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    • "Studies in these cohorts have shown that high intakes of sugar sweetened beverages [22–25], fruit juice [22], red [26, 27] and processed [28, 29] meats, white rice [30], fish [31], heme iron [32, 33], potatoes [34], transfatty acids [35], low carbohydrate [36] and high glycemic load [37–40] diets, and irregular eating patterns [41], and overall poor quality diets [42–44] are associated with increased diabetes risk. By contrast, dietary anthocyanins(a flavonoid) [45], whole grains, dietary fiber and brown rice [30, 38, 46–48], zinc [49], vitamin D and calcium [48, 50] magnesium [48, 51], potassium [48], caffeinated [52, 53] and decaffeinated coffee[52], dairy produce [54], fruit and vegetable [55], light-moderate alcohol [56–58], nuts and peanut butter [59], polyunsaturated fatty acids [35] and vegetable fat [48] intake, and healthy diet patterns combined with other healthful lifestyle behaviors [60] are associated with lower diabetes risk. Not all of these findings are adequately replicated to justify inclusion in the ADA diet recommendations for the prevention of T2D [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the scourges of modern times, with many millions of people affected by the disease. Diabetes occurs most frequently in those who are overweight or obese. However, not all overweight and obese persons develop diabetes, and there are those who develop the disease who are lean and physically active. Certain ethnicities, especially indigenous populations, are at considerably higher risk of obesity and diabetes than those of white European ancestry. The patterns and distributions of diabetes have led some to speculate that the disease is caused by interactions between genetic and obesogenic lifestyle factors. Whilst to many this is a plausible explanation, remarkably little reliable evidence exists to support it. In this review, an overview of published literature relating to genetic and lifestyle risk factors for T2D is provided. The review also describes the concepts and rationale that have motivated the view that gene-lifestyle interactions cause diabetes and overviews the empirical evidence published to date to support this hypothesis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012
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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / f o o d c h e m beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable consumption in the prevention of chronic-degenerating diseases have been challenged (Boffetta et al., 2010). However, the majority of studies suggest that increased consumption of fruit, vegetables and grains contributes to prevent chronic-degenerating diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases (Bazzano et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2004; Schroeter et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Araçá or strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) is an attractive tasty small fruit native to temperate zones of Brazil. In this study, functional chemical constituents and the nutraceutical and therapeutic potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of red and yellow accessions of araçá were characterised. While carotenes, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanins were present as minor constituents, araçá fruit presented high levels of phenolic compounds (up to 768 mg 100 g−1 fresh fruit pulp, ffp), particularly (−)-epicatechin (up to 2.7 mg g−1 ffp), which were in general more efficiently extracted with acetone. Abundance of phenolic compounds was positively correlated with antioxidant activity, antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects.Graphical abstractHighlights► Araçá also known as strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine). ► High levels of phenolic compounds 768 mg 100 g−1 fresh fruit pulp. ► Antioxidant activity by yeast assay and DPPH radical scavenging. ► Antimicrobial against Salmonella enteritidis. ► Antiproliferative effects against cancer cells MCF-7 and Caco-2.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Food Chemistry
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    • "2008). Few intervention studies have similarly shown that dietary supplements of fruit and vegetable origins significantly reduced blood glucose levels, especially in human subjects (Liu et al., 2004). Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreases the incidence of type-2 diabetes by providing health benefits besides fulfilling physiological needs. "
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    ABSTRACT: An in vivo oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on hyperglycemic male Sprague-Dawley rats to assess the effect of fruits and vegetables (1 g.kg(-1) body weight) on blood glucose levels (Delta BGLs) at different time intervals of 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. The areas under glucose curve (Delta AUCs) were calculated at 120 min of OGTT by trapezoid method. Total phenolic content (TPC) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) of fruits and vegetables were assayed in vitro by Folin Ciocalteu and DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods, respectively. At the end of the experiment the correlations among the parameters TPC, AOA and Delta AUC was estimated by Pearson's correlations. Among fruit crops, tangerine, plum, grape and pear and among vegetables, blue leaf mustard, cabbage, chicory, broccoli and others exhibited significant hypoglycemic effects by reducing Delta BGLs with significant Delta AUC. The effective Delta AUC ranged from 5548.2 +/- 462.1 to 3823.3 +/- 282.0 mg-min.dL(-1). The TPC and AOA ranged from 0.063 +/- 0.00 to 0.913 +/- 0.14 mg.g(-1) GAE and 01.05 +/- 0.08 to 75.46 +/- 0.06%, respectively. Overall, six fruits and fifteen vegetables exhibited higher TPC and one fruit and four vegetables exhibited higher AOA. There was a better correlation among TPC, AOA and Delta AUC of fruits and TPC & AOA of vegetables. We report that hypoglycemically significant fruits and vegetables investigated in this study have pharmacological importance which reduced Delta BGLs through insulin like activity and AOA in prevention of type-2 diabetes.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2010
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