Efficacy of conventional immunosuppressive drugs in IBD
GI Unit, Department of Clinical Science, University of Rome La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy. Digestive and Liver Disease
(Impact Factor: 2.96).
12/2004; 36(11):766-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.dld.2004.06.014
The introduction and rapid diffusion of biological agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease had led us to believe that the old immunosuppressive drugs were destined to disappear. However, despite a decade of clinical experience in the use of biological agents, the old immunosuppressive drugs continue to play a pivotal role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Various factors may account for this change of view. Aim of the present review was to summarise key information currently available regarding the use of immunosuppressive drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
Available from: Robert J Greenstein
Available from: Giovanni Maconi
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 20% of patients with ulcerative colitis have a chronic active disease often requiring several courses of systemic steroids in order to achieve remission, but followed by relapse of symptoms during steroid tapering or soon after their discontinuation. Although short term control of symptoms can be achieved with steroid treatment, this pattern of drug response, known as steroid-dependency, leads to important complications of the treatment, while a significant proportion of patients requires colectomy.
To review the studies currently available specifically evaluating the management of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.
The clinical and biological mechanisms of steroid-dependency are not well understood compared with those determining steroid-refractoriness. Very few evidence-based data are available concerning the management of patients with steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. The therapeutic role of aminosalicylates, thiopurines, methotrexate, infliximab, leukocyte apheresis and other drugs in the treatment of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis are evaluated.
Outcomes of studies in steroid-refractory patients may not be applicable to steroid-dependency. Trials are needed to define the correct approaches and new strategies to ameliorate the therapy of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.
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ABSTRACT: Mast cells are well known as versatile cells capable of releasing and producing a variety of inflammatory mediators upon activation and are often found in close proximity of neurons. In addition, inflammation leads to local activation of neurons resulting in the release neuropeptides, which also play an important immune modulatory role by stimulation of immune cells. In intestinal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the number of mast cells is known to be much higher than in the normal intestine. Moreover, both these disorders are also reported to be associated with alterations in neuropeptide content and in neural innervation. Mutual association between mast cells and enteric nerves has been demonstrated to be increased in pathophysiological conditions and contribute to spreading and amplification of the response in IBD and IBS. In this review the focus lies on studies appointed to the direct interaction between mast cells and nerves in IBD, IBS, and animal models for these disorders so far.
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