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Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of netle (Urtica dioica L.)

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Abstract

In this study, water extract of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (WEN) was studied for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic properties. The antioxidant properties of WEN were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. WEN had powerful antioxidant activity. The 50, 100 and 250 microg amounts of WEN showed 39, 66 and 98% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively, while 60 microg/ml of alpha-tocopherol, exhibited only 30% inhibition. Moreover, WEN had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities at the same concentrations. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and alpha-tocopherol. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the WEN were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. WEN also showed antimicrobial activity against nine microorganisms, antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis and analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced stretching.

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... These natural products or medicinal plants are used because of their medicinal and antioxidant importance. [3,[8][9][10][11] These natural products are rich of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and flavonoids, so they are considered as alternate of synthetic products having various health hazards. [2,3,8,12] Moreover, metal elements are very important for whole organisms w.r.t. ...
... [13] Phytochemical analysis was done as described in the literature. [4,9,12] ...
... metal chelating (MC), ferric reducing (FR), reducing power (RP), superoxide anion (SA), and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. [1,[4][5][6]9,12] To analyze the protein-binding and anti-inflammatory activities, literature methods were used. [1,20] ...
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BACKGROUND: Diospyros exsculpta Buch.-Ham. (DE) belongs to the genus Diospyros, is an underutilized plant and needs to explore its phytochemical and biological activities. OBJECTIVES: The Present study aimed to compare phytochemical and biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein-binding assay of twig and stem bark of DE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biological and phytochemical properties of three solvents extracts of twig or branches and stem bark were analyzed. Quantitatively, minerals, antioxidant qualities, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and protein binding were analyzed. Antimicrobial activities were assessed against four bacterial and three fungal strains. RESULTS: It was observed that stem bark and twig of DE showed a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Good concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, P, and Zn has been observed. Comparatively, stem bark and twig have almost the same amount of nutrients (P ≤ 0.05). Value of total phenolic content (TPC) samples varied from 6.27 to 8.74 mg g-1 dry weight in methanol extracts, 18.48–24.09 mg g-1 DW in acetone extracts and 1.41-2.31 mg/g DW in petroleum ether extracts, which is called as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). Total flavonoid content varied from 87.52 to 197.2 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g DW of sample for methanol extracts, 70.12–86.25 mg QE/g DW for acetone extracts, and 2.55–3.75 mg QE/g DW for petroleum ether extracts. CONCLUSION: It was observed that all three extracts of twig and stem bark of DE have significant variation for antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities were variable from assay to assay as well as extract to extract. Overall, in antioxidant activities, polar extracts have shown the most effective results. All three extracts have shown a significant protein-binding assay, which was almost close to aspirin. Anti-inflammatory assay of various extracts has revealed potent anti�inflammatory activity. Significant linear correlation (P ≤ 0.05) of TPC with antioxidant activities favored its role in antioxidant activity. These comparative findings on phytochemical, biological activities of stem bark, and twig of DE provide compelling scientific evidence of its therapeutic usage. Keywords: Anti-microbial, Diospyros exsculpta, phytochemicals, underutilized plant
... Nettle leaves contain various compounds such as plant sterols; many carotenoids such as beta-carotene, xanthophyll, and terpenes; and biologically active substances such as caffeic acid, malic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid (Otles and Yalcin 2012). Nettle phenolic compounds are considered a strong antimicrobial, antifungal active, and important antibacterial (Gülçin et al. 2004). Nettle contains secretin, which is the best agent for stimulating and activating the secretory glands in the stomach, intestines, and pancreas (Mansoub 2011). ...
... Nettle contains secretin, which is the best agent for stimulating and activating the secretory glands in the stomach, intestines, and pancreas (Mansoub 2011). The antimicrobial effects of nettle against various bacteria, including Escherichia coli, have been observed in Gülçin et al. (2004). The use of nettle powder as a food additive improves the performance of broilers (Safamehr et al. 2012). ...
... The positive effects of using herbal extracts such as nettle on breast percent can be attributed to antioxidants, phenolic, and antimicrobial substances. Antimicrobial substances in nettle can reduce the pathogenic bacteria and improve digestion and absorption of amino acids, which leads to better growth of organs such as the thigh and breast (Lee et al. 2003;Gülçin et al. 2004). Increased secretion of bile and digestive juices from the liver, pancreas, and small intestine caused by the nettle improves digestion and absorption of nutrients and reduces abdominal fat (Nasiri et al. 2011;Zomrawi et al. 2013). ...
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This experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional impacts of nettle (Urtica dioica) extract (NE) on the growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into four dietary treatments which were replicated five times with fifteen birds per replicate, including the control group (basal diet) and NE1, NE2, and NE3 groups (basal diet containing + 0.25 ml/l of administered through drinking water NE, 0.5 ml/l NE and 1 ml/l NE, respectively). On days 21 and 42, 2 chicks in each replicate were selected to collect blood from the wing veins and then slaughtered. In the 1–42-day period, body weight gain and feed intake improved in NE1 and NE2 treatments compared to the control diet and NE 3 (P < 0.05). Feeding broiler chickens with diets containing 0.25 ml/l NE increased serum concentrations of total protein and albumin and decreased serum concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides, and cholesterol (P < 0.05). Breast yield was significantly increased by NE1. Treatments containing NE showed a significant increase in thigh yield compared to the control treatment (P < 0.05). The activity of total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities in serum increased in NE1 compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it can be summarized that using NE affected growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum biochemistry, and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The optimal dose in the present study of NE in broiler diets was 0.25 ml/l.
... Many herbal preparations from U. dioica extracts can inhibit 5-α-reductase [113]. Indeed, U. dioica roots (methanol extracts) were able to inhibit aromatase (AR) and 5areductase (5aRE) in a dose-dependent manner (ED 50 of 3.58 and 14.7 mg/mL, respectively). ...
... e hypotensive activity of the methanol and water extract of U. dioica has also been shown in human cells culture and in vitro models of prostatic antihyperplasic activity [125]. U. dioica aqueous extract has been revealed to exert good in vivo antiulcer efficacy against ethanol-induced ulcers [113], while leaves and seed extract (400 µg/mL) possess in vitro immunomodulatory potential (Table 13) [47,126]. Finally, U. angustifolia (polysaccharides) showed antifatigue properties in mice [112]. ...
... Indeed, it has been reported used in various ailments ranging from allergic rhinitis to hypertension. Lyophilized leaves of nettle have been clinically proven to relieve allergy symptoms [89,113]. For example, a double-blind, randomized study was conducted with 98 individuals to try the effect of freeze-dried U. dioica herb (2 times 300 mg) on allergic rhinitis. ...
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Urtica dioica belongs to the Urticaceae family and is found in many countries around the world. This plant contains a broad range of phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, sterols, fatty acids, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and lignans, that have been widely reported for their excellent pharmacological activities, including antiviral, antimicrobial, antihelmintic, anticancer, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritis, antidiabetic, antiendometriosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging effects. In this regard, this review highlights fresh insight into the medicinal use, chemical composition, pharmacological properties, and safety profile of U. dioica to guide future works to thoroughly estimate their clinical value.
... The ability of antioxidants to transfer hydrogen is thought to be key to their activity against the DPPH radical [55] . DPPH is a stable free radical that can take a hydrogen atom or an electron and then transform into a stable molecule [102] . ...
... The way of rummaging the DPPH radical has been widely utilized to assess antioxidant activity of test substances in a relatively quick time compared to other processes [102] . The decrease in its absorbance at 517 nm caused by antioxidants is used to calculate the reduction in DPPH radical capacity [103] . ...
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Complexes of (E)‐1‐((1H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐3‐yl)diazenyl)naphthalen‐2‐ol with manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II), and zinc (II) have been constructed. Elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, spectral (IR, 1H, 13C NMR, EI‐mass, and UV–Vis), XRD, and thermal studies have all been used to determine the structure of complexes. Except for Ni (II), which has a tetrahedral geometry, the results demonstrated that all complexes have octahedral geometry. The molecular mechanic calculations used in the hyper chem. 8.03 molecular modelling programme were used to determine the potential structures of metal complexes. To confirm the geometrical geometries of the investigated metal complexes, the bond lengths, bond angles, LUMO, HOMO, and dipole moments of the listed complexes were determined. At varied heating rates, the thermal analysis (TG) measurements are also investigated. Different integral equations were used to compute the kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the thermal degradation processes. UV–Vis absorption titration was used to study the complexes' DNA binding mechanisms. The results revealed that the complexes attach to DNA in either intercalative or non‐intercalative manner. Azodye and its metal complexes were tested in vitro against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, and Mucor), and yeast (Malassezia furfur). The azodye and its metal chelates have shown potent antioxidant activities. The molecular docking analysis has been tested with Topoisomerase II protein code: 4CHT model.
... Fresh nettle has been used since Roman times to treat urticaria, to stimulate blood circulation and warm the joints and extremities [7,32] and to help with rheumatism and arthritis [3,14,45,46,[48][49][50][51]. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of nettle are used to treat rhinitis [9,10] and lung diseases [3,16,32,51], while it is reported that dried nettle is good for treating allergies [14,43]. ...
... The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of nettle are used to treat rhinitis [9,10] and lung diseases [3,16,32,51], while it is reported that dried nettle is good for treating allergies [14,43]. It is also used as a moderate diuretic and for ailments related to urinary and renal problems [3,8,13,14,16,32,42,43,45,46,48,49], cardiovascular problems [9,10,43,45,48,52], diabetes [48], gout [8,10,13], eczema [10,32,46,48], and liver cirrhosis [16,50]. Chemotherapeutic agents from nettle are being developed for the treatment of cancer patients [32,51]. ...
