Population-based study of the epidemiology of and the risk factors for pyogenic liver abscess. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:1032-1038

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary Health Region, Alberta, Canada.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Impact Factor: 7.9). 11/2004; 2(11):1032-8. DOI: 10.1016/S1542-3565(04)00459-8
Source: PubMed


Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is relatively uncommon in North America but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to characterize the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes of PLA in a nonselected population.
Population-based surveillance was conducted in the Calgary Health Region (CHR) between April 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003. All adult CHR residents with PLA were identified, and charts were reviewed.
Seventy-one CHR residents developed a PLA for an annual incidence of 2.3 per 100,000 population. There was an increasing incidence of PLA with advancing age. Men were at much higher risk of acquiring a PLA as compared to women (3.3 vs 1.3 per 100,000; relative risk [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.6; P < .001), and this was observed across all age groups. A number of comorbid conditions were associated with significantly higher risk for developing a PLA including liver transplantation patients (RR, 444.8; 95% CI, 89.5-1356.0; P < .0001), diabetics (RR, 11.1; 95% CI, 6.3-19; P < .0001), and patients with a history of malignancy (RR, 13.3; 95% CI, 6.9-24.4; P < .0001). No other solid organ transplantation patient was at increased risk. All patients required admission to hospital (median length of stay, 16 days), and 7 (10%) patients died in hospital, corresponding to a mortality rate of 0.22 per 100,000 population.
This study provides important data on the burden of PLA and identifies risk groups that might potentially benefit from preventive efforts.

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    • "Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in children is rare in developed countries and has been frequently associated with disorders of granulocyte function and ascending pylephlebitis, complicating previous abdominal infection1). The global reported incidence for PLA is variable, ranging from 3 to 25 per 100,000 pediatric hospital admissions2-4). PLA is a potentially life threatening condition, however, the mortality rate has been decreased due to advances in imaging technology, drainage techniques, and more effective antibiotic treatment3). Escherichia coli used to be the most common organism causing PLA, but recently, Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a leading pathogen in Korea, the Unite States, and other countries5-10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a leading pathogen that causes pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) in Korea. K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is potentially life threatening, and the diagnosis is difficult. In developed countries, PLA is rarely observed in children and is frequently associated with disorders of granulocyte function and previous abdominal infection. We observed a case of KLA in a healthy 12-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of KLA in an immunocompetent child without an underlying disease in Korea. The patient was treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and antibiotics. The catheter was placed in the intrahepatic abscess for 3 weeks and parenteral antibiotics (ceftriaxone and amikacin) were administered for 4 weeks, followed by oral antibiotics (cefixime) for 2 weeks. We reported this case to raise awareness of KLA in immunocompetent children among physicians, and to review the diagnosis, risk factors, potential complications, and appropriate treatment of KLA.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • "The most common features are fever, chills, right upper quadrant pain, and anorexia with no specific symptoms. Risk factors for pyogenic liver abscess are diabetes mellitus, hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease, liver transplantation and trauma [4]. The major sources of pyogenic liver abscess have been reported to include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital for high-grade fever with chills. He has visited our hospital for alcoholic liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus for over 20 years. Nine months earlier, he had received a peritoneal venous shunt (Denver shunt®) because of refractory ascites. Laboratory examinations revealed elevated C-reactive protein and liver dysfunction. Ultrasonography and abdominal enhanced computed tomography showed multiple small abscesses in the right lobe of the liver. Blood culture test did not detect the pathogenic bacteria of liver abscesses. The patient was treated with antibiotics for more than 2 months and cured from the infection, but 3 months later, he developed high-grade fever again. He had a recurrence of multiple small liver abscesses involving both lobes of the liver. He was treated with antibiotics, and the abscesses disappeared within a month. After the antibiotic treatment, he had selective intestinal decontamination with kanamycin. He has had no recurrence of liver abscess for over a year. To our knowledge, this is the first report of liver abscess in a cirrhotic patient with Denver shunt. Clinicians should bear liver abscess in mind when treating patients with high-grade fever and liver dysfunction following Denver shunt implantation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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    • "Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is an uncommon but potentially lifethreatening medical condition, with a reported worldwide case fatality rate ranging from 6% to 19% over the past 2 decades, despite improvements in diagnostic imaging techniques and therapeutic modalities [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the predictor index of mortality in patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Methods: We performed a retrospective review that enrolled 431 patients 18 years and older hospitalized due to PLA between January 2005 and December 2010. Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes retrieved from medical records were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed. Results: The mean age of the 431 patients identified with PLA was 56.9 ± 15.0 years. The mean Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score on admission was 4.8 ± 4.1 (range, 0-17). During hospitalization, 94 patients (22%) required intensive care. Of the 431 patients, 63 died, yielding a 15% case fatality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher MEDS scores on admission (P < .0001) and the presence of underlying malignancy (P = .006), multiple abscesses (P = .001), anaerobic infections (P < .0001), hyperbilirubinemia (P < .0001), and higher serum creatinine levels (P < .0001) were significantly associated with PLA mortality. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for MEDS in predicting PLA mortality was 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.791-0.864; P < .0001). The optimal cutoff MEDS value of 7 or higher had a sensitivity of 76% sensitivity and a specificity of 81%, with a 10.7-fold PLA mortality risk (P < .0001) and a 26.2-fold intensive care unit admission risk (P < .0001). Conclusions: The MEDS scores on admission represent a significant prognostic indicator for patients with PLA.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The American journal of emergency medicine
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