Article

Quantitation of Resistance Training Using the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to apply the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method, which is known to work with aerobic training, to resistance training. Ten men (26.1 +/- 10.2 years) and 10 women (22.2 +/- 1.8 years), habituated to both aerobic and resistance training, performed 3 x 30 minutes aerobic training bouts on the cycle ergometer at intensities of 56%, 71%, and 83% Vo(2) peak and then rated the global intensity using the session RPE technique (e.g., 0-10) 30 minutes after the end of the session. They also performed 3 x 30 minutes resistance exercise bouts with 2 sets of 6 exercises at 50% (15 repetitions), 70% (10 repetitions), and 90% (4 repetitions) of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). After each set the exercisers rated the intensity of that exercise using the RPE scale. Thirty minutes after the end of the bout they rated the intensity of the whole session and of only the lifting components of the session, using the session RPE method. The rated intensity of exercise increased with the %Vo(2) peak and the %1RM. There was a general correspondence between the relative intensity (%Vo(2) peak and % 1RM) and the session RPE. Between different types of resistance exercise at the same relative intensity, the average RPE after each lift varied widely. The resistance training session RPE increased as the intensity increased despite a decrease in the total work performed (p < 0.05). Mean RPE and session RPE-lifting only also grew with increased intensity (p < 0.05). In many cases, the mean RPE, session RPE, and session RPE- lifting only measurements were different at given exercise intensities (p < 0.05). The session RPE appears to be a viable method for quantitating the intensity of resistance training, generally comparable to aerobic training. However, the session RPE may meaningfully underestimate the average intensity rated immediately after each set.

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... However, we emphasize that it is necessary to be cautious about the proposed mechanisms since these pathways act in an integrated manner. On the other hand, these findings are not universal; other investigations found that sRPE is higher when training with heavier than lighter load intensities [38][39][40]. In a sample of men and women (experience in RT ≥ 6 months), Day et al. [38] observed differences between the performance of 1 set of RT carried out at 90% of 1RM (4-5 repetitions), 70% of 1RM (10 repetitions), and 50% of 1RM (15 repetitions), whereby the sRPE was greatest for the 90% bout. ...
... Hiscock et al. [33] reported that 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% of 1RM induced a greater sRPE (4 ± 1) compared to 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% of 1RM (2.5 ± 1) when training was not taken to the point of muscular failure. Sweet et al. [40] investigated 10 men and 10 women who performed 2 sets of 6 exercises at 50% of 1RM (15 repetitions), 70% of 1RM (10 repetitions), and 90% of 1RM (4 repetitions), and found that sRPE was greater for the higher load conditions; again, training was not carried out to muscular failure. The main point that apparently explains these contradictory results is the fact that participants in the studies that found a greater degree of effort with higher loads [38][39][40] employed a pre-determined number of repetitions for each condition, whereby the heavier load conditions were performed closer to failure compared to the lighter load conditions. ...
... Sweet et al. [40] investigated 10 men and 10 women who performed 2 sets of 6 exercises at 50% of 1RM (15 repetitions), 70% of 1RM (10 repetitions), and 90% of 1RM (4 repetitions), and found that sRPE was greater for the higher load conditions; again, training was not carried out to muscular failure. The main point that apparently explains these contradictory results is the fact that participants in the studies that found a greater degree of effort with higher loads [38][39][40] employed a pre-determined number of repetitions for each condition, whereby the heavier load conditions were performed closer to failure compared to the lighter load conditions. Conversely, investigations (including our experiment) consistently show that lighter loads induce a greater RPE in which participants performed sets until momentary muscular failure [12,26,27]. ...
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Aims The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of different resistance training loads on the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and feelings of pleasure/displeasure (sFPD) of the session in older women. Method In a randomized, counterbalanced, and cross-over design, 16 older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years, 67.0 ± 8.4 kg, 154.1 ± 6.8 cm, 28.3 ± 4.4 kg/m2) performed 3 sets of 8 exercises in 3 experimental conditions, one session with a heavy load (HEV), one with a moderate load (MOD), and one session with a light load (LIT), all performed until momentary muscle failure. The sRPE and sFPD were assessed 15 min after the end of each session using specific scales. Results A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed among conditions for sFPD in which HEV produced feelings of displeasure, and MOD produced greater feelings of pleasure (HEV = -1.38 ± 1.7; MOD = 3.38 ± 1.2; LIT = 0.69 ± 1.04). For sRPE a significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed between MOD and LIT; whereby the LIT load induced a greater score compared to the MOD load (HEV = 4.56 ± 1.4; MOD = 4.31 ± 1.7; LIT = 5.75 ± 1.2). Conclusion Our results suggest that the training load affects perceived effort and feelings of pleasure/displeasure when exercise is performed until concentric failure. The use of moderate loads induces greater pleasure feelings and a reduced degree of effort in older women.
... Psychometric questionnaires and rating scales have long been used to assess readiness (Laurent et al., 2011) and recovery (Sweet et al., 2004) in athletes. Their ease of use, negligible cost, and versatility make them attractive options for training monitoring (Saw, Main, and Gastin 2016). ...
... Session RPE is calculated by providing a 1-10 RPE rating using the Borg CR-10 scale 30 minutes after training to encapsulate perceived difficulty for the entire session. This rating is then used to represent internal training load by itself (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004), or can be multiplied by the total repetitions (Lambert and Borresen 2010) or sets performed in a session . When using session RPE rating in isolation, scores mirror the load used in training without respect to the volume performed (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004). ...
... This rating is then used to represent internal training load by itself (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004), or can be multiplied by the total repetitions (Lambert and Borresen 2010) or sets performed in a session . When using session RPE rating in isolation, scores mirror the load used in training without respect to the volume performed (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004). Thus, it is has been recommended to multiply session RPE by the number of repetitions performed, and optionally to divide that by the amount of time the session took, to provide a measurement for internal training load that represents volume, intensity and density of training (Sweet et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Individualisation can improve resistance training prescription. This is accomplished via monitoring or autoregulating training. Autoregulation adjusts variables at an individualised pace per performance, readiness, or recovery. Many autoregulation and monitoring methods exist; therefore, this review's objective was to examine approaches intended to optimise adaptation. Up to July 2019, PubMed, Medline, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and CINAHL were searched. Only studies on methods of athlete monitoring useful for resistance-training regulation, or autoregulated training methods were included. Eleven monitoring and regulation themes emerged across 90 studies. Some physiological, performance, and perceptual measures correlated strongly (r ≥ 0.68) with resistance training performance. Testosterone, cortisol, catecholamines, cell-free DNA, jump height, throwing distance, barbell velocity, isometric and dynamic peak force, maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and sessional, repetitions in reserve-(RIR) based, and post-set Borg-scale ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were strongly associated with training performance, respectively. Despite strong correlations, many physiological and performance methods are logistically restrictive or limited to lab-settings, such as blood markers, electromyography or kinetic measurements. Some practical performance tests such as jump height or throw distance may be useful, low-risk stand-ins for maximal strength tests. Performance-based individualisation of load progression, flexible training configurations, and intensity and volume modifications based on velocity and RIR-based RPE scores are practical, reliable and show preliminary utility for enhancing performance.
... In resistance training, the one repetition max (1RM) is the gold standard for prescribing exercise since HR, VO 2 , and blood lactate are not effective ways of measuring intensity. 5,6 These studies have shown that RPE is well-related to %1RM. Similar to aerobic exercise, which requires an anchoring maximal exercise test, the 1RM strategy is not a practically effective way to define the exercise prescription as it is rarely used with untrained individuals and would depend on measuring 1RM for a very large number of exercises. ...
... The RPE 2 represents the momentary perceived intensity while the sRPE represents the whole training session. 3,7,8 There are several scales for RPE 1 including the classical (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) scale, the Category Ratio (0-10) scale, and the Omni scale. 10 Although producing different absolute values for the computed training load (sRPE × duration), the between scale behavior of different versions of the RPE scales have been shown to be well-correlated markers of relative intensity, hence the internal training load. ...
Article
Introduction: The relationship between the percentage of a fatiguing ambulatory task completed and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) appears to be linear and scalar, with a relatively narrow "window." Recent evidence has suggested that a similar relationship may exist for muscularly demanding tasks. Methods: To determine whether muscularly demanding tasks fit within this "ambulatory window," we tested resistance-trained athletes performing bench press and leg press with different loadings predicted to allow 5, 10, 20, and 30 repetitions and measured RPE (category ratio scale) at the end of the concentric action for each repetition. Results: There was a regular, and strongly linear, pattern of growth of RPE for both bench press (r = .89) and leg press (r = .90) during the tasks that allowed 5.2 (1.2), 11.6 (1.9), 22.7 (2.0), and 30.8 (3.2) repetitions for bench press and 5.5 (1.5), 11.4 (1.6), 20.2 (3.0), and 32.4 (4.2) repetitions for leg press, respectively. Conclusions: The path of the RPE growth versus percentage task fit within the window evident for ambulatory tasks. The results suggest that the RPE versus percentage task completed relationship is scalar, relatively linear, and apparently independent of exercise mode.
... Since Foster et al. (7) first proposed the use of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) as a simple method to assess exercise intensity, sRPE has been widely used to quantify athletes' exercise demands (1,5,7,10,13,15,17,19,20). The use of sRPE has allowed to resolve the potential limitations of using heart rate (HR) to control exercise intensity during high-intensity training such as intermittent, speed, plyometric, or weight training (7,17). ...