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Conventional agricultural production faces numerous challenges due to the pronounced effects of climate change, particularly global warming, and drought more than ever before in history, with the primary concern being to produce adequate yields and high-quality, nutritious plant material. Likewise, people are increasingly looking for new sources of food and are becoming aware of the importance of a varied diet and its connection to health. In this sense, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) stands out as a valuable species that is neglected as a food source, as it has a significant content of specialized metabolites, and thus has an extremely high potential for use both nutritionally and pharmacologically, but is still traditionally collected from natural habitats, so it can be of questionable quality and undefined chemical composition. Therefore, sustainable agricultural practices are increasingly shifting to modern hydroponic cultivation methods in greenhouses. The advantage lies in the easier management and control of a number of factors during cultivation (air temperature and relative humidity, balanced and rational fertilization, minimization of nitrate uptake, etc.), ensuring better conditions for the growth and development of nettle according to its needs. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the technology of stinging nettle cultivation in the field and to show the possibilities of cultivation with modern hydroponic techniques to obtain a final product of consistent and uniform quality, high content of specialized metabolites and significant nutritional value. Research on this topic is still sparse but will certainly increase in the future. Therefore, this review provides all the necessary data for such future studies.
... As can be seen from Figure 6a,b, the above parameters also allowed to obtain the lowest EC 50 ABTS and EC 50 DPPH values, which indicates that this sample had the highest antioxidant activity. There are many reports of a relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content [51,[76][77][78]. Such conditions turned out to be the most optimal for the retention of bioactive ingredients in apples subjected to pulsed electric field treatment prior to microwave-convective drying. ...
... As can be seen from Figure 6a,b, the above parameters also allowed to obtain the lowest EC50 ABTS and EC50 DPPH values, which indicates that this sample had the highest antioxidant activity. There are many reports of a relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content [51,[76][77][78]. Such conditions turned out to be the most optimal for the retention of bioactive ingredients in apples subjected to pulsed electric field treatment prior to microwave-convective drying. ...
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The benefits of using hybrid drying are increasingly remarked. Microwave-convective drying (MW-CD) links the advantages of both microwave and convective drying methods and allows the negative phenomena that appear when the methods are used separately to diminish. Most importantly, reduced specific energy consumption and relatively short drying time are observed, which can be additionally decreased by the application of various preliminary treatments, e.g., pulsed electric field (PEF). Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of PEF pretreatment on the MW-CD of apples and its chosen physicochemical properties. This research was designed using response surface methodology (RSM). The first variable was microwave power (100, 200, and 300 W), and the second was specific energy input (1, 3.5, and 6 kJ/kg). Optimization responses were assumed: drying time to MR = 0.02, water activity, hygroscopicity after 72 h, rehydration ratio, relative dry matter content, total phenolic content, ability to scavenge ABTS•+ radical cations, and DPPH• radicals based on the EC50 values. The most optimal parameters were comprised of specific energy intake of 3.437 kJ/kg and microwave power of 300 W (desirability equalled 0.624), which provided the most minimized drying time and obtaining of apples with the most desired properties.
... A freshly prepared (0.1 mM) solution of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and different tested extracts prepared at 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL in methanol were vigorously mixed and allowed to stand for 30 min at room temperature in the dark [80]. The absorbances of the resultant solution were recorded with a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Milton Roy, Spectronic 1201, Houston, TX, USA) at λ max 517 nm. ...
... A DPPH radical in methanol with the reference antioxidant compound (ascorbic acid), or without the antioxidant sample, was used as positive and negative controls. The reference compound, ascorbic acid, was used at different concentrations (5,10,20,40,80,160, and 320 µg/mL). All the determinations were performed in three replicates and averaged. ...
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Marine sponge-derived endozoic fungi have been gaining increasing importance as promising sources of numerous and unique bioactive compounds. This study investigates the phytochemical profile and biological activities of the ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium chrysogenum derived from Cliona sp. sponge. Thirty-six compounds were tentatively identified from P. chrysogenum ethyl acetate extract along with the kojic acid (KA) isolation. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS positive ionization mode was used to analyze and identify the extract constituents while 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy were used for kojic acid (KA) structure confirmation. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities were assessed in vitro. Both the extract and kojic acid showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC 250 ± 0.82 µg/mL. Interestingly, the extract showed strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC 93.75 ± 0.55 and 19.53 ± 0.48 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, KA showed the same potency against Fusarium oxysporum and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC 39.06 ± 0.85 and 39.06 ± 0.98 µg/mL, respectively. Ultimately, KA showed strong antioxidant activity with IC50 33.7 ± 0.8 µg/mL. Moreover, the extract and KA showed strong cytotoxic activity against colon carcinoma (with IC50 22.6 ± 0.8 and 23.4 ± 1.4 µg/mL, respectively) and human larynx carcinoma (with equal IC50 30.8 ± 1.3 and ± 2.1 µg/mL, respectively), respectively. The current study represents the first insights into the phytochemical profile and biological properties of P. chrysoenum ethyl acetate extract, which could be a promising source of valuable secondary metabolites with potent biological potentials.
... reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) [25][26][27][28]. All extracts were dissolved in DMSO except aqueous extract that was dissolved in distilled water (10 mg in 10 mL solvent). ...
... One hundred µL of each extract (10 mg extract/10 mL solvent) was added to 3.9 mL of 0.1 mm DPPH dissolved in methanol. After 120 min, the absorbance at 517 nm was measured against control [26]. Percentage of antioxidant activity of free-radical DPPH was determined as follows: ...
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Dermatophytoses representing a major global health problem and dermatophyte species with reduced susceptibility to antifungals are increasingly reported. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the antidermatophyte activity and phytochemical properties of the sequential extracts of the Egyptian privet Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity of chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone, ethanol 80%, and aqueous extracts were evaluated. The antifungal activity of henna leaves extracts (HLE) toward 30 clinical dermatophytes isolates, including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and T. rubrum, was determined. Morphological changes in hyphae were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Following the polarity of ethanol and acetone, they exhibited distinct efficiency for the solubility and extraction of polyphenolic polar antioxidants from henna leaves. Fraxetin, lawsone, and luteolin-3-O-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds of henna leaves, as assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. A high and significant positive correlation was found between TPC, TF, the antioxidants, and the antidermatophyte activities of HLE. Acetone and ethanol extracts exhibited the highest antifungal activity toward the tested dermatophyte species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges 12.5–37.5 and 25–62.5 µg/mL, respectively. Structural changes including collapsing, distortion, inflating, crushing of hyphae with corrugation of walls, and depressions on hyphal surfaces were observed in SEM analysis for dermatophyte species treated with MICs of griseofulvin, acetone, and ethanol extracts. In conclusion, acetone and ethanolic extracts of henna leaves with their major constituent fraxetin exhibited effective antifungal activity toward dermatophyte species and may be developed as an alternative for dermatophytosis treatment. These findings impart a useful insight into the development of an effective and safe antifungal agent for the treatment of superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes.
... 2019. Том 1, № 3 139 ____________________________________________________________________________________ исследованиям ряда зарубежных авторов, антиоксидантная активность водных экстрактов крапивы двудомной сравнима с известными антиоксидантами, такими как кверцетин и α-токоферол [Bobis et al., 2015;Giilgin et al., 2004]. ...
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В обзоре дан анализ научной литературы за 1959-2019 гг. по вопросам основных направлений изучения, использования и введения в культуру крапивы двудомной ( Urtica dioica L .). U. dioica рассмотрена как кормовая, пищевая, прядильная и лекарственная культура, альтернатива кормовым антибиотикам. Показана опасность использования в качестве сырья для производства лекарственных препаратов и корма для животных и птицы дикорастущей крапивы, произрастающей на антропогенно нарушенных территориях, где велика вероятность накопления тяжелых металлов. Решить проблему получения экологически безопасного сырья может возделывание крапивы в контролируемых условиях агроценозов при условии создания сортов и разработки технологии их возделывания. Рассмотрены перспективы введения крапивы в агрокультуру. Показана важность создания генетических коллекций крапивы на основе изучения и сбора местного адаптированного материала, обладающего комплексом хозяйственно-полезных признаков. Проанализированы основные направления селекционной работы в России и в мире сU. dioica. В реестр селекционных достижений, допущенных к возделыванию на территории Российской Федерации, в 2019 г. включен первый сорт крапивы двудомной ‘Авиценна' кормового назначения, разработана и утверждена методика проведения испытаний на отличимость, однородность, стабильность. Сорт ‘Авиценна' получен методом индивидуально-семейного отбора из местных популяций, произрастающих на карбонатных почвах юга Среднерусской возвышенности. Сорт устойчив к болезням и вредителям. Продуктивность зеленой массы выше, чем у стандарта на 39.5 %, урожая семян - на 31.2 %, облиственности - на 11,1 %, высоты первого укоса на зеленую массу - на 42.7 %, второго укоса - на 66.6 %. Сделан вывод о необходимости дальнейшего изучения биологических ресурсов U. dioica для получения новых отечественных сортов с заданными хозяйственно-полезными свойствами.
... The proliferation of human lymphocytes is stimulated by extracted water of the roots of Urtica dioica. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiasthamatic, antiulcer, anti-colitis, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiandrogenic, insecticide, immunomodulatory, genitourinary, hypo-cholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, cardiovascular effects, analgesic, natriuretic, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and anti-Alzheimer properties are evaluated [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. As well as it is used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism (rheumatoid arthritis), menorrhagia, hematuria, jaundice, and nephritis [18]. ...
