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The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing


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This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L). Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at $\5^\circ$ C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at $-20^\circ$ C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were $7.2 \pm 0.5$ mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to $4.3 \pm 0.1$ mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and $3.7 \pm 0.2$ mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries.
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© 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2004:5 (2004) 248–252 PII. S1110724304406123
The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and
Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing
Virachnee Lohachoompol, George Srzednicki,
and John Craske
Food Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry,
The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Received 26 April 2004; revised 11 June 2004; accepted 29 June 2004
This study examined the eects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blue-
berries (Vaccinium cory mbosum L). Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5
C while frozen samples were kept for up to three
months at
C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other
involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2
± 0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin
3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh s amples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were
significantly reduced to 4.3
± 0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7 ± 0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic
treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater eect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast,
the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the
antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant dierence between fresh, dried, and
frozen blueberries.
Anthocyanins, natur al pigments which are respon-
sible for the blue, purple, violet, and red colours of
fruit, are one of the major flavonoid classes [1]. The
major sources of anthocyanins in edible plants are
families Vitaceae (grape) and Rosaceae (cherry, plum,
raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, apple, peach, etc.).
Other plant families which contain anthocyanin pig-
ments are Solanaceae (tamarillo and eggplant), Sax-
ifragaceae (red and black currants), Cruciferae (red
cabbage), and Ericaceae (blueberry and cranberry)
[2]. Blueberries contain the following anthocyanins:
malvidin 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-galactoside, del-
phinidin 3-arabinoside, petunidin 3-galactoside, petuni-
din 3-arabinoside, malvidin 3-arabino-side, cyanidin 3-
glucoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-arabinoside,
delphinidin 3-glucoside, malvidin 3-glucoside, peoni-
din 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-galactoside, peonidin 3-
arabinoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside [3].
Flavonoids such as flavones, isoflavones, flavonones,
anthocyanins, and catechins have strong antioxidant ca-
pacity [4]. These compounds can be found in cereal
grains, tubers, tea, coee, fruits, and vegetables. The
berries, such as blueberries, are significant sources of an-
thocyanins. Methanol extracts from Vaccinium angusti-
folium L and cultivar Fundy possess higher antioxidant
activity than sweet cherry, potato (purple), wheat germ,
and ginseng root [5].
The consumption of wild blueberries, a food source
with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated
with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxi-
dant status [6]. Anthocyanins in grape juice reduced in
vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
[7]. Potential bioavailability, in humans, of several an-
thocyanins from red wine was tested. Within 12 hours
after 300 mL of wine consumption, 1.5%–5.1% of the
ingested anthocyanins were found in urine. Two com-
pounds among the wine anthocyanins were unchanged
while the others, which were considered by the authors,
seemed to have undergone molecular modifications [8].
Frozen, liquid-extracted, and freeze-dried powders, made
from wild blueberries, were used in a study of bioac tive
properties, which included antioxidant activity, cardio-
protective capacity, and cancer chemoprevention activity.
Many fractions of the extr acts showed antioxidant activi-
ties, especially those rich in anthocyanins and proantho-
cyanidins [9]. Anthocyanins have been found to signifi-
cantly suppress the growth of cultured tumour cells and
have been shown to have greater inhibitor y eect than
other flavonoids [10, 11].
Blueberries are commercialised in dierent ways,
mainly as fresh or frozen products. Freezing and dry-
ing are two possible methods to preserve blueberries but
the severit y of both processes might destroy anthocyanins
or their antioxidant eects. Blueberries are known for
their bioa ctive properties such as antioxidant activity,
cardiovascular protection, antidiabetic properties, vision
2004:5 (2004) Anthocyanins in Blueberr ies and Their Antioxidant Eect 249
improvement properties, and inhibition of carcinogenesis
and mutagenesis [12]. Thus, the aim of this study was to
determine and to compare total anthocyanins and their
antioxidant eects in frozen or dried blueberries and to
compare them with the values found in fresh berries.
Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L) were
supplied by Blueberry Farms of Australia P/L, Corindi
Beach, New South Wales, Australia.