... Since Foster et al. (7) first proposed the use of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) as a simple method to assess exercise intensity, sRPE has been widely used to quantify athletes' exercise demands (1,5,7,10,13,15,17,19,20). The use of sRPE has allowed to resolve the potential limitations of using heart rate (HR) to control exercise intensity during high-intensity training such as intermittent, speed, plyometric, or weight training (7,17). In addition, sRPE may facilitate the training monitoring when a large number of athletes are involved in the training sessions (e.g., team sports). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of postexercise rating times (from 0 minutes to 4 weeks) on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Twenty-five athletes (12 women and 13 men) from different sports (sprinting, endurance running, cycling, and volleyball) were involved in this study. At least 3 training sessions per subject were quantified based on sRPE using a visual analog scale. The scale was administered immediately after, at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postexercise. In addition, the effect of rating time on sRPE was studied according to the training intensity. For this, the training sessions were classified (based on the 30-minute rating) as easy (sRPE ,3), moderate (sRPE 3–5), and hard (sRPE .5). A significant (p,0.001) main effect of the postexercise rating time on sRPE was found. There were significant (p , 0.05) differences between sRPE obtained at 30 minutes and those obtained immediately after hard training sessions and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postexercise. There was no significant effect of rating time on sRPE in the easy and moderate training sessions. In conclusion, the present data suggest that athletes’ sRPE may be obtained in a valid and reliable manner within a time frame of 5 minutes to 72 hours post training. The effect of postexercise rating time on sRPE seems to be conditioned by the training intensity, especially in those training sessions whose training intensity was high (sRPE . 5). Key Words: perceived exertion, training monitoring, exercise intensity, training load
... Since Foster et al. (7) first proposed the use of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) as a simple method to assess exercise intensity, sRPE has been widely used to quantify athletes' exercise demands (1,5,7,10,13,15,17,19,20). The use of sRPE has allowed to resolve the potential limitations of using heart rate (HR) to control exercise intensity during high-intensity training such as intermittent, speed, plyometric, or weight training (7,17). ...
... Since Foster et al. (7) first proposed the use of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) as a simple method to assess exercise intensity, sRPE has been widely used to quantify athletes' exercise demands (1,5,7,10,13,15,17,19,20). The use of sRPE has allowed to resolve the potential limitations of using heart rate (HR) to control exercise intensity during high-intensity training such as intermittent, speed, plyometric, or weight training (7,17). In addition, sRPE may facilitate the training monitoring when a large number of athletes are involved in the training sessions (e.g., team sports). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of post-exercise rating times (from 0-min to 4-wks) on sRPE. Twenty five athletes (12 females and 13 males) from different sports (sprinting, endurance running, cycling and volleyball) were involved in this study. At least 3 training sessions per subject were quantified based on sRPE using a visual analog scale. The scale was administered immediately after, at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30-min, 24-, 48- and 72-h, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-wk post-exercise. In addition, the effect of rating time on sRPE was studied according to the training intensity. For this, the training sessions were classified (based on the 30-min rating) as easy (sRPE <3), moderate (sRPE 3-5) and hard (sRPE >5). A significant (P < 0.001) main effect of the post-exercise rating time on sRPE was found. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between sRPE obtained at 30-min and those obtained immediately after hard training sessions, and at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-wk post-exercise. There was no significant effect of rating time on sRPE in the easy and moderate training sessions. In conclusion, the present data suggest that athletes’ sRPE may be obtained in a valid and reliable manner within a time frame of 5-min to 72-h post-training. The effect of post-exercise rating time on sRPE seems to be conditioned by the training intensity, especially in those training sessions whose training intensity was high (sRPE >5).
... We then did the same experiment, but added 3 sessions of cycling at different percentages of peak power output. 52 The degree of relative correspondence was substantial, suggesting that sRPE addresses the same intensity issue relative to aerobic and resistance training, in much the same way ( Figure 5). Singh et al 43 to resistance and cycling sessions at comparable percentages of 1RM and PPO (upper right), 52 and to a differently focused resistance training session (lower left). ...
... 52 The degree of relative correspondence was substantial, suggesting that sRPE addresses the same intensity issue relative to aerobic and resistance training, in much the same way ( Figure 5). Singh et al 43 to resistance and cycling sessions at comparable percentages of 1RM and PPO (upper right), 52 and to a differently focused resistance training session (lower left). 43 1RM indicates 1-repetition maximum; PPO, peak power output; sRPE, session rating of perceived exertion. ...
Article
The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method was developed 25 years ago as a modification of the Borg concept of rating of perceived exertion (RPE), designed to estimate the intensity of an entire training session. It appears to be well accepted as a marker of the internal training load. Early studies demonstrated that sRPE correlated well with objective measures of internal training load, such as the percentage of heart rate reserve and blood lactate concentration. It has been shown to be useful in a wide variety of exercise activities ranging from aerobic to resistance to games. It has also been shown to be useful in populations ranging from patients to elite athletes. The sRPE is a reasonable measure of the average RPE acquired across an exercise session. Originally designed to be acquired ∼30 minutes after a training bout to prevent the terminal elements of an exercise session from unduly influencing the rating, sRPE has been shown to be temporally robust across periods ranging from 1 minute to 14 days following an exercise session. Within the training impulse concept, sRPE, or other indices derived from sRPE, has been shown to be able to account for both positive and negative training outcomes and has contributed to our understanding of how training is periodized to optimize training outcomes and to understand maladaptations such as overtraining syndrome. The sRPE as a method of monitoring training has the advantage of extreme simplicity. While it is not ideal for the precise recording of the details of the external training load, it has large advantages relative to evaluating the internal training load.
... Resistance training training load was calculated as the product of the typical RT session RPE and the typical RT training session duration (minute). The session RPE and duration have been used previously in several studies to quantify training load (11) and RPE has been found to be valid and reliable for evaluating training session intensity for both resistance (28) and endurance training (32). Cardiovascular training volume was calculated as the product of the average weekly CV workout frequency and the typical CV training session duration (minutes). ...
... Of the 10 qualities that the firefighters rated, the 3 highest perceived qualities were endurance-based, including CV fitness. Maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness is not only important for firefighters' performance (18,19,28), but may help decrease the risk of CV disease, the primary cause of on-duty deaths in the fire service (7). Firefighters' awareness of the CV risks associated with firefighting may have contributed to them placing greater importance on CV fitness as, anecdotally, many of the subjects expressed this concern. ...
Article
Saari, AI, Renz, G, Davis, P, and Abel, MG. The influence of age on firefighter combat challenge performance and exercise training habits. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The primary purpose of this study was to compare older vs. younger physically trained structural firefighters' performance in an international firefighter physical ability competition (Scott Firefighter Combat Challenge) and their engagement in physical training. Secondarily, firefighters' perceived importance of fitness characteristics to perform occupational tasks was evaluated. Sixty-four trained male firefighters' completed a timed occupationally specific competition course and a survey to assess exercise habits and perceived importance of fitness characteristics to perform fireground tasks. Firefighters were stratified into younger (<37 years; n = 34) and older (≥37 years; n = 30) cohorts based on the sample's median age. Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcome measures between younger and older cohorts. It took older firefighters 8.8% longer to complete the course compared with younger firefighters (p = 0.029). Both groups reported similar training frequencies of cardiovascular (CV) training (Younger: 4.1 ± 1.7 vs. Older: 3.6 ± 1.5 session·wk, p = 0.203) and strength training (Younger: 3.6 ± 1.2 vs. Older 3.2 ± 1.4 session·wk, p = 0.274). Furthermore, there was no difference in weekly training load for CV (p = 0.663) or strength training (p = 0.898) activities between the cohorts. On average, firefighters indicated that all fitness characteristics were at least somewhat important for occupational performance. Occupationally relevant competition performance among a sample of fit firefighters was lower in older firefighters compared with younger firefighters, despite similar self-reported training volume and intensity. Practitioners may expect age-related decreases in occupational performance despite performing similar amounts of physical training.
... CERT, siglas en inglés de Children's Effort Rating Pese a su practicidad, para establecer intensidades de trabajo en el campo, hay que reconocer que la percepción del esfuerzo se ve afectada por varios factores, como la masa muscular involucrada en el ejercicio (Pandolf, K.B., et al., 1984;Sweet, T.W., 2004), y la temperatura ambiente (Maw, G.J., et al., 1993), entre otros. ...
Book
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En este libro,bajo un enfoque critico revisionista, se abordan temas relacinados con la planificacion y los componentes de la magnitud de la carga del entrenamiento para el fitness y el deporte de rendimiento. Se proponen guias generales para el entrenamiento de la fuerza; la velocidad, rapidez y agilidad; la resistencia; la movilidad; y la estabilidad.
... Additionally, questionnaires were used to assess players subjective responses to training or competition [15,16]. A modified rating of perceived exertion (mRPE) can be used to monitor training by examining simple markers of training volume and intensity [17][18][19]. Previously, most studies observed that neuromuscular system function can be used to monitor fatigue [20,21]. As the neuromuscular system accumulates fatigue, changes in the muscle SSC are involved in most sporting movements at different velocities and intensities [4,14,22,23]. ...
Article
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This study focused on the effect of acute Judo training on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and perceived fatigue among a group of highly trained collegiate judo athletes. Twenty male judo athletes participated in this study (age: 20.65 ± 1.22 years, weight: 84.17 ± 28.45 kg). Participants were assessed for CMJperformance changes before, immediately after (0 h), 12 h after, and 24 h after judo training (JT) using unloaded CMJ(CMJunloaded) and loaded CMJ(CMJloaded). All the jumps were performed on a force plate, and the force–time curves were collected for further analysis. Respondents’ perceptions were evaluated using the modified rating of perceived exertion (mRPE) before, after (0 h), 12 h, and 24 h after JT. CMJparameters were analyzed at four measured points using a one-way repeated analysis of variance. Effect sizes (ES) and percentage changes before versus 24 h after JT were calculated for comparison. Associations between the CMJparameters and mRPE were analyzed using the Pearson product–moment correlation. The ratio of flight time to contact time significantly decreased, whereas the eccentric duration, concentric duration, and total duration significantly increased (p < 0.05) in both CMJs 24 h after JT. Compared with CMJunloaded, CMJloaded had a significantly lower (p < 0.05) flight time, jump height, peak velocity, and peak power. The mRPE and CMJloaded peak velocity showed moderate- to high-level negative correlation results both 0 and 24 h after training (r = −0.543, p < 0.05; r = −0.479, p < 0.05). In this study, we only observed the effect of fatigue on the neuromuscular (NM) system 24 h after JT. CMJloaded height may help to better determine fatigue state compared with CMJunloaded. According to the results, the neuromuscular effects of fatigue were not observed until 24 h after a single high-intensity training. Therefore, when arranging high-intensity special training or strength and conditioning training, one should reduce the volume of training appropriately to avoid fatigue accumulation and reduce the risk of sports injuries.