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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants during the natural metabolic processes to resisting them fungi, bacteria and plant virus infections, and also consumption by insects and other animals. Phytochemicalsis generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research and are often referred to as secondary metabolites. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and some others as traditional medicine and Nutrition. The aim of present study was to update a comprehensive review published on Urtica dioica which includes phytochemical and pharmacological synthesis. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle which is Urticaceae family herbaceous perennial, usually grows in temperate regionssuch asEurope, some places of Asia and western North Africa, New Zealand and North America. Its stem and leaves covered with hairs called trichomes which act like hypodermic needles and inject histamine and some other chemicals. Burning sensation during contact and contact urticaria (contact dermatitis) is visible because of it. A lot of bioactive phytochemical compounds have been identified in the methanolic extract of it.
... The effect of water-soluble substances is lower than that of non-water-soluble substances, which may refer to the ability of lipid-soluble molecules to integrate and destruct bacterial cell membranes [12]. These results are in contrast to those reported by de [14]; who found that aqueous Nettle leaf extract had a significant antibacterial activity against 9 bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, with inhibition zone diameter of 8 mm. Furthermore, [29] reported that, the Nettle leaf aqueous extract has an inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium semegmatis with a 7 mm of inhibition zone diameter. ...
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The present study was aimed at the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Urtica dioica L. leaves (Urticaceae), commonly known as stinging Nettle L, against four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis), using the disc diffusion method. The plant extracts were obtained by cold maceration using two organic solvents: acetone (Acetone Extract: AE) and ethanol (Ethanolic Extract: EE); as well as by aqueous maceration (Aqueous Extract: AqE). Our results confirm that both EA and EE extracts of nettle leaves have an inhibitory power on bacterial strains with a inhibition zone diameter ,varying from 6 to 10 mm, of which the Micrococcus luteus strain was the most sensitive to EA, contrary to the aqueous extract which did not reveal any inhibitory effect on all bacterial strains tested. In conclusion, Urtica dioica L. represents an important source of bioactive molecules and natural antibacterial agents that can be an excellent alternative to antibiotic therapy.
... Several antioxidant assays have been developed for measurement and investigation of antioxidant capacity of food, pharmaceutical, medicinal and biological materials. Until now, the most common and effective methods are inhibition of autoxidation of linoleic acid emulsion (Thiocyanate method) [136], ORAC and TRAP assays [59], ferric ions (Fe 3+ ) reducing assay (FRAP) [108,137], Fe 3+ -Fe 2+ transformation assay [138], cupric ions (Cu 2+ ) reducing assay (Cuprak method) [139], Folin-Ciocalteu reducing assay [140], DPPH • [141], ABTS •+ [142], DMPD •+ [139] and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays [143] and putative Fe 2+ binding assay, which are described in detail in the present study. As is known, most of the methods use the same principle: a redox active compound or synthetic-colored radical is produced; then, the ability of a biological sample to scavenge or reduce the redox-active compounds is measured by a spectrophotometer, applying a suitable standard to measure the antioxidant ability [144]. ...
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Heavy metals are essential for a wide range of biological processes, including the growth and reproduction of cells, synthesis of biomolecules, many enzymatic reactions, and the body’s immunity, but their excessive intake is harmful. Specifically, they cause oxidative stress (OS) and generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in metabolism. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in humans can cause serious damage to different organs, especially respiratory, nervous and reproductive and digestive systems. Biologically, metal chelation therapy is often used to treat metal toxicity. This process occurs through the interaction between the ligand and a central metal atom, forming a complex ring-like structure. After metals are chelated with appropriate chelating agents, their damage in metabolism can be prevented and efficiently removed from the body. On the other hand, heavy metals, including Zn, Fe and Cu, are necessary for the suitable functioning of different proteins including enzymes in metabolism. However, when the same metals accumulate at levels higher than the optimum level, they can easily become toxic and have harmful effects toward biomolecules. In this case, it induces the formation of ROS and nitrogen species (RNS) resulting in peroxidation of biological molecules such as lipids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants have an increasing interest in many fields due to their protective effects, especially in food and pharmaceutical products. Screening of antioxidant properties of compounds needs appropriate methods including metal chelating assay. In this study, a general approach to the bonding and chelating properties of metals is described. For this purpose, the basic principles and chemical principles of metal chelation methods, both in vivo and in vitro, are outlined and discussed. Hence, in the main sections of this review, the descriptions related to metal ions, metal chelating, antioxidants, importance of metal chelating in biological system and definitions of metal chelating assays as widely used methods to determine antioxidant ability of compounds are provided. In addition, some chemical properties, technical and critical details of the used chelation methods are given.
... Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts possess strong antimicrobial properties against a broad range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These extract show inhibit the growth of B. cereus, B. coaguiaris, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, E. cloacae, S. aureus, E. coli and A. lannensis and A. bogorensis (Antolak, Czyzowska, & Kregiel, 2017;Bayoub, Baibai, Mountassif, Retmane, & Soukri, 2010;Hosseininejad et al., 2011;Khan et al., 2009;Ranasinghe et al., 2013;Tekwu et al., 2012) Nettle (Urtica dioica) extract obtained using water as a solvent showed antimicrobial effect against M. luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter koseri, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, E. coli, and C. albicans (Gülçin, Küfrevioglu, Oktay, & Büyükokurogluc, 2004;Gülçin, Küfrevioglu, & Oktay, 2005;Modarresi-Chahardehi, Ibrahim, Fariza-Sulaiman, & Mousavi, 2012;Turker & Usta, 2008). Nettle extracts were effective against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, B. cereus, B. spizizenii, V. parahaemolyticus and K. pneumonia. ...
Chapter
Plant extracts contain a varied range of chemicals such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, glucosinolates, and various organic acids. These chemicals are responsible for their unique nature and perceived biological activity of plant extracts. Owing to the wide acclaimed biological activities of plant extracts, they have been used as natural ingredients and have received significant renewed interest recently. Several plant extracts have been used as commercial preservatives in food because of their green image. The current chapter discusses various chemicals present in plant extracts and emphasizes the structure activity relationship of these chemicals.
... The antioxidant activity of S. tenerrimum polyphenol in total antioxidant activity, Reducing power, Hydrogen peroxide assay, DPPH, and ABTS [12][13][14]. ...
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The polyphenol compound is extracted from Sargassum tenerrimum with various bioactivities including antibacterial and antioxidant activity and MTT assay for cell cytotoxicity. The total phenolic content was 69.12 ± 0.24%. The S. tenerrimum polyphenol was found to phytochemical constituent’s presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, alkaloids and steroid. The antibacterial activity of polyphenol presented significant inhibition against ten human pathogen bacterial cultures such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The in vitro antioxidant activity and MTT assay revealed that the polyphenol has anticancer activity against HeLa cells. The polyphenol compound was characterized through HPLC.
... The plant grows all year round and therefore can be harvested whenever there is a need. The herb usually used as emergency famine food in northern Ethiopia specially around Gonder, Gojam and Oromia region around Kofole area of Arsi zone and in most highlands of Sidama Zone in southern region (Tsegaye, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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The effect of dietary inclusion of stinging nettle leaf meal (SNLM) on growth and carcass parameters of growing Hubbard broiler chickens was investigated. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric grower diets, T1 (the control), T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated to contain 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% of SNLM, respectively as a replacement for soybean meal of T1. After 2 weeks of brooding period, 200 unsexed chicks were weighed and randomly allocated to the dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 chickens each. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks, during which feed intake and body weight were measured on daily and weekly basis, respectively. Daily body weight gain (DBWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. At the end of the experiment, two chickens (cockerel and pullet) per replicate of each treatment were randomly selected, fastened overnight, weighed and slaughtered for measurement of carcass parameters. Dry matter, crude protein, and calcium intakes were higher for T4 but crude fiber intake relatively higher for T5 (p<0.01). T3 was comparable to T5 for crude protein and calcium intakes but lower of T1 (p<0.01) for the same parameter. No significant difference was detected on ether extract, phosphorous and metabolizable energy intakes across treatment groups. Higher (p<0.01) DBWG and final body weight were observed in chickens fed on T4 diet than the rest. Chicks fed on T1, T2 and T5 were similar in these parameters. Moreover, body weight difference was not observed between T1 and T5 or T2 and T3. Significantly (p<0.001) higher dressing % was obtained from chickens fed with T2, T3 and T4 diets. The results of the present study revealed that inclusion of stinging nettle leaf meal up to 9% in broiler diet could be an alternative feeding strategy by substituting soybean meal.
... Turmeric has also been reported for imparting various pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumoral activity, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities. It is noteworthy that most of these pharmacological activities are attributed to availability of bioactive phenolic acids (Gulcin et al., 2003(Gulcin et al., , 2004Gulcin et al., 2008Gulcin et al., , 2010Eruygur et al., 2019). For instance, plants rich in phenolic compounds have been recorded for their impressive antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (Tohma et al., 2016;Kumaresh et al., 2020) evaluated antioxidant potential of forty-five turmeric genotype and reported that non-curcuminoids and curcuminoids, both types of compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity of turmeric. ...
... The test was performed with FC reagent using pyrocatechol as the standard. [31,32] The plant extract (about 0.2 mL) was treated with 10 % w/v of FC (1 mL) reagent in 7.5 % w/v sodium carbonate (0.8 mL). Resulted mixture was kept in incubation for 1 hr and the phenolic content was calculated based on absorbance recorded at 760 nm. ...
... The pharmacological properties of most medicinal plants may be associated with antioxidant ability of the plant. DPPH radical scavenging has been widely applied and accepted as a measure of free radical scavenging ability of compounds (Alisi et al., 2014;Gulcin et al., 2004). Result of our study showed that the extracts effectively scavenged in vitro generated DPPH free radical in a dose dependent pattern. ...