Fresh blueberries were kept at 5
before extraction (FR2). Several batches of blueberries
were frozen and kept at
C up to 3 months. The sam-
ples were taken and examined at 1-month (FZ1M) and 3-
month (FZ3M) storage. There were 2 replicates for each
sampling point.
Two batches of blueberries weighing 1 kg each were
dried. The first batch, PT, had been treated with 60% w/w
sugar and 1% w/w NaCl solution for 4 hours and slowly
dried in a cabinet dryer at 90
by 70
C for 120 min-
utes. The second batch, UN, was dried directly without
any pretreatment using the same temperature profile.
Dry matter was determined by drying 5–10 g blue-
berry sample in a vacuum oven at 70
C, 85 kPa for 72
hours. The dried blueberries were weighed again and the
dried matter that remained was determined. Total antho-
cyanins and antioxidant eect from dried samples (UN
and PT) were compared with those of frozen and fresh
Anthocyanin extraction
Samples weighing 20 g of fresh, frozen, and propor-
tionally reduced amounts (based on moisture loss during
drying) of dried blueberr ies were blended in a food pro-
cessor for 1 minute with 150 mL of a mixture of methanol,
acetic acid, and distilled water (M:A:W) at a ratio of
25:1:24. Frozen blueberries were thawed in a refrigera-
tor (at about 5
C) overnight prior to the extraction. Half
of the well-blended solution was centrifuged at 21 900 g
(12 000 rpm) for 20 minutes at 20
C. The remaining
residue from centrifugation after the supernatant was re-
moved was mixed thoroughly with 75 mL M:A:W, cen-
trifuged, and the super natant was separated. Each sample
was extr acted 3 times. The clear liquid from the 3 extrac-
tions was evaporated under vacuum at 35
C. The residue
from vacuum evaporation was redissolved with 5 mL of
3% (w/v) formic acid in water. This aqueous solution was
adsorbed on a C18 Sep-Pak cartridge. The cartridge was
washed with 5 mL of 3% (w/v) formic acid in water and
eluted with 3.5 mL of 3% (w/v) formic acid in methanol.
The anthocyanins eluted from the cartridge were evapo-
rated under vacuum at 35
C until dryness [13].
260 310 360 410 460 510 560 610
Wavelength (nm)
538, 0.423
Figure 1. Scan spectrum of blueberry extracts in MeOH:HCl.
Determination of total anthocyanins
The residue was diluted to the volume of 25 mL by
mixing with the mixture of methanol and 0.1 M HCl at
a ratio of 85:15 (MeOH:HCl). The anthocyanin solution
was diluted to the appropriate concentration for mea-
surement of absorbance in the Cary 100 scanning UV-
Vis spectrophotometer using 1 cm path length quartz cells
at 538 nm. Total anthocyanins were expressed as cyani-
din 3-rutinoside equivalents [14]. The molar absorptivity
of cyanidin 3-rutinoside was equal to 31085 at 530 nm in
MeOH:HCl. This molar absorptivity has been determined
Antioxidant effects
The antioxidant ac tivity of the anthocyanin extr acts
was measured using a free radical method of Brand-
Williams et al [15]. The free radical used in this study
was 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The UV-
1601 UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used to determine
the concentration of DPPH. 3.9 mL of 6
× 10
DPPH in methanol (spectrophotometric grade) were put
into the disposable cuvette with 0.1 mL of anthocyanin
extract. The decrease of absorbance was measured at 0
minute, 1 minute, and every 5 minutes at 515 nm for 2
hours or until the absorbance became steady. The remain-
ing DPPH concentration (C
) was calculated using the
following equation [15]:
+2.58 × 10
. (1)
Statistical analysis
The data were analysed by analysis of v ariance
(ANOVA) method and Duncan, multiple-range test at 5%
level of significance using SPSS.
Total anthocyanins
A spectrum of the blueberry extract is presented in
Figure 1. In the anthocyanin extracts, the peak in the vis-
ible region was recorded at 538 nm wh ile the peaks in the
UV range were at 280 and 320 nm. The presence of these
250 Virachnee Lohachoompol et al 2004:5 (2004)
Table 1. Anthocyanin content in evaluated samples.