... 15,45 This method is used commonly across various modes of training such as resistance training as well as pitch-based activities including both conditioning and skills. 46,47 Recent technological advancements have led to the development of numerous wearable technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS) that monitor external loads. 20 These devices allow for quantitative data on the running demands of a sport to be collected and analyzed. ...
Preprint
Background No research has investigated the training load (TL) monitoring practices currently used by strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches in Gaelic games. The purpose of this study was to investigate the TL monitoring practices used by S&C coaches across senior intercounty male and female Gaelic game sports. Study Design Cross-sectional. Hypotheses It was hypothesized that (1) TL is commonly monitored, (2) various methods are used by S&C coaches to monitor TL, and (3) the level of qualifications of the S&C coach is of a professional standard. Level of Evidence Level 4. Methods A total of 33 (n = 32 male and n = 1 female) S&C coaches participated in the study by completing an online questionnaire that investigated coach biography, coach education, team biography, monitoring practices, rating of perceived exertion, acute:chronic workload ratio, and data implementation. Results The results showed that S&C coaches had varying levels of experience and education. All 33 coaches (100%) stated they monitored the TL of the players. The most common method used to monitor TL was session rating of perceived exertion, which was used by 91% of coaches. Analysis of an open-ended question afforded each participant the opportunity to share additional information, highlighting 3 themes: (1) communication with players, (2) performance testing, and (3) clarity and support among other coaching staff. Conclusion Multiple methods are used to monitor TL in Gaelic games. Despite multiple forms of technology available, communication with players provides essential information regarding an athlete’s state. Clinical Relevance As this is the first study to explore TL monitoring practices used by S&C coaches in Gaelic games, the results may inform the development of educational resources for the guidance of coaches working in Gaelic games in best practice TL monitoring.
... [14][15][16][17][18] Moreover, some evidence has suggested that RPE is a reliable and valid method to provide a global rating regarding session training stimulus. [19][20][21] Some studies have shown that different loads prescribed according to the percentage of one maximal repetition (1 RM) promote distinct responses in RPE. 18,19,22 In this perspective, it is important to verify whether RPE scales are sensitive to identify small reductions in loads prescribed by the RM method. ...
Article
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Introduction Load reduction using the repetition maximum (RM) method may be necessary to promote higher numbers of repetitions, and consequently, higher total volume, time under tension, and perceived exertion ratings. Objective To compare the effects of different leg press exercise loads on number of repetitions, total volume, time under tension, and perceived exertion. Methods Eighteen women university students (23.9 ± 3.8 years) performed two experimental sessions with 90% and 100% of 10-12 RM in a balanced crossover design. Results The number of repetitions of the second and third sets, the total volume, and time under tension at 90% of 10-12 RM was statistically higher than at 100% of 10-12 RM ( p < 0.05). The perceived exertion of the first and second sets and the training load (perceived exertion x duration of sessions) were higher at 100% of the 10-12 RM session ( p < 0.05). Conclusion A small reduction in load results in a greater number of repetitions, total volume, and time under tension. The session with the higher load appeared to induce higher perceived exertion and training load. Thus, scientists and coaches might consider lower loads to maximize the number of repetitions, total volume, and time under tension, which may cause greater long-term muscular adaptations. Level of evidence II; Comparative prospective study. Keywords: Lower limb; Muscle fatigue; Muscle strength; Resistance training
... The circuit was completed three times per session. During the first three training weeks, the rate of perceived exertion (0-10 scale) was used to control the intensity during strength training (i.e., the target zone was 7-8 on the rate of perceived exertion scale) [39]. The one-repetition maximum was assessed as previously described [40,41] after week 3, week 6, and week 9 to adjust the loads of the strength exercises and to prescribe strength exercise intensity as a percentage of one-repetition maximum (target zone: 50-60%). ...
Article
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Metformin, a drug widely used to treat insulin resistance, and training that combines aerobic and strength exercise modalities (i.e., concurrent training) may improve insulin sensitivity. However, there is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the effects of concurrent training, particularly on insulin resistance and fat oxidation in overweight and obese patients. Furthermore, only a few studies have compared the effects of concurrent training with metformin treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week concurrent training pro-gram versus pharmaceutical treatment with metformin on maximum fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance in overweight or obese adult patients. Male and female patients with insulin resistance were allocated by convenience to a concurrent training group (n=7 [2 males]; age=32.9±8.3 years; body mass index=30±4.0 kg.m-2) or a metformin group (n=7 [2 males]; age=34.4±14.0 years; body mass index=34.4±6.0 kg.m-2). Before and after the interventions, all participants were assessed for total body mass, body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, maxi-mum oxygen consumption, maximal fat oxidization during exercise, and fasting glucose, insulin resistance through the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). Due to non-normal distribution of the variable maximal fat oxidation, the Mann-Whitney U test was applied and revealed better maximal fat oxidization (Δ= 308%) in the exercise compared with the metformin group (Δ= -30.3%; p=0.035). All other outcome variables were normally distributed and significant group-by-time interactions were found for HOMA-IR (p<0.001, Δ= -84.5%), fasting insulin (p<0.001, Δ= -84.6%), and increased maximum oxygen consumption (p=0.046, Δ =12.3%) in favor of the exercise group. Similar changes were found in both groups for the remaining dependent variables. Concurrent training seems to be more effective compared with pharmaceutical metformin treatment to improve insulin resistance and fat oxidation in adult overweight and obese patients with insulin resistance. The rather small sample size calls for more research in this area.
... Along with monitoring the affective responses to RT, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a useful tool to measure the perceptual responses during fatiguing tasks. During traditional RT where a predetermined number of repetitions are to be completed, authors demonstrated a systematic increase in acute RPE (aRPE), such that there were increases in aRPE with increases in load (% 1RM) lifted (16,25,32,38,39). This linear pattern in aRPE and load has been previously demonstrated when subjecting recreationally trained women to imposed loads of 40% (avg RPE 5 11.26) and 70% (avg RPE 5 15.52) of 1RM and allowing them to self-select load (avg load 5 57% 1RM; avg RPE 5 13.94) (7). ...
Article
Anderson, AlOK, Voskuil, CC, Byrd, MT, Garver, MJ, Rickard, AJ, Miller, WM, Bergstrom, HC, and Dinyer McNeely, TK. Affective and perceptual responses during an 8-week resistance training to failure intervention at low vs. high loads in untrained women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT) to failure on the perceptual and affective responses, intent-to-continue RT to failure in a self-initiated session, and affect-intent relationship. Twenty-three untrained women (mean ± SD: age 21.2 ± 2.2 years; height 167 ± 5.7 cm; body mass, 62.3 ± 16.2 kg) completed an 8-week, full-body RT to failure intervention at a low (30% 1RM; n = 11) or high (80% 1RM; n = 12) load. The Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used to assess the acute (aRPE) and session (sRPE) RPE immediately after repetition failure and each training session, respectively. Immediately, 15-minute, and 60-minute postsession affective responses were assessed using the feeling scale (FS; -5 to +5), and intent to continue to RT was assessed on a scale of 0-100% intention. During week 4 (W4) and week 8 (W8), aRPE (W4: 18 ± 2, W8: 18 ± 2; p ≤ 0.032) and sRPE (W4: 17 ± 2, W8: 18 ± 1; p ≤ 0.018) were greater than that during week 1 (W1; aRPE: 17 ± 2; sRPE: 16 ± 2). The FS responses increased from immediately to 60-minute postsession during W4 (p ≤ 0.019) and W8 (p ≤ 0.049). The correlation between affect and intent-to-continue RT increased from W1 (r = 0.416) to W8 (r = 0.777). Regardless of load, untrained women reported similar perceptual, affective, and intention responses. These variables should be considered to improve RT program adoption and adherence in women.
... The session RPE was assessed with a CR-10 scale using the recommendations of Sweet et al., (16). Participants were asked to use an arbitrary unit (A.U.) on the scale to rate their overall effort for each RT exercise. ...
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International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 797-807, 2022 The aim of the present study was to compare the myoelectric activation and peak force (PF) between pullover (PO) and pulldown (PW) exercises in different shoulder joint positions during maximal isometric contractions (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º, and 180°). Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men were recruited. The participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions for each exercise at five shoulder joint positions. The myoelectric activation (iEMG) from pectoralis major (PM); latissimus dorsi (LD); posterior deltoid (PD), and PF were measured. For PF, there were significant main effects for exercise and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG PM, there was significant a main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between exercises and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG LD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For iEMG PD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For RPE, there were no significant differences between exercises and joint positions. The study concludes that specific shoulder joint positions affect PF production and iEMG during both exercises. RPE was not affected.
... The RPE was assessed with a CR-10 scale using the recommendations of Sweet et al., (29). Participants were asked to use an arbitrary unit (AU) on the scale to rate their overall effort for each treatment. ...
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International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 676-685, 2022. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of different durations of the isometric forearm plank exercise (IFPE) on peak force, echo intensity, muscle thickness, and perception of effort in recreationally-trained participants. Fifteen resistance-trained participants (23±3years, 76.4±6.5kg, 173.3±6.5cm) performed the IFPE with bodyweight in one of three durations in a randomized order: a). 1-min, b). 2-min, and c). 3-min. Muscle thickness (MT), echo intensity (EI), peak force (PF), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured pre-test and post-test. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs (2x3) were used to test differences between tests (pre-test and post-test) and treatment (1-min, 2-min, and 3-min) for PF, MT, and EI. One-way ANOVA was used to compare RPE between treatments (1-min, 2-min, and 3-min). There was a significant increase between pre-and post-test only for 3-min IFPE (p=0.008). For EI, there was a significant increase between pre-and post-test only for 3-min IFPE (p<0.001). For PF, there were observed significant reductions on post-test between 1-min vs. 3-min (p<0.001) and 2-min vs. 3-min IFPE (p<0.001). For RPE, there were statistical differences between 1-min vs. 2-min (p<0.001), 1-min and 3-min (p<0.001), 2-min and 3-min (p=0.001). In conclusion, only 3-min IFPE induced an increase in MT and EI and a reduction in PF when compared to 1-min and 2-min (during the post-test). RPE increased with the increase in the duration of the IFPE.
