of the population difference in performance exceeding the value designated as being worthwhile or not.
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In this paper, I attempt to introduce physical therapists to the most common statistical tests for analysing differences between repeated measurements over time. Using the example of ‘whole-body flexibility’ recorded at six different times of day and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), I discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches for analysing a simple one-factor design. The most important issues in test selection for repeated measures are the exploration of, and correction for, the violation of ‘sphericity’ when employing a univariate general linear model (GLM), as well as the sample size when adopting a multivariate GLM. I summarize current advice on choice of test with the aid of a ‘decision tree’, based on the results of documented statistical simulations which have investigated how the various statistical tests ‘perform’ in certain situations. Lastly, I comment on the most appropriate ways to present and interpret data drawn from serial measurements.
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The effect of varying power, while holding mean power constant, would have on cycling performance in hilly or windy conditions was analyzed. Performance for a 70-kg cyclist on a 10-km time trial with alternating 1-km segments of uphill and downhill was modeled, with mean VO2 (3, 4, 5 L.min-1), variation in VO2 (5, 10, 15%), and grade (0, 5, 10, 15%) used as independent variables. For the conditions of 4 L.min-1, 10% variation, and 10% grade, results were as follows: finishing time of 22:47.2 with varied power, versus 24:20.3 at constant power, for a time savings of 1 min 33.1 s. Separately, a 40-km time trial with alternating 5-km segments of headwind and tailwind (0, 8, 16, 24 km.h-1) was modeled, with the following results for the conditions of 4 L.min-1, 10% variation, and wind speed of 16 km.h-1: finishing time of 60:21.2 with power variation vs 60:50.2 at constant power, for a time savings of 29 s. Time saved was directly proportional to variation in VO2, grade, and wind speed and was indirectly proportional to mean VO2. In conclusion, the model predicts that significantly time savings could be realized on hilly and windy courses by slightly increasing power on uphill or headwind segments while compensating with reduced power on downhill or tailwind segments.