Blueberry s amples
Total anthocyanins
mg/g dry matter
Fresh blueberri es (FR0) 7.2 ± 0.5
Fresh blueberr i es 2-week
storage at 5
Untreated dried (UN) 4.3
± 0.1
Pretreated dried (PT) 3.7 ± 0.2
Stored frozen for 1 month (FZ1M) 8.1 ± 0.1
Stored frozen for 3 months (FZ3M) 7.9 ± 1.3
Total anthocyanin as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalent.
Mean ± standard deviation of duplicate samples. The means that have
the same superscript are not significantly dierent (P <.05).
peaks reflects the fact that blueberr ies contain a mix of
anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds.
One sample of fresh blueberries, (FR0), was extracted
immediately after having been received from the grower
while another sample, (FR2), was kept at 5
before extraction. Total anthocyanins in FR2 were slightly
lower than those in FR0; namely, 5.7 and 7.2 mg/g dry
matter, respectively (Table 1 ). The blueberries that had
been stored for two weeks at 5
Sapers and Phillips [16], the leakage of anthocyanins was
proportional to the percentage of soft berries in the whole
sample. In comparison with other fruits such as plums,
the concentration of anthocyanins found in 2-week refrig-
erated blueberries was higher (5.7
± 0.5 mg/g dry matter)
than that found in fresh plums, which was in the range of
2.6–5.2 mg/g dry matter [ 14 ].
The total anthocyanin content in both dried samples
UN and PT was less than that in fresh berr ies (Tabl e 1).
The percentage of loss of anthocyanins in UN was 41%
while it increased to 49% in PT. Slightly higher reduc-
tion in anthocyanin content was observed in PT than in
UN. However, the dierence was not statistically signifi-
cant. This dierence was caused by the 4-hour pretreating
step that leached out some anthocyanins. Anthocyanin
leakage might happen due to dewaxing, w hich was caused
by stirring and soaking during the osmotic pretreatment.
This observation is comparable to the study by Sapers
and Phillips [16] who found that dewaxing weakened the
berry cuticle and allowed the skin to rupture. This permit-
ted some leakage from the exposed edges or undersurface
of the torn skin to the osmotic solution that caused an-
thocyanin loss before the drying step. Also, the thermal
processing destroyed some anthocyanins. A study about
the evolution of anthocyanins in raspberries during jam
making, in which heat was used, showed that 17%–40%
of anthocyanins were lost [17].
As for the appearance, the PT samples presented a
more shiny aspect than the UN samples. Furthermore, the
moisture content after drying of PT (33.6% wet basis) was
lower than that of UN (36.9% wet basis).
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Remaining DPPH radical (%)
Time (min)
Figure 2. Kinetic behaviour of reducing DPPH radical of an-
thocyanins found in blueberry extract after the following treat-
ments: FR0 : fresh blueberries; FR2: fresh blueberries kept at 5
for two weeks; UN : untreated blueberries dried in a cabinet
dryer; PT : osmotically pretreated blueberries dried in a cabinet
dryer; FZ1M : frozen blueberries kept at
C for 1 month;
FZ3M : frozen blueberries kept at
C for 3 months.
Anthocyanin contents of frozen samples were found
stable over 3 months of storage (Table 1). The fruits,
which were stored frozen for 1 month (FZ1M) and 3
months (FZ3M), showed no significant dierence from
Antioxidant effect
The results of the kinetic behaviour of blueberry ex-
tracts are shown in Figure 2. After adding the blueberry
extract to the DPPH solution, the absorbance was in-
creased due to the colour of the extracts. The slope of the
equations may be a useful parameter to define the antioxi-
dant capacity. The steeper the slope, the lower the amount
of antioxidant that is necessary to decrease by 50% the
initial DPPH concentration [18]. The steepest slope was
that of FZ3M (Ta ble 2 ). This means a lower amount of the
extract was necessary to decrease the initial DPPH con-
centration. FZ1M showed the lowest antioxidant activity
(though not the lowest anthocyanin content), while there
was no significant dierence in antioxidant eect between
FZ3M and FR0.