... The team's physical coach collected the RPE and the exercise time on an individual basis in each training session and match to calculate sRPE. RPE was assessed by using a 1-to-10-point scale and participants were informed that 0-point was equivalent to how they feel when sitting in a chair and 10-point was equivalent to how you they feel at the end of very intense exercise activity [32]. Weeklong cumulative internal training load was calculated for each player by summing all sRPE scores recorded for the week (including the competition). ...
Article
The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact of the weekly training load and the match running patterns prior to a muscle injury as potential risk factors of muscle injury in professional football players. Forty male professional football players participated in the investigation. Running distances at different intensities 5 min and 15 min prior to the injury were compared to the same time-points in official matches of the same player with no injury events. Furthermore, the cummulative session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and training load of the week prior to the injury were compared to a control week (mean value of training weeks without injury). Nineteen players suffered 31 non-contact muscle injuries during matches. The distance covered at 21–24 km/h (p<0.001; effect size (ES)=0.62) and at>24 km/h (p=0.004; ES=0.51) over the 5-min period prior to the injury was greater than in matches without injury. The cumulative sRPE (p=0.014; ES=1.33) and training volume (p=0.002; ES=2.45) in the week prior to the injury was higher than in a control week. The current data suggest that the combination of a training week with a high load and a short period of high intensity running during the match might increase the risk of muscle injury in professional footballers.
... Also, the training sessions' intensity was gradually enhanced. The session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method was used to determine and monitor exercise intensity [25]. Before training program, the participants got familiar with the numbers and a workout log sheet was provided for each of them. ...
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Background Resistance training is now highly recommended for enhancing physical fitness in preadolescence. According to this critical period of development, choosing the safe and efficient types of training is important. Aims Comparing the effect of two types of suspension and unsuspension resistance training on physical fitness and body composition in prepubescent soccer athletes. Methods Thirty immature boys were assigned randomly to either total-body resistance exercise (TRX), bodyweight training (BW), and control groups. Training groups completed training programs for 8 weeks which designed progressively according to ACSM recommendations for children. Suspension training was conducted using TRX bands and unsuspension training using body weight. Results TRX training showed significant improvements in muscular endurance (p < 0.001), upper and lower body strength (both; p < 0.01), static balance (p < 0.05), and also percent body fat (p = 0.005) compared to BW training. Also, there were no difference in aerobic power, agility, and muscular power. Conclusions Although the benefits of both types of resistance training were evident, TRX training seems to be more effective in children’s physical fitness components and can be developed as a fitness training method in youth athletes.
... Thirty minutes after the end of every training session, participants provided a score in a 1-10 scale of the rate of perceived exertion (RPE, Borg, 1982). When participants of the IRRG reported a score lower or equal to 7, the load during the next training session was increased by 2.5% (relatively to the initial 1-RM) (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of seven-week inter-repetition rest vs. traditional resistance training on upper body maximum strength, the rate of force development and triceps brachii muscle architecture. Sixteen male participants were equally assigned into the inter-repetition rest and the traditional group. In both groups, training included the bench press exercise performed with 4 sets of 6 maximum repetitions, two training sessions per week. Twenty-second inter-repetition rest was employed for the inter-repetition rest group only. Measurements before and after the training period included maximum strength in the bench press, the isometric upper body rate of force development and peak force and triceps brachii muscle architecture. Maximum strength increased significantly in both groups (inter-repetition rest group: 21.5 ± 5.7% vs. traditional group: 13.5 ± 7.2%, p < 0.05), however, the maximum strength percentage increase was greater in the inter-repetition rest group compared to the traditional group (p = 0.027). Upper body isometric peak force increased only after inter-repetition rest training (10.7 ± 10.3%, p = 0.009). The rate of force development remained unchanged for both groups (p > 0.05), although percentage changes in time frames of 0-80 and 0-100 milliseconds were greater for the inter-repetition rest group compared to the traditional training group (p = 0.024 and p = 0.044, respectively). Triceps brachii thickness increased similarly for both groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that inter-repetition rest may induce greater increases in maximum strength and the rate of force development compared to traditional training during the initial weeks of resistance training.
... The main limitations to the use of sRPE for training monitoring purposes are that RPE is mainly influenced by intensity rather than by volume. That means performing several repetitions or practising for a long time at low intensity is perceived to be easier than performing few repetitions at high intensities (Borresen and Lambert 2009;Sweet, Foster, McGuigan, et al. 2004). In addition, one may note that RPE already account for the time past at exercise in its definition. ...
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The first models of training effects on athletic performance emerged with the work of Banister and Calvert through the so-called Fitness-Fatigue model (FFM). One major drawback of FFMs is that the features stem from a single source of data. That is not in line with the existing consensus about a multifactorial aspect of athletic performance. Hence, multivariate modelling approaches from statistics and machine-learning (ML) emerged. A research issue arises from the quantification of training Loads (TL) in resistance training (RT) which lack of physiological evidence. In the first study, we provided a new method of TL quantification in RT based on physiological observations. To achieve that, we initially modelled the torque-velocity profiles of fifteen participants during an isokinetic leg extension task and assessed a set of physiological responses to various resistance exercises intensities. Each session was volume-equated according to the formulation of volume load (i.e. the product of the number of repetitions and the relative intensity). Higher led to greater muscular fatigue described by neuromuscular impairments. Conversely, systemic and local pulmonary responses (measured through oxygen uptake) and metabolic changes (according to blood lactate concentrations) were more significant at low intensities, suggesting different contributions of metabolic pathways. From these results, we provided a new index of TL based on the neuromuscu- lar impairments observed at exercise. We showed that to exponentially weight TL by the average rate decay of force development rate yielded better correla- tions with any of the significant physiological responses to exercise. In addition, information compressed within a principal component could be a valuable TL index. In the second study, we provided a robust modelling methodology that relies on model generalisation. Using data from elite speed skaters, we compared a dose-response model to regularisation methods and machine-learning models. Regularisation procedures provided the greatest performances in both generalisa- tion and accuracy. Also, we highlighted the pertinence of computing one model over the group of athletes instead of a model per athlete in a context of a small sample size. Finally, ML approaches could be a way of improving FFMs through ensemble learning methods. In the third study, we modelled acceleration-velocity directly from global posi- tioning system (GPS) measurements and attempted to predict the coefficients of the relationship between acceleration and velocity. First, a baseline model was defined by time-series forecasting using game data only. Then, we proceeded to multivariate modelling using commercial features. A regularised linear regression and a long short term memory neural network were compared. Finally, we extracted features directly from raw GPS data and compared these features to the commercial ones for prediction purposes. The results showed only slight differences between model accuracy, and no models significantly outperformed the baseline in the prediction task. Given the multi- factorial nature of athletic performance, using only GPS data for predicting such athletic performance criterion provided an acceptable accuracy. Using time-domain and frequency-domain features extracted from raw data led to similar performances compared to the commercial ones, despite being evidence-based. It suggests that raw data should be considered for future athletic performance and injury occurrence analysis. Lastly, we developed an athlete management system for long-distance runners. This application provided an athlete monitoring module and a predictive module based on a physiological model of running performance. A second development was realised under the SAP analytics cloud solution. Team management and automated dashboards were provided herein, in close collaboration with a professional Rugby team.
... Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was used to compare effort between the DCER and ISOK training modes [17,21,22,26,65]. Prior to the start of the study, subjects received instructions on how to use the RPE scale to rate their perceived exertion. ...
Article
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Purpose: To examine and compare the effects of three days of dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) and isokinetic (ISOK) training and subsequent detraining on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (TMCSA) and thigh lean mass (TLM), ISOK peak torque (PT), DCER strength, isometric force, muscle activation, and percent voluntary activation (%VA). Methods: Thirty-one apparently-healthy untrained men (mean ± SD age = 22.2 ± 4.2 years; body mass = 77.9 ± 12.9 kg; height = 173.9 ± 5.4 cm) were randomly assigned to a DCER training group (n = 11), ISOK training group (n = 10) or control (CONT) group (n = 10). Subjects visited the laboratory eight times. The first visit was a familiarization session, the second visit was a pre-training assessment, the subsequent three visits were for unilateral training of the quadriceps (if assigned to a training group), and the last three visits were the post-training assessments conducted at three days, one week, and two weeks after training ended. Results: DCER strength increased from pre- to post-training assessment 1 in both limbs for the DCER group only, and remained elevated during post-training assessments 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). In addition, surface EMG for the biceps femoris was higher at post-training assessment 3 than at the pre-training assessment, and post-training assessments 1 and 2 (P < 0.05). No other training-related changes were found. Conclusion: The primary finding of this study was that DCER strength of the trained and untrained limbs can be increased with three days of training. This has important implications for injury rehabilitation, where in the initial period post-injury strength gains on an injured limb can possibly be obtained with short-term contralateral resistance training.
... There are conflicting results in the current literature regarding the outcome of S-RPE compared to RPE-O. It has been suggested that mean RPE-O, taken immediately after each set, elicits significantly higher ratings than S-RPE [103,104]. Conversely, Day et al. [39] showed non-significant differences in RPE-O (taken immediately post set) and S-RPE (taken 30 min post exercise) at 50% and 70% 1RM, and no differences at 90% 1RM. Likewise, Costa et al. [105] showed no difference between RPE-O, collected immediately after the last set, and S-RPE collected 30 min post exercise. ...
Article
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Background The validity of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during aerobic training is well established; however, its validity during resistance exercise is less clear. This meta-analysis used the known relationships between RPE and exercise intensity (EI), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa), blood pressure (BP) and electromyography (EMG) to determine the convergent validity of RPE as a measure of resistance exercise intensity and physiological exertion, during different forms of resistance exercise. Additionally, this study aims to assess the effect of several moderator variables on the strength of the validity coefficients, so that clearer guidance can be given on the use of RPE during resistance exercise. Methods An online search of 4 databases and websites (PubMed, Web of Science SPORTDiscus and ResearchGate) was conducted up to 28 February 2020. Additionally, the reference lists of the included articles were inspected manually for further unidentified studies. The inclusion criteria were healthy participants of any age, a rating scale used to measure RPE, resistance exercise of any type, one cohort receiving no other intervention, and must present data from one of the following outcome measures: EI, HR, BP, EMG or BLa. Weighted mean effect sizes ( r ) were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the τ ² and I ² statistics. Moderator analysis was conducted using random-effects meta-regression. Results One-hundred and eighteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, with 75 studies (99 unique cohorts) included in the meta-analysis. The overall weighted mean validity coefficient was large (0.88; 95% CI 0.84–0.91) and between studies heterogeneity was very large ( τ ² = 0.526, I ² = 96.1%). Studies using greater workload ranges, isometric muscle actions, and those that manipulated workload or repetition time, showed the highest validity coefficients. Conversely, sex, age, training status, RPE scale used, and outcome measure no significant effect. Conclusions RPE provides a valid measure of exercise intensity and physiological exertion during resistance exercise, with effect sizes comparable to or greater than those shown during aerobic exercise. Therefore, RPE may provide an easily accessible means of prescribing and monitoring resistance exercise training. Trial Registration The systematic review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42018102640).