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Persea americana and Bryophyllum pinnatum are important plants with age-long application in traditional medicine for the management of varieties of ailments. The seed of P. americana is a byproduct and the leaf of B. pinnatum constituting weed in some locality could be harnessed for marketable antioxidant potentials. The present study aims to assess the antioxidative and free radical scavenging potential of ethyl acetate fractions of Persea americana seed and Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf. This was determined using the effect of the plant fractions on hydroxyl, nitric oxide, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reducing power assay and inhibition of H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in rat stomach homogenates were assessed using standard methods. The extracts exhibited stronger DPPH radicals scavenging effect than tannic acid with threshold inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 53.10 ± 2.66, 65.59 ± 3.28, and 2039.49 ± 163.16 µg/mL for P. americana, B. pinnatum, and tannic acid respectively. The ethyl acetate fractions exhibited strong hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals scavenging ability in vitro, with IC50 values of 370.37 ± 14.81, 107.45 ± 5.37, 623.96 ± 31.20 µg/mL and 377.26 ± 18.86, 691.48 ± 48.40,105.86 ± 6.35 µg/mL for P. americana, B. pinnatum, and catechin respectively. Furthermore, the B. pinnatum leaf fraction was found to be highly effective in the inhibition of H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in rat stomach homogenates. The present study showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of P. americana seed and B. pinnatum leaf possess potent antioxidant properties evidenced in their radical scavenging ability.
... Fung et al. (1977) stated that BHA had an inhibitory effect on growth and toxicity of six Aspergillus flavus of non-toxigenic strains, while BHT at the same concentration had no visible inhibitory effect. Also as a result Raccach (1984) reported that inhibition mechanism of bacteria, yeasts and molds growth by phenolic antioxidants has been found to affect the cellular membrane function and composition as well as the synthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, lipid, and the function of the mitochondria, these effects were also supported by Ilhami et al. (2004) who confirmed that the inhibitory powers of BHA are due to disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of microbial cell, also phenolic compounds may function as a membrane perturbed which is inserted between lipid layer of the microbial cell, causing disruption of ordered state of the alkyl chains. ...
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This study was performed to examine the effect of phenolic compounds and antioxidant content of four dill seed extracts. These extracts were prepared by hydro-distillation, ethanol, methanol and acetone. They were examined as antifungal agent against eight Aspergillus spp. Results revealed that hydro-distillation extract (HE) and ethanol extract (EE), derived from dill seed, had higher total phenolic content (45.67 and 39.71 GAE/g, respectively), as well as higher contents of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and octyl methylcinnamate (OMC) (4.98, 1.50, 39.65 and 4.37, 1.10, 33.26 mg/ml, respectively) as compared to the methanol and acetone extracts. HE recorded a high diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, with MIC = 15 mg/l. While EE was more effective on A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362, with MIC = 15 mg/l as compared with methanol and acetone extracts under the same conditions. Antifungal potential of HE and EE were found to be highly effective on enumeration of fungal strains used in this study. Obtained results confirmed strong relationship between the total phenolic content of dill seed extracts and its amounts of BHA as an antifungal agent. It is recommended to use dill HE (light yellow color) with foods highly expected to be infected with A. flavus IFO 6343, A. niger DSM 371 and A. parasciticus NRRL 2999, at 15 and 20 mg/l, while EE (pale yellow color) is recommended to prevent foods to be susceptible to A. niger CAIM 147, A. niger NRRL 337 and A. oryzae NRRL 9362at 15 and 20 mg/l.
... According to Drużyńska et al. [56], Phaseoli pericarpium's condensed tannins increase the chelation of transition metal ions. The high capacity of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Urtica dioica to chelate iron ions was demonstrated by Gülçin et al. [60]. ...
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Herbal infusions are an underestimated and easy to intake a source of biologically active natural compounds (polyphenols), which, in the dissolved form, are more easily absorbed. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the potential of herbal infusions as a functional food to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia (inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and to reduce the effects of increased blood glucose level (antioxidant effect-DPPH, CUPRAC, and Fe2+ chelating assays, as well as anti-inflammatory activity-inhibition of collagenase). We showed that polyphenols are present in the examined aqueous herbal infusions (including chlorogenic and gallic acids). Subsequently, our research has shown that herbal infusions containing cinnamon bark, mulberry leaves, and blackberry fruits most strongly inhibit glucose release from complex carbohydrates, and that all herbal infusions can, to different degrees, reduce the effects of elevated blood sugar. In conclusion, infusions prepared from herbal blends could be recommended to prevent type II diabetes.
... Sonication processing induced cavitation liable for the increased extraction of phenolic compounds and might be a reason for the increased antioxidant activity. A few investigations have demonstrated that antioxidant activity has a definite connection with total phenolic content found in the sample (Aadil et al., 2013;Gülçin et al., 2004). ...
... Superoxide radical scavenging assay. The superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of the herb decoctions was assessed using the method of Gülçin et al (20) with some modifications (19). The system of PMS, NADH and NBT was used for the generation of superoxide radicals. ...
... Ethanol is known as a efficient solvent for natural product extraction due to its higher eficiency and faster process. Ethanol is considered as universal solvent dissolving natural material compounds, non-polar, semi-polar, or polar [18]. Polarity indext of ethanol is 5,2 so polar or non-polar substances could be extracted and 96% ethanol can be use as solvent for low molecule weight of almost all substances such as saponin and flavonoid. ...
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Bacterial contamination in our environment is worrying, mainly contamination at drinking waters, vegetables, foods, soil which close to our daily activity. The main contamination in environment is caused by E. coli which simply found easily surround us. So, it leads to bigger problem if not immediately solve. One of possible yet safe compounds to overcome this problem is the use of natural product such as M. oleifera seeds as antibacterial agents. This study want to find out the ability of M. oleifera seed ethanolic extract as antibacterial agent against E. coli. Ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seeds are concentrated into 25%, 50%, and 75%, then treated to E. coli culture under laboratory condition. The inhibitory zone diameter which formed after 24 hours incubation was measured and compared to control with no extract treatment. The result of this study showed that there is inhibitory zone formed in three groups of treatmen (T1-T3), but there is no inhibitory zone formed at control group. The 75% ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seeds (T3) has the wides inhibitory zone diameter among four groups, followed by the 50% extract (T2) and 25% extract (T1) with diameter 15,03 ± 0,55 mm; 11,00 ± 1,32 mm; 7,03 ± 0,90 mm, respectively. All inhibitory zone diameter among groups in this research statistically different with strong inhibitory status at T2 as well as T3, and moderate inhibitory status at T1.
... Urtica is derived from the Latin word "urere," which means "to burn." After having been stung by nettles, humans are generally able to recognize them [13,14]. Medicinally, several Urtica species (particularly Urtica dioica L.) are used to cure a number of maladies. ...
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Background. Despite modern therapeutic armamentariums, malaria remains a 21st century public health menace. The issue of combating malaria is the ever-growing resistance to high-tech medications in which novel phytomedicines are highly demanding, a rapidly expanding research avenue. In Ethiopian folklore medicine, Urtica simensis has been used to treat malaria by drinking its juice after the dry roots have been mashed and combined with water. Hitherto, no in vivo study has been reported in the literature so far. To substantiate this folkloric claim, the present work herein was done. Methods. An acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per the standard protocol. To rule out, the extract’s inherent potential effects on bodyweight, basal body To, and PCV changes were tracked for two weeks. A four-day suppressive model and a curative assay model were utilized to investigate the antimalarial activity of the plant. Percent parasitemia suppression, packed cell volume, mean survival date, bodyweight, and rectal body temperature were used to determine antimalarial activity. Result. An acute toxicity study reveals that Urtica simensis was atoxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. It also affirms that U. simensis is free from intrinsic potential effects of interfering with bodyweight, temperature, and packed cell volume evolution. Both crude extract and its solvent fractions at all test doses exerted significant (P
... The scavenging performance of phycocyanin was determined using H2O2 by the method of Gulcin et al. [26]. The preparation of 10 mM H2O2 solution was accomplished by 0.1 M PBS at pH 7.4. ...
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The occurrence of various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular, aging, and other associated problems are due to the frequent consumption of carcinogenic chemicals added food along with related activities. Our present investigation is focused on anticancer and antioxidant profiling of phycocyanin pigments isolated from Spirulina sp. The candidate species was identified by 16S rRNA analysis and the pigment was extracted through lysozyme enzyme treatment. The purification of pigment was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and DEAE-Cellulose-52 chromatography using an acetate buffer at pH 5.10. The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of phycocyanin exhibited proficient scavenging role. MTT assay revealed that the phycocyanin flaunted anticancer activity against HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cells). The physiochemical characterization of phycocyanin was done through TLC, FT-IR, and GC–MS to reveal the structural backbone of biomolecules. These findings introduce phycocyanin extracted from Spiriulina as a potentially useful anticancer and antioxidant agent and can also provide a new path for the future researchers to combat diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular.
... The total phenolic content of the samples will be determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent as described by Correia Da Silva et al. (2010) and Gulcin et al. (2004). A portion of the samples, dissolved in ethanol, will be mixed with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (100μl) and distilled water (3ml) and mixed for 1 min. ...