Antioxidant activity can also be assessed by the oxygen
radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC method
estimates the antioxidant capacity of a sample by taking
the oxidation reaction to completion whereas DPPH esti-
mates the stable free radical and thus is more appropriate
to characterise the antioxidant activity in a food sample.
In a study of the commercial frozen lowbush blueberries,
which contained lower levels (60%–80%) of “blue” than
the other samples, it was found that the antioxidant ac-
tivity (ORAC) was comparable to that of the fresh fruits
[19]. This result supported an earlier study on variation
in ORAC based on variety, maturity, and source, done by
Prior et al [20].
2004:5 (2004) Anthocyanins in Blueberr ies and Their Antioxidant Eect 251
Table 2. Average slope values of blueberry extracts.
Blueberry extracts
(% DPPH/min)
FR0 0.0110
FR2 0.01035
UN 0.0103
PT 0.0116
FZ1M 0.0076
FZ3M 0.0145
Slopes that have the same superscript are not significantly dierent (P<.05).
As for the dried products, UN and PT, samples showed
no significant dierence in antioxidant activity from
the fresh berries even though the anthocyanin contents
shown in Tabl e 1 were lower than those in the fresh sam-
ples. According to similar studies [20, 21], the correlation
coecient between ORAC and the total phenolics was
higher than the correlation coecient between ORAC and
total anthocyanins. In a study of total phenolics in blue-
berries [22], chlorogenic acid, a major colourless phenolic
of blueberries, was found at the level of 60–100 mg/100 g
of fresh berries and significantly contributed to ORAC
[23]. The anthocyanins breakdown products from dr ying
process might act as antioxidants without being aected
by the thermal process.
The amount of total anthocyanins in the frozen sam-
ples, expressed as cyanidin 3-r utinoside equivalents, was
not significantly dierent from that in the fresh samples.
In contrast, the concentration of anthocyanins in dried
blueberries (UN and PT) was significantly reduced in
comparison with that in fresh blueberries while antioxi-
dant activity of the extracts did not dier from that of the
fresh fruit. Fruit drying resulted in reduction of the to-
tal anthocyanin level by 41%. When drying was preceded
with osmotic dehydration, 49% of anthocyanins were lost.
There was no significant dierence in antioxidant activity
between the anthocyanin extracts of the frozen or dried
samples and the fresh fruit. Antioxidant activity in blue-
berries is an appealing characteristic to consumers. Any
processing method that maintains the level of compounds
known for their health benefits will be of interest to the
food industries.
The authors would like to thank Blueberry Farms of
Australia, Corindi Beach, New South Wales, Australia, for
providing blueberries used in this study.
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Corresponding author.
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Abdelali Haoudi, Ph.D.
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Department of Microbiology and
Molecular Cell Biology
Lewis Hall 3011
Norfolk, VA 23501, USA
Dear Colleague,
The Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology (JBB) is an international journal publishing
original work in all areas of biomedicine. We also welcome papers from geneticists and
molecular biologists covering the area of animal, bacterial, and plant genetics. In addition,
contributions on medical informatics, medical technology, and commercial biology are
considered as well.
JBB is primarily devoted to original research papers, but will also publish review articles, forum
discussion articles, editorials, book reviews, and meeting reports. It is indexed in a number of
databases, among which are ISI Science Citation Index Expanded, Biotechnology Citation Index,
the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), PubMed, Elsevier BIOBASE, and Scopus.
Moreover, all of JBB’s articles are included in PubMed Central.
Since JBB is an open access journal, the full text of all articles will be freely available on the
journal’s website immediately after publication. In addition, authors will retain the copyright of
their papers by signing a Creative Commons Attribution License, which gives the readers the
right to download, print, and redistribute any article as long as it is properly cited. The Open
Access Publishing model has proven to be very successful with JBB and increased the downloads
of its articles.
The most recent Impact Factor for the journal is 1.812 according to the 2005 Journal Citation
Reports® released by Thomson Scientific in 2006.
As the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, I would like to invite
you to submit your papers for publication in the journal and maximize your readership and the
impact of your research articles.