... Three drop jump and 1 drop land trial were randomized a priori together, not in blocks by condition, to keep the cognitively demanding conditions unanticipated. A rest period of 30-60 seconds was administered between jumps, and fatigue was assessed using the Borg Rate of Perceived Exertion scale to ensure subjects did not report above hard exertion (25,42,49). ...
Article
Holmes, HH, Downs Talmage, JL, Neely, KA, and Roper, JA. Cognitive demands influence drop jump performance and relationships with leg stiffness in healthy young adults. J Strength Cond Res 37(1): 74-83, 2023-Sports-relevant cognition influences neuromuscular control and sports performance. This study assessed the influence of cognition on (a) drop jump performance and (b) commonly researched relationships between lower extremity stiffness, ground contact time (GCT), peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and leg deformation. Active adults (n = 33, 13 men, 20 women, 21 ± 2 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.81 m, body mass = 70.5 ± 10.6 kg) participated in decisions to perform drop jumps or lands of a 30-cm box in 4 conditions: (a) standard, explicit instructions; (b) choice, internally driven decisions; and (c and d) visual and audio, external visual or audio cues reducing time for motor planning. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Ground contact time with audio (M ± SD: 0.62 ± 0.14 seconds) and visual cues (0.59 ± 0.10 seconds) was longer than standard instructions (0.54 ± 0.10 seconds). Standard condition jump height was higher (0.49 ± 0.10 m) than audio (0.435 ± 0.10 m) and choice (0.44 ± 0.09 m). Standard condition reactive strength index was higher (1.03 ± 0.35) than audio (0.76 ± 0.23), visual (0.82 ± 0.27), and choice (0.84 ± 0.33). Visual and audio conditions did not demonstrate significant relationships between leg stiffness and GCT, and relationships between vGRF and leg deformation were not significant with visual cues (p > 0.05). Cognition did not significantly change stiffness and vGRF, indicating alternative force strategies. Understanding how cognition influences performance can positively affect coaching practices, sports-specific assessments, and rehabilitation applications.
... e. %HRpeak), the number of accelerations and decelerations, the number of impacts at above 8 G, and high metabolic load distance (HMLD; distance covered when metabolic power showed a value > 25.5 W•kg − 1 ). Data from RPE was obtained 30 minutes after the end of each match [21], with 0 being equivalent to how they felt when sitting in a chair and a score of 10 being how they felt at the end of very intense exercise activity [22]. All matches were played on a natural grass surface with a pitch dimension of ~105 × 68 m. ...
Article
We examined the changes in performance during congested (two matches within a 7-day interval) and non-congested (one match within≥7-day interval) fixtures in 17 elite football (soccer) referees during 181 official matches. External demands comprised 20 GPS-based metrics. Internal load was assessed by heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. Compared to non-congested fixtures, referees decreased their running distance at 21–24 km·h−1 (p=0.027, effect size [ES]=0.41) and > 24 km·h−1 (p=0.037, ES=0.28), the number of sprints (p=0.012, ES=0.29), and distance sprinting (p=0.022, ES=0.29) in congested matches. Most play metrics were lower in congested versus non-congested fixtures with low-to-moderate ES. During the 2nd half of non-congested fixtures, referees covered larger distances at low-speed running (p=0.025, ES=0.47). Match congestion due to officiating two matches less than a week apart caused a notable decrease in match running activity in professional football referees, especially at above 21 km·h−1. These data reiterate the need for specific conditioning and post-match recovery strategies in high-level referees to ensure optimal judgment performance favouring the quality of the competition. Governing bodies should take these outcomes into account when designating referees for a match.
... Sportivii au fost impartiti si monitorizati pe durata intregului experiment. La fiecare ridicare s-au facut dua seturi de cate 10 repetitii de intensitate moderata de 6-7 pe scara modificata Borg de evaluare a efortului perceput-rating of perceived exertion-RPE, [11] care au fost apreciate conform instructiunilor publicate de Sweet et al [12] . Exercitiile au fost efectuate 3 zile pe saptaman timp de 7 saptamani. ...
Article
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Both functional and traditional resistance training increase muscular fitness. This study aims at highlighting the benefits of functional training compared to traditional training. Thus, we analyze the effects of functional training on muscular fitness in terms of endurance, agility, strength, flexibility and balance. A group of 40 martial arts practitioners, aged 18-30 years, was divided in a functional training experimental group (n = 20) and a traditional resistance control group (n = 20). Anthropometric measures were done to the test group of martial arts practitioners which were tested before and after the training study period of 7 weeks. The results showed an important improvement (p < 0.05) in endurance, push-ups, 1-RM bench press and squat, one-leg balance and back extension. Functional training group had a significant increase in flexibility and shoulder girth (p < 0.05). The main difference comparing the two test groups was in flexion time and forearm girth. In conclusion, functional training increases endurance, shoulder girth and flexibility
... Then, in order to define the TUT, the set duration in seconds was divided by the MNR by the following formula: TUT = durationset (sec) / MNR (repetitions). Regarding, Rating of Perceived Exertion per set (RPEset) and Session RPE (sRPE), the RPE was assessed with a CR-10 scale using the recommendations of Sweet et al. (21). Participants were asked to use an arbitrary unit (AU) on the scale to rate their overall effort for each RT protocol. ...
Article
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International Journal of Exercise Science 14(3): 1294-1304, 2021. The purpose of this study is to measure the acute effects of exercise variability on muscle thickness and physical performance after two resistance training (RT) protocols using the same or different exercises in recreationally-trained subjects. Fifteen resistance-trained men (23.1 ± 2.6 years, 83.4 ± 16.6 kg, 173.5 ± 8.3cm) performed one of two RT protocols: SINGLE: six sets of 10RM/two-minutes rest of the unilateral biceps curl exercise using cables or MIX: six sets of 10RM/two-minutes rest for the unilateral biceps curl exercises (cable: three sets and dumbbells: three sets, randomly). Muscle thickness (MT) and peak force (PF) were measured ten-minutes before (control), pre-RT session, and post-RT (immediately after and 15-minutes after). All acute RT variables were measured during both RT protocols: the maximal number of repetitions (MNR), the total number of repetitions (TNR), time under tension (TUT), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Two-way ANOVA (2 x 4) was used to test differences between RT protocol (SINGLE and MIX) and time (control, pre-test, post0, and post15) for MT and PF. Two-way ANOVAs (2 x 6) were used to test differences between RT protocol (SINGLE and MIX) and sets for MNR, RPEset, and TUT. For PF and MT, there were significant differences in time for both RT protocols (p < 0.05), however, there were not statistical differences between RT protocols. For MNR, RPEset, and TUT, there were significant differences in time (p < 0.05), however, there were not statistical differences between RT protocols. In conclusion, both RT protocols induced a similar increase in MT for elbow flexors and a reduction in peak force.
... As an example, if intended RPE from meso cycle 2 was 15 ± 1, and RPE was 13, a 10% increase in load was conducted in the following training session. The option for these training intensities for the GPE group was based on previous relationship between RPE and %1RM tests in a previous cross-sectional study [29]. Whenever participants were unable to complete exercise series, RPE 19 was recorded, and the load was reduced by 10% (apart from the last series). ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of training using loads from a repetition maximum value (%1RM) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elderly women. Methods: Twenty-five elderly women (60–75 years old) were randomly assigned to a group that trained using loads determined by 1RM test (G%; n = 12) or to a group that trained using loads determined by RPE (GPE; n = 13). Elderly women trained for 12 weeks using five exercises performed with 2–3 sets of 8–15 repetitions. Loads progressed from 45% to 75% of 1RM (G%) and from 13 to 18 from Rating Perceived Exertion of Borg Scale (GPE). The outcome measures, 1RM and maximum repetitions (RMs with 70% 1RM), were assessed before, between and after training programs. Results: Increased 1RM value and RMs were observed in both groups (20–42%, p < 0.001 and 56–76%, p < 0.001, respectively, for %G; and 17–56%, p < 0.001 and 47–106%, p < 0.001, respectively, for GPE), without differences between them. Conclusions: Prescribing loads using the RPE and 1RM might be similarly effective for training elderly women in order to promote strength gains. As a practical application, RPE could be an additional method to determine training loads. In spite of the promising results of the present study, it is not possible to state that the use of RPE is effective in monitoring loads during sub maximal strength training in elderly and more research must be carried out to confirm it.
... The original RPE scale features values ranging from 6 to 20 [33]; however, a simplified version of the scale includes values ranging from 0 to 10 [34]. Despite its aerobic training origins, this monitoring tool has also been used to assess the perception of resistance training intensity of each set [35,36] as well as entire resistance training sessions (i.e., session RPE) [37][38][39]. While the current authors are not discounting the usefulness of the longitudinal monitoring of session RPE, the following discussion focuses on RPE following individual sets and its relationship to estimated repetitions in reserve [40][41][42][43]. ...