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This study aims at showing the antioxidant potential of orange (Citrus sinesis) seed extract in the stabilisation of palm oil against oxidation at different temperature of storage. The essential oil of Citrus sinesis seed was extracted by complete extraction using the Soxhlet extractor. The level of alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract were 98.2mg/kg, 757.33mg/kg, 147.3mg/kg, 1118.63mgGAE/kg and 52.6% respectively. The extract was added to fresh palm oil at concentration 100ppm, 200ppm and 300pppm and was stored at temperature of 30°, 50° and 70° respectively for 60 days. The sample treated with 300ppm of extract and stored at 30° was the lowest in PV, p-AV and Totox value of 3.36meq/kg, 2.23meq/kg and 9.96 respectively, compared with the untreated sample with 12.04meq/kg, 6.41meq/kg and 30.49. However, higher value was recorded at higher temperature and lower concentration. Citrus sinesis seed extract significantly stabilised palm oil at different storage conditions and prevented it from becoming rancid at the end of storage time. This may be exploited for use as preservatives in food products
... All are considered therapeutically interchangeable. The seeds, rhizomes and leaves of U. dioica have been used in alternative medicine as a secondary remedy source in treatments of illnesses [3,4]. U. dioica is a slow-acting has other worthwhile contributions on health with the examples of therapeutics of eczema, anemia, inflammed joints, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, haemorrhage, hair loss due to anemia [5]. ...
Article
Stinging nettle is annual plant from Urticaceae family used as food and medicine. Due to the nonsufficient data, this work aimed to isolate the bioactive compounds from the stinging nettle leaves by supercritical carbon dioxide. Extracts were analyzed and assessed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Main fatty acids were α-linolenic (31.06-58.42 mg/g E), palmitic (9.17-13.12 mg/g E), and linoleic (10.93-16.51 mg/g E) acids. Chlorophylls (33.00-7365.11 mg/100 g E) and carotenoids (166.88-722.62 mg/100 g E) were also found in all samples. Four empirical kinetic equations were effectively utilized for kinetic modeling of supercritical fluid extraction. As per proper statistical features, empirical models show good concurrence with experimental data. The numerical modeling of a process is gainful to foresee the process conduct and furthermore extend the methodology from laboratory to industrial scales. The principal component analysis was used to visualize the fatty acids profile, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxic activity of extract.
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Herbal teas can cause diseases, when their naturally high microbial load is not inactivated via proper brewing. Cold plasma as effective and gentle decontamination technique was investigated for dried peppermint, stinging nettle, and lemongrass. Microwave-driven plasma processed air (up to 7.5 min) significantly reduced total viable counts up to 1.6 log10 CFU/g (initial counts were 8.02, 7.43, and 7.44 log10 CFU/g for peppermint, stinging nettle, and lemongrass, respectively). Spore-forming bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and molds were inactivated up to 2 log10 CFU/g. MALDI-ToF MS analyses showed a 30–100% reduction in microbial diversity as result of the plasma treatment. Color of most samples was visibly reduced in greenness and antioxidants, phenols, flavonoids, and free amino groups mostly decreased by plasma treatment. Overall, use of plasma processed air could be a suitable tool to decontaminate dried herbs at larger scale but has to be improved by testing different sources, gases, or times. Industrial relevance Cold atmospheric plasma can inactivate herb-associated microorganisms. Its possible effect on quality parameters such as flavor, color or phenolic content should be further studied and reduced, as particularly gentle decontamination processes that preserve the natural appearance of the food are accepted by the consumer. It seemed, that the intensity of the treatment can be reduced by pulsed plasma applications. There is great potential for application on an industrial scale. Peppermint seems to be the most suitable in this context, as it showed the highest microbial reduction together with low quality changes and is widely used, including in so-called cold brew teas, which require particular safety.
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Background: Cancer is a widespread disease nowadays that affected a large number of humans. Bladder cancer-affected tissue of the bladder and can be metastases to another part of the body. There are many risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, and radiation.Doxorubicin is one of the anticancer agents used in the treatment of Bladder cancer.Urticasea is a family of plants known for their medicinal activity from folk medicine .Urtica dioica is a member of urticasea and it is known for it is anticancer activity. One of most mechanisms of the anticancer agents is to induce apoptosis in cells. Methods: In the present study we investigate the apoptosis effect of N_ butanol extract of urtica dioica against T24 bladder cancer cell line. Results: The result show increase in the apoptotic effect on the cell by increasing the concentration of extract. Conclusion: The N_ butanol extract of urtica dioica show a significant apoptotic effect on the T24 bladder cancer cell line
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Zusammenfassung Die Wundheilung ist ein komplexer Prozess, der durch eine auf den jeweiligen Wundzustand abgestimmte Versorgung unterstützt werden kann. Der Artikel betrachtet bekannte (Arnika, Johanniskraut, Ringelblume/Calendula), aber auch in Vergessenheit geratene Heilpflanzen (Beinwell, Brennnessel, Deutsche Schwertlilie, Lebensbaum/Thuja, Waldbingelkraut, Wundklee) im Hinblick auf ihr wundheilungsförderndes und antimikrobielles Potenzial bei topischer Anwendung. Auf Grundlage aktueller Literaturdaten aus In-vitro- und In-vivo-Untersuchungen sowie klinischen Studien werden die Pflanzen und ihre Wirkmechanismen den Wundheilungsphasen zugeordnet. Besonderes Augenmerk wird zudem auf die Vorteile der Kombination von Heilpflanzen gelegt, um ein breiteres Wirkspektrum über verschiedene Phasen der Wundheilung hinweg zu erhalten und eine umfassende Unterstützung dieser anzustreben.
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Plants are responsible for many biological activities. In this context, they are important natural materials in complementary medicine. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of Urtica dioicaL. plant were determined. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with ethanol from a soxhlet device. TAS, TOS and OSI values were determined using Rel Assay kits. As a result of the study, the TAS value of the plant extract was determined 7.817±0.314, the TOS value was 10.866±0.404, and the OSI value was 0.139±0.007. In this context, it was determined that the plant extract has a high antioxidant potential. In addition, oxidant levels were found to be at normal levels. As a result, it is thought that the U. dioicaplant can be used as a natural antioxidant and oxidant source.
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Lotus roots (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) is a naturally rich source of bioactive compounds that have been known for the prevention of numerous diseases. In the present study, lotus root flour (LRF) was substituted as a wheat flour (WF) at different concentrations (5%,10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% w/w) and its effect on the functional properties, rheological characteristics, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), physical properties, nutritional profile, and sensory attributes on flour and unleavened flatbread samples were evaluated. The results showed that lower quantity of gluten content was found in flour blends, which correlates with the high water absorption of LRF which interfere in the gluten network development. The mixing profile of the dough as studied using farinograph showed an increase in water absorption (64.80 to 77.19%), dough development time (7.16 to 10.38 min) and dough stability (5.21 to 7.22 min) with increase in the LRF amount. Whereas, pasting profile of the blends showed an increase in maximum viscosity (1152.11 to 1177.21 BU) and break down values (401.21 to 477.11 BU), although, the setback values (577.13 to 450.22 BU) decreased with the addition of LRF. Furthermore, flatbread supplemented with higher amount of LRF were found to be less elastic and stiffer in texture. However, there was an overall improvement in softness, rollability, and spreadability of dough up to 15% substitution. The crude fiber and ash contents of LRF‐WF flatbread samples were improved from to 0.31 to 3.87% and 0.95 to 1.89%, respectively. Their total phenolic content (TPC) increased from 14.43 to 74.16 mg GAE/100 gm DW of sample. Although, baking decreased the TPC in comparison to flour blends. Sensory and textural performance exhibited that the unleavened flatbread samples were acceptable for substitution up to 15% LRF. Based on this study, LRF may be declared and commercialized as a highly antioxidative and nutritive edible flour, which can be prospectively used in the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.
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In this research, the effects of bipod nettle aquatic and alcoholic extracts on the growth and some biochemical parameters of the tomato plant, Superchef cultivar, were investigated under the greenhouse condition. For this purpose, aquatic and alcoholic extracts are prepared from dried stems and leaves of the nettle weed plant. Tomato seedlings were treated by direct injection of the extracts into the soil rhizosphere medium at the defined concentrations of 100,300 and 500 ppm. The growth and some iochemical parameters in treated tomato plants were assessed 3, 6, 9, and 14 days after treatment. The expression level of the SlHK4-Cytokinin inducer gene was also evaluated 14 days after the treatment using RT-sqPCR assay. Results showed that aquatic and alcoholic extracts of the nettle plants at the concentration of 500ppm significantly increased the relative growth rate, chlorophyll a and b concentrations, total phenol content, the specific activities of peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) as well as the expression level of SlHK4-Cytokinin inducer gene in treated tomato plants. The results of this study can be used as an applicable method to improve the growth of the tomato plant under greenhouse condition
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Nettle is most often studied as a spinning plant, as a source of biochemicals and environmentally safe fungicides. Major studies are mostly conducted on natural samples and plant populations. Prospects for the use of plant biological resources of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from the Cretaceous south of the Central Russian Upland to create cultivars for a wide range of applications are considered. The aim of the study is to investigate the productivity of fresh weight and its biochemical composition in the variety of stinging nettle Avicenna, created on the basis of the initial material selected in the Belgorod region of Russia and patented in 2019, and new promising cultivars UD 32/06 and UD 12/16. The experiments were carried out by the split plot method with full randomization in four replicates. The cultivars UD 32/06 and UD 12/16 reliably surpass the Avicenna cultivar in the collection of fresh mass weight by 16.6–22.7% and 23.1 to 27.8%, dry weight by 11.4–28.7% and 1.9–32.7%, and seeds by 19.7–32.0% and 23.2–40.0% accordingly. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of the factor “Cultivar” on the productive traits “Fresh weight yield” (strength influence 87.2%), “Dry weight yield” (strength influence 43.9%), and “Seed yield” (h2x = 61.6%). The content of crude protein in dry weight of the Avicenna and new varieties is 21.1–24.2%, crude fat: 2.5–4.2%, fiber: 12.0–14.8%. High content of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc were observed in all material tested. It is concluded that the biological resources of the wild-growing forms of Urtica dioica L. from the European south of Russia are a valuable source material for obtaining varieties, and varieties with high productivity of the aboveground mass and stable seed productivity. The obtained research results prove the usefulness of nettle cultivation.