You can submit your contributions via the publisher’s electronic Manuscript Tracking System
located at
Please do not hesitate to contact me at if you need further information.
Sincerely yours,
Dr. Abdelali Haoudi
Editor-in-Chief of JBB
... The most prominent flavonoids are anthocyanins, the widespread constituents of fruits (especially blueberries and bilberries), vegetables, cereals, dry legumes, chocolate, tea, coffee, and wine. Recent data show that anthocyanins, present in blueberry as glycosides, galactosides, and arabinosides [35,117,118], are bioavailable after oral administration since they can be absorbed in intact form [94,119,120]. ...
Full-text available
This review reports in detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms which regulate the bone remodeling process in relation to oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory factors, and estrogen deficiency. OS is considered an important pathogenic factor of osteoporosis, inducing osteocyte apoptosis and varying levels of specific factors, such as receptor activator κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and, according to recent evidence, fibroblast growth factor 23, with consequent impairment of bone remodeling and high bone resorption. Bone loss increases the risk of fragility fractures, and the most commonly used treatments are antiresorptive drugs, followed by anabolic drugs or those with a double effect. In addition, recent data show that natural antioxidants contained in the diet are efficient in preventing and reducing the negative effects of OS on bone remodeling and osteocytes through the involvement of sirtuin type 1 enzyme. Indeed, osteocytes and some of their molecular factors are considered potential biological targets on which antioxidants can act to prevent and reduce bone loss, as well as to promote bone anabolic and regenerative processes by restoring physiological bone remodeling. Several data suggest including antioxidants in novel therapeutic approaches to develop better management strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and OS-related bone diseases. In particular, anthocyanins, as well as resveratrol, lycopene, oleuropein, some vitamins, and thiol antioxidants, could have protective and therapeutic anti-osteoporotic effects.
... Among the thermal processing techniques, pressurized steam, stir-frying, and air frying are some techniques that gained attention over the period [7][8][9][10][11]. In addition, freezedrying has been popular due to its wide applicability in different food matrices [12,13]. A recent study reported an improvement of the phenolic composition and antioxidant profiles of certain Brassica vegetables such as canola and mustard using the air frying techniques compared to other thermal techniques employed [7,8]. ...
Brassica vegetables has demonstrated many health benefits over the years due to its composition of phenolic, flavonoid, and glucosinolate content. However, these bioactive molecules can be easily depleted during gastronomic operations. Therefore, a sustainable method which improves the phenolic content and antioxidant activity is required at large for the processors and consumers. Thermal processing has demonstrated as a method to improve the phenolic content and antioxidant status of Brassica vegetables. In the current study four different thermal processing methods, including freeze drying, sauteing, steam and air frying, were employed for five different Brassica vegetables, including kale, broccoli sprout, brussels sprout, red cabbage, and green cabbage. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities were assessed using radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS•+), reducing power (FRAP), and chelating ability of the metal ions. Among tested, air frying at 160oC for 10 minutes showed the highest TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity of the Brassica vegetables, while sautéing showed the lowest. Steam treatment was preferred over the freeze-drying treatment. Within the vegetables tested, both kale and broccoli sprout contained higher antioxidants properties in most processing treatment employed. Results also indicated that there is a strong correlation between TPC, TFC, and the antioxidant activity (p<0.05). This study indicates that air frying could be a choice of sustainable thermal processing method for improving biomolecules for Brassica vegetables.
... However, it should be emphasized that the antioxidant potential and content of the individual compounds in the flesh extracts were relatively low. Lohachoompol et al. (2004) analyzed the effects of freezing, drying, and storage on the antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content of Vaccinium corymbosum berries. They showed that freezing had no effect on the tested properties. ...
... Similarly, Lohachoompol et al. (71) investigated the effect of cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and discovered a 49% loss after drying. However, Joykumar Singh and Pandey (72) studied a different aspect of cabinet drying and observed that the effective moisture diffusivity augmented with rising temperature. ...