Article
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Linear loading, the two-for-two rule, percent of one repetition maximum (1RM), RM zones, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), repetitions in reserve, set-repetition best, autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise (APRE), and velocity-based training (VBT) are all methods of adjusting resistance training intensity. Each method has advantages and disadvantages that strength and conditioning practitioners should be aware of when measuring and monitoring strength characteristics. The linear loading and 2-for-2 methods may be beneficial for novice athletes; however, they may be limited in their capacity to provide athletes with variation and detrimental if used exclusively for long periods of time. The percent of 1RM and RM zone methods may provide athletes with more variation and greater potential for strength–power adaptations; however, they fail to account for daily changes in athlete’s performance capabilities. An athlete’s daily readiness can be addressed to various extents by both subjective (e.g., RPE, repetitions in reserve, set-repetition best, and APRE) and objective (e.g., VBT) load adjustment methods. Future resistance training monitoring may aim to include a combination of measures that quantify outcome (e.g., velocity, load, time, etc.) with process (e.g., variability, coordination, efficiency, etc.) relevant to the stage of learning or the task being performed. Load adjustment and monitoring methods should be used to supplement and guide the practitioner, quantify what the practitioner ‘sees’, and provide longitudinal data to assist in reviewing athlete development and providing baselines for the rate of expected development in resistance training when an athlete returns to sport from injury or large training load reductions.
... ~15-min after the end of each training session (1-2 per day), players were required to indicate their rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to the strength and conditioning trainer using the CR10 scale. The internal training load of each training session was obtained by multiplying the RPE by the duration of the training session (resulting in sRPE)13 . In general, this procedure was performed in the morning and afternoon training sessions, so the daily internal training load was obtained by the summation of both values. ...
Article
Background: This study aimed to quantify internal training load and changes in vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity of professional volleyball players during the preseason, and to explore relationships between players` physical qualities at the beginning of the preseason with internal training load accumulated during the first two weeks of training. Methods: Sixteen male professional volleyball players from a team participating in the Brazilian National Super League took part in the study. Before and after a 10-week preseason, their vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity were assessed by squat jump, countermovement jump without and with arm swing, and YoYo endurance test, level 1. The internal training load was quantified by the session rating of perceived exertion method. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance, magnitude-based inference and Pearson's correlation. Results: The internal training load varied between 1388 ± 111 a.u. and 3852 ± 149 a.u., and performance in all the tests was positively changed (small to moderate effect sizes) at end of preseason training. Significant (P < 0.05) very large and large correlations were observed between squat jump (r = -0.81) and YoYo endurance test (r = -0.64) performances and internal training load accumulated during the first two training weeks, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the internal training load and training strategies undertaken by the investigated team were effective to improve players` vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity. Coaches need to improve these physical qualities of volleyball players in order to improve their tolerance to training.
... Training load data were collected by club conditioning staff using the session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) method [26]. This measure was chosen for its ease of use, applicability to multiple session types, and widespread use in professional rugby [27,28]. Within 30 minutes of each session, participants were asked to rate their session (1-10) using a modified CR-10 Borg scale [26,29]. ...
Article
Training load monitoring has grown in recent years with the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) widely used to aggregate data to inform decision-making on injury risk. Several methods have been described to calculate the ACWR and numerous methodological issues have been raised. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the ACWR and injury in a sample of 696 players from 13 professional rugby clubs over two seasons for 1718 injuries of all types and a further analysis of 383 soft tissue injuries specifically. Of the 192 comparisons undertaken for both injury groups, 40 % (all injury) and 31 % (soft tissue injury) were significant. Furthermore, there appeared to be no calculation method that consistently demonstrated a relationship with injury. Some calculation methods supported previous work for a “sweet spot” in injury risk, while a substantial number of methods displayed no such relationship. This study is the largest to date to have investigated the relationship between the ACWR and injury risk and demonstrates that there appears to be no consistent association between the two. This suggests that alternative methods of training load aggregation may provide more useful information, but these should be considered in the wider context of other established risk factors.
... Thirty minutes after the end of every training session, participants provided their rating of perceived exertion 1-10 scale score (RPE) [33], for the evaluation of the training intensity. An RPE score lower or equal to 7 (very hard range), signified a 2.5% load increase for the next training session for the IRRG [34,35]. By the end of the current training intervention program, no significant difference was observed in mean session RPE (IRRG: 7.8 ± 0.3 vs. TG: 8.1 ± 0.3, p = 0.419, η 2 = 0.047, Figure 2) and in mean total training volume (IRRG: 5090.1 ± 566.2 kg vs. TG: 5532.5 ± 451.4 kg, p = 0.106, η 2 = 0.176, Figure 3), between IRRG and TG. ...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of seven weeks inter-repetition rest vs. traditional strength training on lower body strength, rate of force development (RFD), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture. Sixteen male participants were assigned into two groups: the inter-repetition rest (IRRG) and the traditional (TG) group. Both groups performed the leg press exercise with four sets of six maximum repetitions (RM) for two training sessions per week. IRRG added a 20 s inter-repetition rest period between single repetitions. Before and after the training period, 1-RM in leg press, isometric leg press RFD, and peak force (PF), VL muscle architecture, vastus intermedius (VI) thickness, and quadriceps’ cross sectional area (CSA) with ultrasonography, were measured. Two way ANOVA for repeated measures was used for statistics. One-RM strength increased similarly for both groups (p < 0.05), while percentage increases in RFD were greater for IRRG compared to TG (p < 0.05). Isometric PF was increased similarly for both groups (p < 0.05). VL and VI thickness as well as CSA of the quadriceps increased similarly in both groups, while VL fascicle length increased more following IRRG compared to TG (IRRG: 4.8 ± 6.1% vs. TG: −3.9 ± 5.4%, p = 0.001). These results suggest that 20 s inter-repetition rest during strength training may effectively increase lower body explosive strength and muscle fascicle length without compromising muscle hypertrophy.
... Although RPE by itself has shown to be a reliable tool for ITL quantification in resistance exercises (Bazyler et al., 2017;McGuigan et al., 2004); We have opted for the use of the s-RPE which also incorporates the training duration; as this method has been used successfully in strength sports (Day et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004). From this we were able to identify the maximum (4404 AU, in OP) and minimum values (1950 AU, in TP) in our athlete. ...
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Tapering is used to maximize performance and reduce fatigue levels before athletic competitions. However, scientific evidence regarding Paralympic athletes is scarce. Moreover, no study has assessed the effects of tapering practices on performance in a world champion female Paralympic shot putter (FPSP). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short tapering period on the performance of an elite FPSP. A world champion FPSP (sport class F54; age 42.2 y; body mass 74 kg; height 1.67 m) was monitored during both overload (2 weeks) and tapering (2 weeks; training volume and intensity decreased) blocks previous to Dubai 2019 World Para Athletics Championships. The internal training load (ITL) (through session rating of perceived exertion) and self-reported wellbeing (using a questionnaire) were assessed daily. Shot put performance was assessed at the beginning and after tapering. The ITL decreased 37.9% with tapering, shot put performance increased 7.6%, there were no differences between weekly wellness scores. No significant correlations were found between ITL and wellbeing indicators. It was concluded that two weeks of tapering induced a rather large improvement in shot put performance. Surprisingly, self-reported wellbeing did not improve with taper as expected.
... Internal training load was quantified by analyzing the RPE of each training session. The RPE value was multiplied by the number of repetitions [39,40] to estimate the RPE-derived internal training load (sRPE-TL). Flywheel leg-curl. ...
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The primary aim of the present study was to analyze mechanical responses during inertial knee- and hip-dominant hamstring strengthening exercises (flywheel leg-curl and hip-extension in conic-pulley), and the secondary aim was to measure and compare regional muscle use using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mean power, peak power, mean velocity, peak velocity and time in the concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) phases were measured. The transverse relaxation time (T2) shift from pre- to post-exercise were calculated for the biceps femoris long (BFl) and short (BFs) heads, semitendinosus (ST) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at proximal, middle and distal areas of the muscle length. Peak and mean power in flywheel leg-curl were higher during the CON than the ECC phase (p<0.01). ECC peak power was higher than CON phase (p<0.01) in conic-pulley hip-extension exercise, while mean power was higher during the CON than ECC phase (p<0.01). Flywheel leg-curl showed a higher T2 values in ST and BFs and BFl (p<0.05), while the conic-pulley hip-extension had a higher T2 values in the proximal region of the ST and BFl (p<0.05). In conclusion, ECC overload was only observed in peak power during the conic-pulley hip-extension exercise. Flywheel leg-curl involved a greater overall use of the 4 muscle bellies, more specifically in the ST and BFs, with a selective augmented activity (compared with the conic-pulley) in the 3 regions of the BFs, while conic-pulley hip-extension exercise selectively targeted the proximal and medial regions of the BFl. Physiotherapists and strength and conditioning coaches should consider this when optimizing the training and recovery process for hamstring muscles, especially after injury.
... The total number of repetitions (TNr) of each rT exercise was counted for further analysis; the maximal number of repetitions (MNr) of each set was counted for each rT exercise; the time under tension (TuT) was measured by a chronometer during each set for both rT exercise. Then, in order to define the TUT the total time per set was divided by the MNr in each set by the following formula: TUT=total time (-sec)/MNR; rating of perceived exertion per set (rpe set ) and session rpe (srpe): the rpe was assessed with a cr-10 scale using the recommendations of Sweet et al. 15 Subjects were asked to use an arbitrary unit (au) on the scale to rate their overall effort for each rT exercise. a rating of 0 was associated with no effort and a rating of 10 was associated with maximal effort and the most stressful exercise ever performed. ...
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects on muscle thickness, arm circumference, and peak force between unilateral seated row and unilateral biceps curl exercises for elbow flexors after a RT session in recreationally-trained subjects. MeThodS: fourteen resistance-trained men (25.3±2.5years, 76.5±6.4kg, 174.6±7cm) performed 6 sets of 10rM and 2-min rest for one of two exercises (unilateral seated row exercise, uSr or unilateral biceps curl, uBc). Muscle thickness (MT), arm circumference (ac), and peak force (pf) were measured before 10-min (control), pre-rT session and post-rT (immediately after, 15-min and 30-min). all acute rT variables were measured during both exercises: maximal number of repetitions (MNr), total number of repetitions (TNr), time under tension (TuT), rating of perceived exertion (rpe). Two-way aNoVas were used to test differences between exercises and moments with an alpha of 5%. RESULTS: For PF, there was a significant difference between pre-and post-0 for UBC and USR (P<0.001). For AC, there were significant differences between pretest × post-0-min for both exercises (P<0.001). For MT, there were significant differences between pretest × post 0-min (P<0.001), pretest × post 15-min (P<0.001) for both exercises and pretest × post 30-min only for UBC (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Both exercises induced similar increases in AC and MT for elbow flexors and reduction in peak force.
