Article

Shurman B, Horan WP, Nuechterlein KH. Schizophrenia patients demonstrate a distinctive pattern of decision-making impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task. Schizophr Res 72: 215-224

University of California Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute 300 UCLA Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6968, USA.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 3.92). 02/2005; 72(2-3):215-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.03.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abnormalities in schizophrenia are well established, several lines of evidence suggest the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may also be dysfunctional in this disorder. We examined the performance of schizophrenia patients and nonpatient controls on the Iowa Gambling Task [Cognition 50 (1994) 7], a decision-making task sensitive to OFC damage that involves a series of selections from four decks of cards that vary in their reward/punishment profiles. Patients also completed neuropsychological tests assessing DLPFC functions and clinical symptom assessments. The schizophrenic patients demonstrated a pattern of impaired performance that differed both from healthy controls and from the "non-conservative" pattern typically found in patients with OFC lesions. The patients selected from the two card decks that had low frequency and high magnitude punishments significantly more often than the decks with high frequency and low magnitude punishments. Performance on the task was not strongly related to tests sensitive to DLPFC dysfunction but was correlated with negative symptoms. Results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia display a pattern of compromised decision-making that is somewhat distinct from that found in OFC lesion patients and that may be linked to certain clinical symptoms.

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Available from: Keith H Nuechterlein, Feb 15, 2015
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    • "pharmacological reduction of medial PFC (mPFC) GABA A -receptor transmission has been shown to produce a host of symptoms reminiscent of schizophrenia, including disrupted attention (Paine et al., 2011; Pehrson et al., 2013), set-shifting ability (Enomoto et al., 2011), spatial reference and working memory (Auger and Floresco, 2014), and appropriate salience attribution during aversive conditioning (Piantadosi and Floresco, 2014). Recently, Paine et al. (2014) illustrated that antagonism of GABA A -receptors in the rat mPFC impairs decision-making on a task similar to the Iowa Gambling Task, a task which assesses probabilistic or " risky " decisionmaking and is consistently impaired in schizophrenia (Kim et al., 2009; Shurman et al., 2005). "
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    • "This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). average, show an IGT performance style that is similar to that seen in patients with OFC lesions (Shurman et al., 2005; Nakamura et al., 2008). Another possible reason for the relationship between OFC volume and CPTp responsiveness is that reduced OFC volume relates to higher impulsivity in schizophrenia patients, a personality characteristic suggestive of lower cognitive flexibility (Kumari et al., 2009a; Schiffer et al., 2010). "
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