Full-text available
Sweet potatoes (SPs) are a versatile tuberous crop used as subsistence and cash crop in raw and processed forms. The major issue with SPs is post-harvest losses, which result in noticeable quality decline because of inappropriate handling, storage, delayed transit, and sales, as well as microbiological and enzymatic activity. Drying is an excellent strategy for managing short postharvest storage life, preserving nutrients, and maximizing long-term benefits. However, several parameters must be considered before drying SPs, such as relative humidity, temperature, drying duration, size, and shape. The current review looks at the factors influencing SPs' moisture loss, drying kinetics, diverse drying methods, pretreatments, operating conditions, and their efficacy in improving the drying process, functional, and nutritional qualities. An optimal drying process is required to preserve SPs to obtain concentrated nutrients and improve energy efficiency to be ecofriendly. Drying sweet potatoes using traditional methods such as sun or open-air drying was found to be a slow process that could result in a lower quality. Various advanced drying techniques, like vacuum, infrared, freeze drying, and pretreatments such as ultrasound and osmotic dehydration, have been developed and are successfully used globally. The best-fit thin-layer models (Hii, Page, two-term, logarithmic) utilized for drying SPs and appropriate modeling methods for optimizing drying procedures are also discussed.
... 5,6,7,8,9,10 Koca and Karadeniz 11 found high levels of antioxidant activity in blueberries and blackberries, the antioxidant activity levels were higher in the wild berries as opposed to their cultivated version, they also found that antioxidant activity is highly correlated to anthocyanin and polyphenol content. A study conducted by Lohachoompol et al., 12 did not find significant differences in antioxidant activity between fresh, dried, and frozen mortiño. ...
Full-text available
The mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum) is characterized by its high content of polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity. This research analyzed the effect of drying (convection drying and lyophilization) together with the degree of ripeness (50% and 100%) on the fruit’s antioxidant properties. Additionally, a sensory evaluation of an infusion prepared with the dried product was conducted. The treatment consisting of lyophilization and 100% ripeness had the highest values for polyphenols and anthocyanins, 4733.50 mg of gallic acid/100 g DW and 778.70 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside chloride / 100 g DW, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was highest in the treatment with lyophilization and 50% ripeness, with 69.50 mg / 100 g DW. The antioxidant activity for the treatments with 100% ripeness had similar results for convection drying and lyophilization, 87.28 and 88.62 mmol TE / kg DW, respectively. An infusion was made from the dried mortiño product and subjected to a sensory evaluation from a panel of tasters. The samples with 100% ripeness, regardless of the drying method, received a “Like very much” qualification for color, aroma, and taste attributes. Testing for antioxidant activity, it was found that between 2.5 to 3.5 % of the original antioxidant content is transferred to the infusion. The findings suggest that mortiño can be used in the preparation of an infusion with functional properties, creating an opportunity for the local communities of venturing into this crop for industrial purposes.
... M. x giganteus 3x '13UI-019-007' had the highest anthocyanin concentration (38.7 ± 26.9 μg/g of dried biomass) of the three genotypes tested (Fig. 1). Miscanthus whole shoots had a lower anthocyanin concentration in comparison to other anthocyanin-rich crops such as purple corn (7.5 mg/g dry matter) (Kurambhatti et al., 2020), blueberries (7.2 ± 0.5 mg/g dry matter) (Lohachoompol et al., 2004), black carrot (0.04-17.4 mg/g dry matter) (Kammerer et al., 2004), red cabbage (11.1-17.8 mg/g dry matter) (Ahmadiani et al., 2014) and black grape pomace (1.9 mg/g dry matter) (Pazir et al., 2021). ...
The increased awareness for eco-friendliness and sustainability has shifted the interest of stakeholders from synthetic colors to natural plant-based pigments. In this study, purple stemmed Miscanthus x giganteus was evaluated as a source of anthocyanins. Hydrothermal pretreatment was studied as a green, chemical-free process for recovering maximum anthocyanins in the pretreatment liquor. The highest recovery of 94.3 ± 1.5% w/w of the total anthocyanin concentration was obtained for a temperature and time combination of 170 °C and 10 min. The pretreatment also improved the enzymatic digestibility of the biomass and led to a 2.1-fold increase in the overall recovery of glucose (70.6 ± 0.5% w/w) at the end of 72 h. The sugar monomers obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass could be used for the production of biofuels or biochemicals in an integrated biorefinery based on purple-stemmed miscanthus. Overall, this study demonstrates that the clean pretreatment method developed could lead to an additional product stream (rich in anthocyanins) along with its effect in reducing the recalcitrance of miscanthus biomass.