... The total number of repetitions (TNr) of each rT exercise was counted for further analysis; the maximal number of repetitions (MNr) of each set was counted for each rT exercise; the time under tension (TuT) was measured by a chronometer during each set for both rT exercise. Then, in order to define the TUT the total time per set was divided by the MNr in each set by the following formula: TUT=total time (-sec)/MNR; rating of perceived exertion per set (rpe set ) and session rpe (srpe): the rpe was assessed with a cr-10 scale using the recommendations of Sweet et al. 15 Subjects were asked to use an arbitrary unit (au) on the scale to rate their overall effort for each rT exercise. a rating of 0 was associated with no effort and a rating of 10 was associated with maximal effort and the most stressful exercise ever performed. ...
... No data support that 6, 8, and 10RMs are decreasingly fatiguing or increasingly stimulative. All data supporting load as driving fatigue compares high-load sets near failure with lower-load sets that are not (5,6,13,28). The authors state repetitions in reserve (RIR) be considered the same for comparative purposes, which warrants assessing studies with the same number of sets, at similar RIRs, but different repetition zones. ...
... e serviram para comparar as sessões sem e com a supervisão do personal trainer. Trinta minutos após o término de ambas as sessões, a percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) foi avaliada por meio da escala CR-10 de acordo com as recomendações de Sweet et al. 13 . Os participantes reportaram o esforço geral da sessão através de uma escala de 0 a 10 unidades arbitrárias, sendo o valor zero associado ao repouso/nenhum esforço e 10 o maior esforço possível em uma sessão de TF. ...
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Supervised resistance training may affect several acute variables such as volume load (VL), the maximum number of repetitions (NRM), time under tension (TUT), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in resistance trained-men. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the personal trainer’s supervision on a resistance training session in resistance trained-men. Fifteen resistance-trained men (20,0±2 years; 176,0±4 cm; 79,3±4,7 kg) performed two training sessions composed of whole-body exercises. In the session without personal trainer’s supervision (NPT) the subjects self-selected their loads for each exercise and were oriented to “select a load typically employed to perform 10 repetitions”; in the session with personal trainer’s supervision (WPT) the subjects self-selected their loads for each exercise and were oriented to “perform maximum effort”. It was observed greater VL (P<0,001, Δ%=30), NRM (P<0,001, Δ%=29), TUT (P=0,003, Δ%=21), and RPE (P<0,001, Δ%=29) in the resistance training session WPT. The present study concluded that supervised sessions positively affect resistance training variables.
... During lifts of their partners, male dancers undertake L5/S1 compression forces in excess of 4000 N, and shear forces in excess of 500 N (Alderson et al., 2009). In this regard, elements of male roles bear a resemblance to resistance exercise, and could therefore be expected to result in differing perceptions of effort (Sweet et al., 2004). Pointe work on the other hand, is incomparable to any other exercise modality; given the large pressures on the first and second toes, the perceived effort may be inconsistent with the dancer's HR (Salzano et al., 2019). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity of session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) with objective measures of internal training load (TL) in professional classical ballet dancers. Heart rate and s-RPE data were collected in 22 professional classical ballet dancers across a total of 218 ballet class or rehearsal sessions. Eleven participants completed at least 9 sessions, and were therefore included in analyses of individual relationships between s-RPE and objective measures. To calculate s-RPE, the session duration was multiplied by the RPE, measured using the modified Borg CR-10 scale. The Edwards summated heart rate zones (Edwards TRIMP) and Banister training impulse (Banister TRIMP) methods were used as criterion measures of internal TL. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to determine intra-individual relationships between s-RPE and objective measures. Repeated measures correlations were used to identify intra-individual relationships common across the cohort. Positive linear relationships were seen between s-RPE and objective measures across all session types [Edwards TRIMP: rrm (195) = 0.81, p < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: rrm (195) = 0.79, p < 0.001], in ballet class [Edwards TRIMP: rrm (58) = 0.64, p < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: rrm (58) = 0.59, p < 0.001], and in rehearsals [Edwards TRIMP: rrm (119) = 0.82, p < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: rrm (119) = 0.80, p < 0.001], as well as across both males [Edwards TRIMP: rrm (136) = 0.82, p < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: rrm (136) = 0.80, p < 0.001], and females [Edwards TRIMP: rrm (57) = 0.80, p < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: rrm (57) = 0.78, p < 0.001]. Intra-individual correlation coefficients ranged from 0.46–0.96 [Edwards TRIMP: mean r = 0.81 ± 0.11, p = 0.051 – < 0.001; Banister TRIMP: mean r = 0.78 ± 0.14, p = 0.13– < 0.001]. These results demonstrate that s-RPE is a valid and practical method for measuring internal TL in professional classical ballet dancers.
... Internal training load is often measured using the session rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) scale (10). Additionally, s-RPE has been used to measure the various training activities that are undertaken by team-sport athletes, such as resistance training (36), pitch-based conditioning and skills-based sessions (2,38). Within Gaelic football, s-RPE has been found to have a moderate to very large correlation with GPS total distance (r = 0.90 90% CL: 0.89 -0.93; large) and high speed running (r = 0.48, 90% CL: 0.41 -0.51; moderate) (21). ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in training load and wellness across a season in an elite Gaelic football team. Weekly external and internal load were obtained from thirty elite Gaelic football players (25.7 ± 3.5 years, 183.0 ± 4.7 cm, 84.4 ± 6.5 kg) across a full season (33 weeks, 8 seasonal blocks). External training loads (TL) of total distance and high-speed running distance were measured using 4-Hz GPS units. Internal TL, assessed via s-RPE, was recorded for each training activity and game. Psychometric data were recorded each morning upon rising using an athlete monitoring system, which calculated a readiness to train (RTT) score for each player. Results: Across both external TL variables, independent paired comparisons found a large difference between Pre-Season 2 and In-Season 4 GPS scores relative to In-Season 6. For total s-RPE, large differences were found between Pre-Season 2 and In-Season 4 in comparison to In-Season 2, In-Season 5 and In-Season 6. There were significant differences in RTT across the eight seasonal blocks (p<.001, ES= .363), with mean scores at their lowest during Pre-Season 1, Pre-Season 2 and In-Season 4, reflecting the TL findings above. This study provides valuable information regarding periodised placement of, and volume in, load prescription across a season in elite Gaelic footballers. External and internal load was at its greatest in the pre-ompetition preparation blocks (Pre-Season 2 and In-Season 4), where RTT was recorded at its lowest, demonstrating that perceptual ratings of wellness are sensitive to changes in both external and internal training load. Key Words - GPS, s-RPE, readiness to train, RTT, wellness, internal load, external load.
... A multitude of studies have reported the reliability and validity of using RPE and sRPE across a range of training modalities (Foster, 1998;Impellizzeri et al., 2004;Sweet et al., 2004). This measure can be used to create a number of metrics such as session load (sRPE × duration in minutes), daily load (sum of all session loads for that day), weekly training load (sum of all daily training loads for entire week), monotony (standard deviation of weekly training load), and strain (daily or weekly training load × monotony) (Foster, 1998). ...
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College students are required to manage a variety of stressors related to academic, social, and financial commitments. In addition to the burdens facing most college students, collegiate athletes must devote a substantial amount of time to improving their sporting abilities. The strength and conditioning professional sees the athlete on nearly a daily basis and is able to recognize the changes in performance and behavior an athlete may exhibit as a result of these stressors. As such, the strength and conditioning professional may serve an integral role in the monitoring of these stressors and may be able to alter training programs to improve both performance and wellness. The purpose of this paper is to discuss stressors experienced by collegiate athletes, developing an early detection system through monitoring techniques that identify the detrimental effects of stress and discuss appropriate stress management strategies for this population.
... Training load data were collected by members of the conditioning staff and was captured using the session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) method (Foster et al., 2001). This measure was chosen for its ease in use, applicability to multiple session types, and widespread use across professional rugby clubs (Sweet, Foster, McGuigan and Brice, 2004;Comyns and Hannon, 2018). The inclusion of 13 clubs across two seasons also dictated the use of a measure that was universally captured using the same methods, while the scientific validity and reliability of the measure has previously been demonstrated in multiple sports (Haddad et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
The rate of injury in professional rugby union is high compared to that of other team sports. As such, the need for injury mitigation strategies is evident. One emerging approach is the appropriate management of player load, with multiple studies across different sports demonstrating the association between load and injury risk. The aim of this thesis, therefore, is to build upon the small amount of work undertaken in rugby union to further our understanding of this modifiable risk factor to aid governing bodies and club practitioners make informed decisions around player loading patterns.
... Self-reported internal game load was assessed using sRPE at the end of each match. For this measurement, RPE was assessed using a 1-to-10-point scale and participants were informed that a score of 0 was equivalent to how they felt when sitting in a chair and a score of 10 was equivalent to how they felt at the end of very intense exercise activity [28]. Then, RPE was multiplied by the respective match duration, thus reporting the match load (i.e., sRPE) in arbitrary units (A.U.) [29]. ...
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To investigate the effects of a badminton competition with 2 matches in a day on hip strength and range of motion (ROM) and exercise-induced muscle damage in elite junior badminton players. Twenty players (age: 17±0.8 years; body mass: 62.9±6.5 kg, height: 173.8±8.9 cm) participated in this study. Passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER), abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) hip ROM, isometric hip ADD and ABD muscle strength, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) height and blood creatine kinase concentration (CK) were measured before and after a badminton competition during an international tournament. Blood samples were collected 24 h after the end of the last match. Compared to baseline values, hip IR and ER ROM were significantly decreased at post-competition in the dominant (IR=-9.0%; p=0.007 and ER=-15.2%; p=0.002) and non-dominant limbs (IR=-9.08%; p=0.004 and ER=-19.4%; p<0.001). In contrast, hip ADD (13.5%;p<0.001) and ABD (14.6%; p<0.001) strength increased significantly after the competition in the dominant limb and ABD strength increased significantly in the non-dominant limb (9.2%; p=0.001). From baseline values, CK increased after the competition (430.1%) and values remained elevated over baseline values 24 h later (160.4%). Although hip muscle strength increased, a badminton competition with two consecutive matches reduced hip ROM and increased blood CK concentration. This study suggests the necessity of investigating recovery strategies after a badminton competition to return hip ROM to basal values before the next day of the competition.