Chapter
An attempt has been made to study acoustic behaviour of 15 available natural fibres, namely, banana, bimli, bhimal, coir, cotton, dumba wool, flax, hemp, jute, nettle, okra, pineapple, ramie, sisa, and sunnhemp, stuffed in an improvised test holder (20 mm thick) in equal masses (i.e., to maintain bulk densities of 1 g/cm3) in order to evaluate the potential of those fibre to be used as acoustical porous absorber. Noise absorption coefficient (NAC) and transmission loss (dB) wers measured in Impedance Tube. Results of those fibres were compared with that of two commercial, non-agro-based sound absorbers,. namely, rock-wool an, glass wool tested under same condition. Before stuffing, the fibres were carded and then suitably cut to make staple lengths for proper opening and stuffing, respectively. Frequency-dependent NAC curve of cotton was found to be unique in nature unlike the commercial-grade glass wool, rockwool and the rest of the naturally sourced fibres. Okra-reflected best noise absorption performance ascribed to its lowest actual fibre density, whereas, coarser fibres like sisal and coir were found to be the least-performing fibres. Fibres showind similar trend of performance on acoustical insulation as the acoustical reflection component of fibrous material are negligible
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The age-related reproductive disorders are the main concerns in old birds. It was suggested that a drop in egg production and reproductive performance, towards the end of their laying period was caused partly by a decrease in the baseline concentration of plasma LH. Urtica dioica (nettle) is a plant with natural aromatase inhibitors. Steroid hormone levels are regulated by inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. Few studies have examined the effect of nettle on the egg production in adult hens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diet supplemented with nettle powder (NP) in aged quails. One hundred and forty-52-week-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to four treatments consisting of seven replicates (n = 5; four females and one male) and fed with diets containing NP at 0% (control group), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (treatment groups). At 62 week of age, our results indicated the NP improved egg production, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit (p < .05). Notably, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were significantly increased, while total embryonic mortality decreased significantly by supplementing diet with nettle powder (p < .05). Higher luteinizing hormone, lower oestrogen, malondialdehyde and total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were associated with percent of the nettle powder in diet (p ≤ .05). Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone ratio ≥4 is associated with low egg production in control group and nettle supplementation can balance FSH/LH ratio to ≤2.7. It is concluded that nettle powder could be used as a worthwhile feed additive at the late laying period of aged quails. • HIGHLIGHTS • Nettle powder can be used as a food additive with aged quails at late laying period. • Addition of 1 and 1.5% nettle powder improves egg production, FCR, egg shell thickness. • Nettle enhances reproductive performances, such as fertility, hatchability, weight of ovary, and weight of follicles by balancing reproductive hormones at late laying period.
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This study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth, reproduction, biochemical and immunological parameters of female convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). For this purpose, 54 fish were distributed in 3 treatments included: without supplementation (control), 0.1 g (NE0.1), and 0.5 g (NE0.5) nettle extract per kilogram feed over 56 days. The highest final weight (4.2 ± 0.1 g), weight gain (2.8 ± 0.1 g), and specific growth rate (2.0 ± 0.0% day⁻¹) were recorded in NE0.1 group. Higher and lower feed conversion ratio were obtained in control and NE0.1 treatments, respectively. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices in NE0.1 treatment were significantly lower compared with control treatment. Fish fed NE0.1 showed significantly lower glucose (55.2 ± 6.5 mg g⁻¹), cholesterol (28.4 ± 3.3 mg g⁻¹), and triglyceride (211.5 ± 39.0 mg g⁻¹) levels. Total protein (36.3 ± 3.4 mg g⁻¹) and albumin (2.7 ± 0.1 mg g⁻¹) showed a marked increase in NE0.1 treatment. Same trend was observed in C3, C4, and IgM concentrations. NE0.1 showed the highest number of eggs per female (183.7 ± 10.2), hatching rate (97 ± 0.7%), and larval survival rate at 3 days post hatch (86.3 ± 0.6%) compared with the other treatments. These findings indicated that 0.1 g methanolic extract of nettle kg feed⁻¹ could enhance growth, improve metabolic, and immune function of convict cichlid. Moreover, this study confirmed that appropriate dose of nettle can positively promote reproductive performance which makes it as a valuable and cost-effective herb in aquaculture industry.
Chapter
Food preservation increases food quality and safety. The quality and safety of food deteriorate because of the inherent food properties or due to microbial contamination. Different approaches have been employed to overcome these problems. The use of preservatives is one such approach. Owing to the safety and toxicological concerns regarding the synthetic preservatives and consumers’ awareness, the demand for natural ingredients and food preservatives has increased. Plants provide a better option as they are present in abundance and are rich sources of bioactive compounds, which act as natural preservatives in various food products. The aim of this chapter is to provide a detailed account of the plant extracts extracted from various sources and their application as antimicrobials, antioxidants, and antibrowning agents in different food systems.
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Background: Organic products for animals are becoming more widely accepted by consumers. Using herbal additives may lead to more healthy animal products. In this research, it is hypothesized that thyme essential oil (TEO) and/or selenium yeast (SY) would be helpful to enhance production performance in broilers. Objective: In the current study, the effects of adding TEO and/or SY to the diet on broiler performance and blood parameters were evaluated in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 480 chicks were distributed in 24 cages with 20 chicks (10 males and 10 females) each and assigned to be fed four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets including two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of TEO and two levels (0 and 0.3 mg/kg) of SY in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with six replicates. Results: Adding SY significantly decreased feed intake in finishing period (22-42 d) (p < 0.05). Supplementation with SY and TEO significantly decreased plasma uric acid and triglyceride levels, respectively (p < 0.05). However, neither of the supplements had any influence on the plasma glucose and albumin levels (p > 0.05). The lowest level of plasma cholesterol was detected in the birds fed the TEO-supplemented diet (p < 0.05). Addition of SY significantly increased blood glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Dietary supplemental TEO has a favourable effect on feed intake, weight gain, and body weight values. Besides, SY may decrease blood concentration of uric acid, as well as blood glutathione peroxidase activity. An interaction is detected between TEO and SY on blood cholesterol.
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Background Radix Astragali (RA), as food and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for a long history in China. However, few studies on the extraction and purification of the active components from RA have been reported. Thus, the optimal extraction and purification conditions of six flavonoid components (calycosin, calycosin-7-glucoside, formononetin, ononin, 7,2′-dihydroxy-3′,4′- dimethoxyisoflav −7-O-glucoside, and 9,10-dimethoxyptercarpan-3-O-β-D-glucoside) from RA were investigated in this study. Methods BP neural network combined with particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (PSO-GA-BPNN) was used to analyze the relations between the extraction/purification conditions and the response value, and search the optimal extraction/purification conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed simultaneously as a comparison. Furthermore, the DPPH·radical scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of crude extract and purified extract were detected. Result A three-layer PSO-GA-BPNN containing 3 input neurons, 3 hidden layer neurons and 1 output neuron was established to investigate the relationship between the extraction/purification conditions and the response value. For extraction, the optimal condition by PSO-GA-BPNN was as follow: ethanol concentration 54%, extraction time 254 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio 18 mL/g. Using the optimal condition, the yield of six components was 2.084 mg/g, which was greater than 1.915 mg/g optimized by RSM. For purification, among nine types of macroporou resins, CAD-40 with higher adsorption ratio and desorption ratio was selected to purify the extract. The optimal adsorption condition by PSO-GA-BPNN was as follow: pH 6.9, adsorption flow rate 1.6 mL/min and solution concentration 0.22 g/mL, while the optimal desorption condition by PSO-GA-BPNN was as follow: ethanol concentration 55%, desorption flow rate 1.5 mL/min and elution volume 8.5 BV. Under the optimal condition, the adsorption capacity and desorption capacity were 1.465 mg/g and 1.259 mg/g, respectively, which were better than 1.381 mg/g and 1.156 mg/g optimized by RSM. These optimal values obtained by PSO-GA-BPNN were significant increased compared with these by RSM according statistical analysis. The antioxidant test showed that the purified extract has better antioxidant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that PSO-GA-BPNN model was more appropriate and has better indicative value for extraction than RSM, while the same as for purification. Consequently, PSO-GA-BPNN model combined with MPR purification enhanced the antioxidant potential of the RA from this medicinal species.
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Background Gastric ulcer is a major public health problem globally and associated with severe complications including hemorrhages, perforations, gastrointestinal obstruction, and malignancy. Urtica simensis is widely used for traditional management of gastric ulcer in different parts of Ethiopia. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-gastric ulcer activity of aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of U.simensis in rats. Methods The leaf extracts were prepared using decoction (aqueous) and maceration (80% methanol) techniques and in vivo anti-gastric ulcer effects of various doses of U. simensis extracts and the effect were determined using the pylorus ligation, indomethacin and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models. Results In pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model, both aqueous and 80% methanol extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were exhibited significant reduction in total acidity, volume of gastric secretion (p < 0.001) and substansial rise in pH (p˂0.05) of the gastric secretion. In indomethacin induced ulcer model, both aqueous and methanol extracts were exhibited dose dependent increment in gastric wall mucus compared to control (p < 0.001). In ethanol induced ulcer model, all doses of extract produced significant increment in gastric wall mucus from 46.66 ± 0.96 (AQ100) to 75.87 ± 1.52 (ME 400) μg alcian blue/g wet stomach. Five days pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg of both and aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited significant (P < 0.001) ulcer inhibition in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Conclusion Both extracts of U.simensis exhibited a promising anti-gastric ulcer activity in all of the three models and this findings supports for traditional claimed use of the leaf of U. simensis.