Full-text available
Brassica vegetables have demonstrated many health benefits over the years due to their composition of phenolic, flavonoid, and glucosinolate contents. However, these bioactive molecules can be easily depleted during gastronomic operations. Therefore, a sustainable method that improves their phenolic content and antioxidant activity is required for both the processors and consumers. Thermal processing has been demonstrated as a method to improve the phenolic content and antioxidant status of Brassica vegetables. In the current study, four different thermal processing methods, including freeze-drying, sautéing, steaming, and air-frying, were employed for five different Brassica vegetables, including kale, broccoli sprouts, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, and green cabbage. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities were assessed using radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS•+), reducing power (FRAP), and the chelating ability of metal ions. Among the methods tested, air-frying at 160 °C for 10 min showed the highest TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity of the Brassica vegetables, while sautéing showed the lowest. The steam treatments were preferred over the freeze-drying treatments. Within the vegetables tested, both kale and broccoli sprouts contained higher antioxidant properties in most of the employed processing treatments. The results also indicated that there is a strong correlation between the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). This study indicates that air-frying could be used as a sustainable thermal processing method for improving biomolecules in Brassica vegetables.
There is a diverse array of berries found wild in tropical, temperate and arid ecosystems or cultivated in both field and control environments across the globe. It is evident berry genetics, species, growth environment, cultivation techniques, postharvest management practices, packaging and processing affect the nutritional and functional properties of berries. The level and composition of functional and nutritional compounds in berries are primarily responsible for their health promotive properties. In particular, anthocyanins and flavonoids are shown to be very effective in managing, treating and reducing CVD risks in humans; and the effects are even more pronounced when combined with personalized nutrition or diets and physical activities. Globally, there is a steady increase in CVD incidences and associated deaths. There is a need for interventive strategies to reduce these CVD incidences and associated deaths. Personalized nutrition and diets containing increase levels or consumption of fresh berries, berry-based functional foods, nutritional products, or nutraceuticals could be an effective long-term strategy to reduce CVD disease risks, as well as improve population health globally.
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) have compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. The effects of fruit preservation (freeze-drying, osmotic dehydration, and convection drying) on antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ORAC), total polyphenols and total anthocyanins were studied. Convection drying better preserved total polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacity. However, freeze-drying and convection drying showed no significant differences in total anthocyanins. To determine the effects of the preservation techniques on the phenolic compounds/antioxidant capacity, their bioaccessibility was determined by a static model of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The results of the intestinal stage (ileum) showed that convection drying improved the preservation of antioxidant properties (DPPH), reaching values of 91.6% bioaccessibility (29.1 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW) and 48.7% (9.4 mmol TE/g DW) for the freeze-dried berries. Meanwhile, osmotically dehydrated berries exhibited the lowest percentage of bioaccessibility of the antioxidant compounds at 27.6% (4.0 mmol TE/g DW). Finally, total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity are better preserved in convection drying, followed by freeze-drying and osmotic dehydration.
Anthocyanins are plant-based pigments known for their wide range of industrial applications. Berries, grapes, purple yam, purple corn, and black rice are among the chief dietary sources of anthocyanins. However, these sources have a well-established market in the food sector and cannot be diverted completely for the extraction of anthocyanins. Hence, there is a need to identify alternative sources of these natural colorants. In this review, color-bearing bioenergy crops with high productivity such as miscanthus, sorghum, and sugarcane have been proposed as potential feedstocks for the recovery of anthocyanins as co-products. The role of genetic modification in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in these crops has been discussed. A consolidated bioprocessing approach has been proposed for the recovery of anthocyanins from bioenergy crops along with the production of bioethanol and lignin-based chemicals. Such an integrated process could make the overall process for the production of biofuels cost-effective.