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Inevitably, the inadequate practice of sports is associated with the appearance of injuries, and as the number of people who practice sports increases, these figures continue to rise. Field hockey is not exempt from this, due to the popularity and heyday of recent years, thanks to the sporting achievements of the national teams. It is important to highlight the change in the 2016 regulation, where the matches had a duration of 2 halves of 35' with 15' rest, to go on to play 4 quarters of 15' with 2' rest between the 1st and 2nd quarters and 3rd-4th, and 5´ between the 2nd and 3rd quarter. This made the intensity of the matches and, consequently, of the training sessions, greater and the players exposed to a greater number of injuries. Due to this, a complementary training proposal will be made. Key Word: Adjuvant Training; Field hockey; Injuries; Training
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There is no standard physical exercise protocol that can guarantee adequate physical and working efficiency of police officers. However, integrated circuit training can be used to train more physical abilities by optimizing timing and promoting well-being and performance in job tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this preliminary study was to monitor and evaluate the physiological and perceptual impact of multifunctional tactical training (MTT) and to develop it as a specific method for increasing the physical and working abilities of the Mobile Units police officers. A total of 4 police officers (of different ages, seniority, and anthropometric characteristics) voluntarily participated in this study. They used the MTT method consisting of a series of multiple exercises that are specific and functional for the Mobile Units personnel and designed to develop strength, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, aerobic and anaerobic power, reaction time, coordination, dynamic balance, and agility. The MTT method was developed according to the principles of individualization, progressivity, variety and multilaterality of the load. Small tools and materials from riot gear were used. During the MTT session (approximately 40 min duration), the police officers' heart rate was constantly monitored, and the rate of perceived exertion was measured immediately before and after each execution of the circuit, which was performed three times. The obtained results show that MTT is a safe and effective method for training the cardiorespiratory system. In addition, functional exercises are necessary to prepare the police officers to efficiently perform tactical tasks while preventing the risk of injury. Further studies are needed to improve the MTT method with an objective of continuous physical-motor education among police officers.
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“Load Management” has become a common term used in basketball, particularly in the National Basketball Association (NBA). While the media and spectators may interpret load management as removing players from competition (or training) and providing them with more rest, the reality is that when applied appropriately, well-established training principles provide players with the opportunity to perform at a high level, more often. This chapter discusses the concept of “load” and the capacity of athletes to tolerate load. Importantly, factors other than load that impact on load tolerance (e.g. sleep, travel and psychological stress) are discussed. The latest evidence surrounding training load, injury and performance is summarised and practical examples of how to interpret athlete management data are provided.
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The present randomized cross-over controlled study aimed to compare the rate of recovery from a strength-oriented exercise session vs. a power-oriented session with equal work. Sixteen strength-trained individuals conducted one strength-oriented session (five repetitions maximum (RM)) and one power-oriented session (50% of 5RM) in randomized order. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, and squat and bench press peak power and estimated 1RMs were combined with measures of rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceived recovery status (PRS), before, immediately after and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Both sessions induced trivial to moderate performance decrements in all variables. Small reductions in CMJ height were observed immediately after both the strength-oriented session (7 ± 6%) and power-oriented session (5 ± 5%). Between 24 and 48 h after both sessions CMJ and SJ heights and 20 m sprint were back to baseline. However, in contrast to the power-oriented session, recovery was not complete 48 h after the strength-oriented session, as indicated by greater impairments in CMJ eccentric and concentric peak forces, SJ rate of force development (RFD) and squat peak power. In agreement with the objective performance measurements, RPE and PRS ratings demonstrated that the strength-oriented session was experienced more strenuous than the power-oriented session. However, these subjective measurements agreed poorly with performance measurements at the individual level. In conclusion, we observed a larger degree of neuromuscular impairment and longer recovery times after a strength-oriented session than after a power-oriented session with equal total work, measured by both objective and subjective assessments. Nonetheless, most differences were small or trivial after either session. It appears necessary to combine several tests and within-test analyses (e.g., CMJ height, power and force) to reveal such differences. Objective and subjective assessments of fatigue and recovery cannot be used interchangeably; rather they should be combined to give a meaningful status for an individual in the days after a resistance exercise session. Subjects Anatomy and Physiology, Kinesiology
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Background: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects on muscle thickness, arm circumference, and peak force between unilateral seated row and unilateral biceps curl exercises for elbow flexors after a RT session in recreationally-trained subjects. Methods: Fourteen resistance-trained men (25.3 ± 2.5years, 76.5± 6.4kg, 174.6 ± 7cm) performed 6 sets of 10RM and 2-min rest for one of two exercises (unilateral seated row exercise, USR or unilateral biceps curl, UBC). Muscle thickness (MT), arm circumference (AC), and peak force (PF) were measured before 10-min (control), pre-RT session and post- RT (immediately after, 15-min and 30-min). All acute RT variables were measured during both exercises: maximal number of repetitions (MNR), total number of repetitions (TNR), time under tension (TUT), rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Two-way ANOVAs were used to test differences between exercises and moments with an alpha of 5%. Results: For PF, there was a significant difference between pre- and post-0 for UBC and USR (p<0.001). For AC, there were significant differences between pre-test x post-0-min for both exercises (p<0.001). For MT, there were significant differences between pre-test x post 0-min (p<0.001), pre-test x post 15-min (p<0.001) for both exercises and pre-test x post 30- min only for UBC (p=0.006). Conclusions: Both exercises induced similar increases in AC and MT for elbow flexors and reduction in peak force.
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Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is ranked as the 11th highest contributor to global disability. Exercise is a core treatment in osteoarthritis. The model for physical activity–related health competence describes possibilities to empower patients to perform physical exercises in the best possible health-promoting manner while taking into account their own physical condition. Face-to-face supervision is the gold standard for exercise guidance. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether instruction and guidance via a digital app is not inferior to supervision by a physiotherapist with regard to movement quality, control competence for physical training, and exercise-specific self-efficacy. Methods Patients with clinically diagnosed hip osteoarthritis were recruited via print advertisements, emails and flyers. The intervention consisted of two identical training sessions with one exercise for mobility, two for strength, and one for balance. One session was guided by a physiotherapist and the other was guided by a fully automated tablet computer-based app. Both interventions took place at a university hospital. Outcomes were assessor-rated movement quality, and self-reported questionnaires on exercise-specific self-efficacy and control competence for physical training. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. One sequence started with the app in the first session followed by the physiotherapist in the second session after a minimum washout phase of 27 days (AP group) and the other sequence occurred in the reverse order (PA group). Noninferiority was defined as a between-treatment effect (gIG)
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Despite the athlete monitoring cycle becoming increasingly popular within sport, very little evidence exists with regards to the relationships present between its measures or its relationship with illness incidence in youth athletes. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the true predictive ability of an integrated athlete monitoring cycle model, incorporating measures of the training dose (training load), training recovery (sleep) and training response (wellness questionnaires (DWB and PRS), countermovement jumps and salivary IgA (s-IgA)), with regards to illness incidence in youth athletes. Study 1 outlined the reliability and usefulness of DWB (poor/marginal), PRS (poor/marginal) and CMJ (good/useful). Despite study 1's findings, study 2 showed that CMJ was not suitable for use as a training response measure in youth athletes. Studies 3 and 4 supported the use of the sleep quality subscale as a training recovery measure rather than within the DWB training response measure (which was reduced to the four item DWBno-sleep). The overall DWBno-sleep score, fatigue, stress and mood were statistically related to the training recovery, whereas only muscle soreness was related to the training dose. Statistically, PRS was related to both the training dose and recovery. Despite the presence of these statistical relationships, only the effect of training load, including match exposure, on PRS was practically interpretable. Unfortunately, technical issues prevented the true predictive ability of an integrated athlete monitoring cycle model with regards to illness incidence being tested. However, study 5 showed that s-IgA measures could not accurately predict illness in youth athletes. Furthermore, analysis of the longitudinal trends of s-IgA, DWBno-sleep and PRS showed that the subjective fatigue/wellness measures were more responsive to qualitative events than objective measures of immune function. Overall, the results of this thesis provide support for the use of the integrated athlete monitoring cycle in youth athletes, particularly when subjective training response measures are included. However, future research needs to consider the true predictive ability of the proposed integrated athlete monitoring cycle model with regards to illness incidence.
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This study was designed to show the general increase in perceived exertion, perception of aches or pain in the legs, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate, and the covariance between these variables during bicycle ergometer work, and to describe individual differences both within and between power levels by testing a large group (28 male students). Estimates of perceived exertion and feelings of aches or pain in the legs were recorded using Borg's category-ratio scale (CR-10). The subjects were tested with a stepwise increase of power levels with 40 W increments up to a voluntary maximum. Though HR increases fairly linearly with power, the other variables follow positively accelerating functions with exponents of about 1.6–2 for the perceptual variables, and an exponent of about 3 for blood lactate. The results from the 8 most fit subjects could be described in the same way as for the whole group except for blood lactate, where there was a need to include a threshold value (b), that, together with a rest value (a), shows the starting point of the function (R=a+c(W−W 0)n ). The data support the idea that a combination of heart rate and blood lactate is a better predictor of perceived exertion and feelings of aches and pain in the legs, than is each of the single physiological variables taken alone.
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This study investigated the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale to quantify exercise intensity during high-intensity (H), moderate-intensity (M), and low-intensity (L) resistance training. Nine men (24.7 +/- 3.8 years) and 10 women (22.1 +/- 2.6 years) performed each intensity twice. Each protocol consisted of 5 exercises: back squat, bench press, overhead press, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown. The H consisted of 1 set of 4-5 repetitions at 90% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The M consisted of 1 set of 10 repetitions at 70% 1RM, and the L consisted of 1 set of 15 repetitions at 50% 1RM. RPE was measured following the completion of each set and 30 minutes postexercise (session RPE). Session RPE was higher for the H than M and L exercise bouts (p < or = 0.05). Performing fewer repetitions at a higher intensity was perceived to be more difficult than performing more repetitions at a lower intensity. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE was 0.88. The session RPE is a reliable method to quantify various intensities of resistance training.