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In the Far North Region of Cameroon, pastoralists use the leaves of Boscia senegalensis and the stem of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius to treat common animal diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial, non-cytotoxic and antioxidant potentials of these plants. To achieve this, four extracts (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) of both plants obtained by successive fractionation were used. Antibacterial activities of the different extracts were evaluated against three bacterial reference strains including Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi ) using agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Human colon cancer cells were used to screen their toxicity. 2,2-Ddiphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assays have been used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the best extract of each plant after antibacterial assay. A sensitive inhibitory effect was observed against S. aureus with hexane extract of B. senegalensis and methanolic extract of T. dodoneifolius . In addition, the results showed that both plant extracts are not toxic. The hexane and methanolic extracts of B. senegalensis and T. dodoneifolius , respectively, showed higher antioxidant activities, but the hexane extract demonstrate a strong hydrogen donating ability or the electron transfer reaction in comparison with vitamin C used as standard. This finding may support the traditional use of both plants for managing animal diseases in the Far North of Cameroon.
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The stinging nettle Urtica dioica L. is a perennial crop with low fertilizer and pesticide requirements, well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. It has been successfully grown in most European climatic zones while also promoting local flora and fauna diversity. The cultivation of nettle could help meet the strong increase in demand for raw materials based on plant fibers as a substitute for artificial fibers in sectors as diverse as the textile and automotive industries. In the present review, we present a historical perspective of selection, harvest, and fiber processing features where the state of the art of nettle varietal selection is detailed. A synthesis of the general knowledge about its biology, adaptability, and genetics constituents, highlighting gaps in our current knowledge on interactions with other organisms, is provided. We further addressed cultivation and processing features, putting a special emphasis on harvesting systems and fiber extraction processes to improve fiber yield and quality. Various uses in industrial processes and notably for the restoration of marginal lands and avenues of future research on this high-value multi-use plant for the global fiber market are described.
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Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a wild herbaceous perennial blooming plant that is commonly known as stinging nettle. It’s a common, multi-purpose crop that’s sometimes overlooked. Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America are all home to stinging nettle. It is a plant that’s edible and has nutritional and medicinal properties. Young leaves can be used to make curries, herb soups, and sour soups. The root of the stinging nettle is used to treat mictional difficulties associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, while the leaves are used to treat arthritis, rheumatism, and allergic rhinitis. Its leaves are abundant in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids, as well as antioxidant compounds like polyphenols and carotenoids. Stinging nettle has antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-infectious, hypotensive, and antiulcer characteristics, as well as the ability to prevent cardiovascular disease, in all parts of the plant (leaves, stems, roots, and seeds). Stinging nettle improves fish reproductive performance, making it a cost-effective aquaculture plant. Fertilizer and insecticides can be made from the plants. This review examines the nutritional and pharmacological aspects of stinging nettle, as well as its possible health advantages. Scientists, farmers, and academicians interested in stinging nettle collecting, cultivation, research, and development would find this review useful.
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Traditional drugs used in the east Anatolia including Erzurum, Erzincan, Ağri, Kars, Iğdir, and Ardahan provinces have been surveyed. In this report, 169 remedies obtained from 87 plant species belonging to 38 families and 10 animal species are listed with their vernacular names, parts used, methods of preparing drugs, and traditional usages. Doğu Anadolu bölgesinde Erzurum, Erzincan, Ağri, Kars, Iğdir ve Ardahan illerinin sinirlari arasinda bulunan köylerde kullanilan halk ilaÇlan incelenmiŞtir. Bu ÇaliŞmada tespit edilen 38 familyaya ait 87 bitki ve 10 hayvan türünden elde edilen 169 halk ilaci hakkinda Şu bilgiler tablo halinde verilmiŞtir; kullanilan materyalin mahalli isimi, Latince tarn adi, tedavideki kullaniliŞ amaci, kullanilan kismi ve ilacin hazirlaniŞ Şekli.
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The antioxidant activities and total phenolics of 28 plant products, including sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, wheat germ, buckwheat, and several fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants were determined. The total phenolic content, determined according to the Folin−Ciocalteu method, varied from 169 to 10548 mg/100 g of dry product. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract evaluated according to the β-carotene bleaching method expressed as AOX (Δ log A470/min), AA (percent inhibition relative to control), ORR (oxidation rate ratio), and AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient) ranged from 0.05, 53.7, 0.009, and 51.7 to 0.26, 99.1, 0.46, and 969.3, respectively. The correlation coefficient between total phenolics and antioxidative activities was statistically significant. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; phenolics; medicinal plants; oilseeds; buckwheat; vegetables; fruits; wheat products
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An antioxidant fraction of Chinese green tea (green tea antioxidant; GTA), containing several catechins, has been previously shown to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin. In the present study, GTA was shown to have antioxidative activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide radical (O2−). GTA also prevented oxygen radical and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication in cultured B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes and human keratinocytes (NHEK cells). GTA (0.05–50 μg/ml) prevented the killing of hepatocytes (measured by lactate dehydrogenase release) by paraquat (1–10 mM) and glucose oxidase (0.8–40 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent fashion. GTA (50μg/ml) also prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by paraquat (5 mM), glucose oxidase (0.8 μg/ml), and phenobarbital (500 μg/ml). In addition, GTA (50 μg/ml) prevented the inhibition of intercellular communication in human keratinocytes by TPA (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication, two possible mechanisms by which tumor promoters may produce their promoting effects were therefore prevented by GTA. The inhibition of these two effects of pro-oxidant compounds may suggest a mechanism by which GTA inhibits tumor promotion in vivo.
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We present a novel animal model which allows the continuous intra-arterial infusion in one hindlimb of non-anaesthetized rats, without inducing ischemia. Using this model the effect of continuous infusion (1 ml/h) for 24 h with tert-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH) at a concentration of 25 mM on soft tissue of the left hind limb was studied and compared to the effect of saline infusion (control group). The tert-BuOOH-infused foot showed increased skin temperature, increased circumference, redness of the plantar skin, impaired function and increased pain sensation, while in the contralateral foot and in rats only perfused with saline these signs of inflammation were absent (p < 0.01). Histological analysis of the left gastrocnemius muscle showed edema, muscle cell degeneration with a patchy distribution pattern and vascular damage. All these features increased in severity from 4 to 24 h tert-BuOOH infusion. After 24 h of tert-BuOOH infusion infiltration of neutrophils in the interstitium was observed. Vascular permeability, expressed as left to right gastrocnemius muscle 99mTc-IgG uptake ratio, was similarly increased after 4 h (2.09 +/- 0.26) and 12 h (2.04 +/- 0.08) of tert-BuOOH infusion compared to saline (1.05 +/- 0.08) (p < 0.001), and further increased after 24 h (3.84 +/- 0.13): (p < 0.001). In this animal model free radical-related soft tissue damage was induced, by continuous infusion of tert-BuOOH, followed by increasing necrosis and vascular permeability in skeletal muscle coinciding with neutrophilic infiltration.
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The antioxidant activities of methanol and ethyl ether extracts obtained from Thymus zygis, collected during the flowering or non-flowering period, were evaluated and compared. To investigate this potential, extracts were tested on their capacity to react with diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in a homogeneous medium, and to inhibit Fe2+/ascorbate-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, as estimated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Although methanol extracts reduce DPPH radicals more efficiently than ethyl ether extracts, suggesting a potent radical scavenger activity, the ethyl ether extracts were found to be most active in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. In addition, both extracts present peroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. Peroxyl radicals were generated by the water soluble 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) azoinitiator, and the scavenging activities of the extracts were measured by the inhibition of cis-parinaric acid (PnA) fluorescence decay in SR. Superoxide radicals were generated either by an enzymatic or a non-enzymatic system, and the scavenger ability was evaluated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. Methanolic extracts are more potent as scavengers of peroxyl and superoxide radicals than the ethyl ether extracts. Apparently, there is a relationship between antioxidant potency and the total phenolic groups content in each extract.
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A fully automated-continuous flow 40-sample/ hour procedure was adapted from the Singleton-Rossi method of analysis for total phenols in wine and other plant extracts. It was compared with small-volume manual and semiautomated versions of this analysis. The agreement in mg of gallic acid equivalent phenol (GAE) per liter among a series of dry wines was excellent by all three procedures. The coefficients of variation in replicate analyses averaged 5.8% for the manual, 6.2% for the semi-automated and 2.2% for the automated procedure. This greater reproducibility, plus savings of about 70% in labor and up to 40% in reagents, makes the automated procedure attractive for laboratories doing enough total phenol analyses to recoup the cost of the automating equipment. For continuous flow, color development with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in alkaline solution must be hastened by heating compared to slower room temperature development for the manual methods. Heating of sugar-containing samples in the alkaline solution gives interference presumably from endiol formation. Examples are given of corrections which were used successfully to estimate the true phenol content of sweet wines.
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The scavenging effects of twenty-five tannins including low-molecular polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical (O2-) generated in the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of the adducts formed by 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and the radical. The scavenging effects of tannins and related polyphenols having ortho-trihydroxyl (pyrogallol) structure [galloyl, hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) groups in hydrolyzable tannins, galloyl group in acylated proanthocyanidins, and the B-ring of some flavan-3-ols] were stronger than the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins. The effects of tannins and related polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical were also compared with those on the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Each tannin in an ethanol solution of DPPH radical reduced the intensity of the signal of the DPPH radical, and gave a weak signal assignable to a radical derived from that tannin, in a similar way to the appearance of the signal of dl-α-tocopherol radical, accompanied with reduction of the signal of DPPH radical, in a mixture of dl-α-tocopherol and the DPPH radical. In contrast to the case of the superoxide anion radical, the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins on DPPH radical were comparable with those of the other types of tannins. The scavenging effects of all of the tannins and related polyphenols tested in the experiments on DPPH radical were stronger than that of dl-α-tocopherol.
