Cookson WThe immunogenetics of asthma and eczema: a new focus on the epithelium. Nat Rev Immunol 4:978-988

Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK.
Nature reviews. Immunology (Impact Factor: 34.99). 01/2005; 4(12):978-88. DOI: 10.1038/nri1500
Source: PubMed


Asthma and eczema (atopic dermatitis) are the most common chronic diseases of childhood. These diseases are characterized by the production of high levels of immunoglobulin E in response to common allergens. Their development depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Over the past few years, several genes and genetic loci that are associated with increased susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis have been described. Many of these genes are expressed in the mucosa and epidermis, indicating that events at epithelial-cell surfaces might be driving disease processes. This review describes the mechanisms of innate epithelial immunity and the role of microbial factors in providing protection from disease development. Understanding events at the epithelial-cell surface might provide new insights for the development of new treatments for inflammatory epithelial disease.

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    • "One study infected mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae subsequently exposed to human serum albumin (HSA) and the infection triggered increased sensitization toward HSA (Schröder et al. 2008 ). Some microorganisms promote the mucosal immunity by stimulating mucosal lymphocytes to produce IgA (Cookson 2004 ), but colonization or infection by other bacteria can actually degrade IgA (Kilian et al. 1995 ). Certain bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tract produce specifi c proteases that cleave IgA. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of stress, anxiety and other affective states on inflammatory conditions such as asthma is well documented. Although several immune pathway mechanisms have been proposed and studied, they cannot fully explain the relationship. In this chapter we present a new perspective on asthma development and exacerbation that integrates findings on the role of psychological factors in asthma with the microbiome and the hygiene hypothesis in asthma development.
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    • "Of the various proinflammatory mediators, nitrite and PGE2 have been found to be important in several physiological processes, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, blood coagulation, and immune regulation [19]. NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), while PGE2 is produced by cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) [20,21]. They aggravate the inflammatory responses of atopic lesions, which are important feature is of atopic dermatitis [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
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    • "Therefore, if the severity of AD is aggravated, it will have a greater impact on human health. What’s more, both AD and asthma share an “atopy” phenotype that includes a Th2 inflammation with eosinophilia and hyper-IgE [11], [12]. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a common type of AD. "
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