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The spontaneous reaction of atmospheric oxygen with organic compounds leads to a number of degradative changes that reduce the lifetime of many products of interest to the chemical industry, especially polymers, as well as causing the deterioration of lipids in foods. The importance of oxygen in the deterioration of rubber was demonstrated over a century ago,¹ and this finding led chemists to investigate the chemistry of oxidative deterioration and its inhibition.
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Our laboratories, among many others, have been long interested in the isolation and identification of food phytochemicals that have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity. The extensive work in extraction, isolation, analysis, and identification resulted in detection of several phytochemicals from leaves of teas and rosemary that have high antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Studies of the effects of a fraction of green tea polyphenols, an extract of leaves of rosemary and the pure phytochemicals on the carcinogenic process in short-term animal studies (biochemical markers) and long-term animal tumor studies indicate that they have potent inhibitory effects on biochemical marker changes associated with tumor initiation and promotion, and anticarcinogenic activity in several animal models. In this chapter, methods for the isolation and identification of phytochemicals in teas and rosemary and their inhibitory effects on carcinogenic processes are discussed and reviewed.
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A method for determining different types of reducing activity in aqueous leaf extracts of various edible herb species [watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), and sage (Salvia officinalis L.)] was developed. This method, based on kinetics of the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), was employed to study the correlation between leaf senescence rates under darkness and their relative reducing capacity in aqueous extracts, which represents an oxidative defense mechanism. Evidence is presented showing that the total reducing capacity is negatively correlated with the relative senescence rate of these four herb species and thereby provides a means to predict their storage potential. Also, the initiation of senescence processes was associated with a weakening of the oxidative defense systems. Exogenous application of active reducing agents (morin, ferulic acid, kaempferol, and glutathione) inhibited significantly chlorophyll degradation of detached parsley leaves to an extent related to their in vitro effectiveness of reducing activity. The results further emphasize the correlation between decreasing senescence rate and increasing reducing activity, thereby confirming the possible involvement of reducing compounds in oxidative defense systems of various edible senescing leaves.
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The effect of varied maturity on the antioxidant activity of peanut hulls was investigated. Methanolic extracts of peanut hulls of varied maturity exhibited a similarly marked antioxidant activity, 92.9-94.8% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid. The content of both luteolin and total phenolics increased significantly with maturity and seemed to show no correlation with antioxidant activity However, the antioxidant activity remained constant after 1.671 mg/g of hulls of total phenolic content was reached. Total phenolics (1.671 mg/g of hulls) in peanut hulls seemed to be an initial point of maximum antioxidant activity. High total phenolic content in peanut hulls of varied maturity is associated with a high antioxidant activity and with an important role in the stability of lipid oxidation.
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The autoxidation of soybean oil in a cyclodextrin emulsion system was studied in the presence of an emulsion stabilizer consisting of polysaccharides such as xanthan, tragacanth gum, and methylcellulose. Xanthan strongly inhibited the peroxidation of soybean oil containing tocopherols but showed no antioxidant activity on soybean oil without tocopherols in the emulsion. Xanthan did not have hydrogen-donating ability but expressed Fe2+-binding activity. The Fe2+-binding activity corresponded to the pyruvate content of xanthan. Depyruvated xanthan did not inhibit effectively the autoxidation of soybean oil. The Fe2+-chelating structure of xanthan is discussed.
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Over the past years, antioxidants, and particularly vitamin E, have received considerable attention in the treatment of human diseases. In rheumatology, interest has been given to the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. However, the concept of using antioxidant nutrients as potential remedies is not new. As early as the sixties, first case reports have described beneficial effects of vitamin E in the therapy of osteoarthritis. Nonetheless, most of the following studies were not conducted properly, thus, not allowing valid inferences about the efficacy of vitamin E. Newer studies with sound methodology have shown a beneficial effect in rheumatic diseases, mainly in the reduction of pain. This paper reviews current and past studies about vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Der Einsatz von Antioxidantien, und hierbei vor allem Vitamin E, als Therapeutikum hat in den vergangen Jahren zunehmendes Interesse gefunden. Dieses Interesse gilt auch verschiedenen rheumatischen Erkrankungen wie der chronischen Polyarthritis und Osteoarthrose. Dabei ist dieser Ansatz bei weitem nicht neu, und erste Fallbeschreibungen über einen positiven Effekt von Vitamin E in der Behandlung degenerativer Erkrankungen reichen über 30 Jahre zurück. Doch viele der nachfolgenden Studien genügen in keiner Weise wissenschaftlichen Gütekriterien, so daß der breite Einsatz von Vitamin E zurecht eher kritisch betrachtet wurde. Neuerliche epidemiologische und klinische Untersuchungen lassen jedoch zunehmend vermuten, daß Vitamin E in der Behandlung des Schmerzes bei chronischer Polyarthritis und Arthrose durchaus wirksam ist. In dieser Arbeit geben wir eine Zusammenfassung der wissenschaftlichen Studien über die Wirksamkeit von Vitamin E bei rheumatischen Erkrankungen und beschreiben potentielle Wirkmechanismen.
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Based on the results of determining individual antioxidants,electrogenerated bromine was proposed as a regent for the coulometric determination of the antioxidant capacity of aqueous and aqueous–alcoholic extracts of 35 phytopreparations.
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In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extracts of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed (PAS) were investigated. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of PAS were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Twenty μg/ml of water and ethanol extracts exhibited 99.1 and 77.5% inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, which was greater than the same concentration of α-tocopherol (36.1%). These various antioxidant activities were compared with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol. The water extract of PAS exhibited greater antioxidant capacity than that of ethanol. Antimicrobial activity tests were carried out using disc diffusion methods with 10 microbial species.
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The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of sesame coat (EESC) was investigated. The antioxidant activity (91.4%) of 1.0 mg EESC was equal to 1.0 mg tocopherol (90.5%) but was weaker than 1.0 mg butylated hydroxyanisole (98.6%) on peroxidation of linoleic acid. EESC showed an inhibitory effect against the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in a liposome model system. EESC at 10.0 mg exhibited a 94.9% scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radicals and marked reducing power, indicating that EESC acts as a primary antioxidant. The extracts, at a dose of 1.0 mg, showed a 50.0% scavenging effect on the hydroxyl radical. EESC also exhibited a metal-binding ability. Sesamin and sesamolin, the lignan substances, were found in EESC, by HPLC analysis. In addition, chromatographic analysis demonstrated that phenolic compounds and tetranortriterpenoids, which had positive reactions with β-carotene, indicating antioxidant activity, are present in EESC. According to these results, termination of free radical reaction, metal-binding ability and quenching of reactive oxygen are suggested to be, in part, responsible for the antioxidant activity of EESC.
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Crude extracts of meals of borage and evening primrose were prepared under optimum extraction conditions and were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six fractions from each of the crude extracts were obtained and their content of total, hydrophilic and hydrophobic phenolics determined. The crude extracts and their fractions [at 100 and 200 ppm as sinapic acid (for borage) or catechin (for evening primrose) equivalents] were investigated for their reactive-oxygen species- (ROS; H2O2, O2•-, •OH) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH•) scavenging efficacies. Both types of crude extracts and their fractions exerted a concentration-dependent scavenging of ROS and DPPH•. At 200 ppm, borage crude extract and its fractions III, IV and V exhibited a 100% scavenging of H2O2 whereas evening primrose crude extract and its fraction III, at the same concentration, scavenged H2O2 completely. A complete quenching of O2•- was evident for assay media containing 200 ppm borage and evening primrose crude extracts/fractions with the exception of borage fraction V and evening primrose fraction I which showed about 75% quenching. At 200 ppm, borage and evening primrose crude extracts/fractions (except borage fractions I and III) exerted a complete quenching of •OH. Among the borage and evening primrose crude extracts/fractions investigated, only fraction VI of evening primrose, at 200 ppm, was able to completely quench DPPH•.
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The antioxidant activity of water extracts of Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) from four varieties, including Huang Harng Jyur (HHJ), Bai Harng Jyur (BHJ), Gan Harng Jyur (GHJ), and Kung Harng Jyur (KHJ), was investigated. The water extracts of the four Harng Jyur varieties showed strong antioxidant activity in linoleic acid and liposome model systems. Each extract at 20 mg exhibited 65.3–71.8% inhibition on malondialdehyde formation of rat liver homogenate in vitro, greater than 20 mg of tocopherol. A correlation established between the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, yielded a coefficient of r2=0.934, 0.997, 0.758 and 0.983 for HHJ, BHJ, GHJ and KHJ respectively. Each extract of the four Harng Jyur varieties had effective activities as radical scavengers, metal chelators, and active oxygen scavengers. These properties may be the major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Of the four varieties, BHJ was the most significant antioxidative material. No mutagenicity in the four varieties was found in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, either with or without S9 mix.
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In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed (FS) was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and reducing power. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol. The water and ethanol extracts of FS seeds showed strong antioxidant activity. 100 μg of water and ethanol extracts exhibited 99.1% and 77.5% inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, respectively, and greater than the same dose of α-tocopherol (36.1%). The both extracts of FS have effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. This antioxidant property depends on concentration and increasing with increased amount of sample. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the water and ethanol extracts of fennel seeds were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) seed is a potential source of natural antioxidant. Although, the tests presented here show the usefulness of FS extracts as in vitro antioxidants it still needs to be that this extracts show their activity in emulsions, biological systems, health implications or dry foods.