Clarifies the definition of functional foods and outlines some of the better-known ones now in the marketplace.
The effects of an alternative physical pre-treatment for enhancing the drying rate of different plums (Stanley, Angeleno®, and Empress), are evaluated by means of the principal chemical parameters and by skin colour. The pre-treatment consists of the superficial abrasion of the plums' peels using an inert abrasive material to remove the cuticular waxy layer, the limiting factor for moisture loss. The drying process was carried out at 60 °C to reduce the plums' quality loss, the latter being assessed by analysing the changes in skin colour, sugars by HPLC, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and reactive substances to the vanillin–HCl reagent. The proposed physical pre-treatment, without significantly altering the other qualitative characteristics of the plums, markedly reduced the dehydration time and, as a result, caused a smaller loss of sugars in Empress and Angeleno than Stanley plums.
This text is a comprehensive reference covering the chemistry, physiology, chemotaxonomy, biotechnology and food technology aspects of the anthocyanins. Topics discussed include types of anthocyanins, structural transformations, colour stabilization and intensification factors, biosynthesis and intensification factors, biosynthesis, analysis and functions of anthocyanins. An in-depth review of the literature discussing anthocyanins of fruits, cereals, legumes, roots, tubers, bulbs, cole crops, oilseeds, herbs, spices, and minor crops is included as well.
Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantiated constituents of the human diet. Many foods but especially red grapes and wines contain large amounts of flavonoids, which are mostly anthocyanins. The aim of our study was to determine the potential bioavailability, in human, of several anthocyanins from red wine. Six healthy, fasting volunteers, having a polyphenols-free diet, drank 300 mL of water every hour for 12 h and collected urine. Several weeks later, the same volunteers repeated the same procedure but replaced the water of the fourth drinking dose with white wine. Two weeks later, they repeated the procedure with red instead of white wine. In the 300 mL dose of red wine, the subjects received 218 mg of anthocyanins, which were detected in their urine by HPLC analysis with a photodiode array detector. Two of the compounds found among the wine anthocyanins were found unchanged in the urine. Other anthocyanin compounds, which seemed to have undergone molecular modifications, were detected in the urine after incubation with HCl. The anthocyanin level in the urine reached a peak within 6 h of the wine drinking. Within 12 h of the wine drinking, we found 1.5−5.1% of the ingested anthocyanins, in the urine. Keywords: Red wine; anthocyanins; antioxidants; absorption; urine; human
A HPLC technique for the analysis of anthocyanins from various fruit jams is described and used to monitor the stability of anthocyanins during processing. Commercial jams made from strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry, blackcurrant and cherry were studied. Each product had a distinctive anthocyanin pattern which enabled identification and characterisation of each jam. The manufacturing process had no effect on the qualitative anthocyanin profile. © 1997 SCI.
Anthocyanin and colour stability of red raspberry jams made from two different varieties (‘Zeva’ and ‘Heritage’) were analysed during 6 months, stored at three temperatures (20, 30 and 37°C). Also the influence of freezing the fruit, previously to jam manufacture, was evaluated. Different anthocyanin composition was detected for both cultivars and while ‘Zeva’ fruit had a higher total anthocyanin content, Heritage variety produced jams with a higher redness hue. The development of browning was directly related to storage temperature but not to thawing or the variety of fruit used. © 1998 Society of Chemical Industry.
Simple and acylated anthocyanins and other phenolics in ten cultivars and hybrids of lowbush and one cultivar of highbush blueberries were extracted, isolated and quantified by reversed phase HPLC and capillary gas liquid chromatography. All cultivars contained nonacylated glucosides and galactosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. Each anthocyanin also occurred in the acetylated form in eight of eleven cultivars. Total anthocyanins in blueberries ranged from 110 to 260 mg/100g of fresh berries. ‘Blomidon’ berries contained the lowest and ‘Chignecto’ berries the highest level. Acetylated anthocyanins made up to 35% of the total anthocyanins in ‘Chignecto’. Chlorogenic acid was the major colorless phenolic of lowbush and highbush blueberries, at 50–100 mg/100 g fresh fruit.
The kinetic behaviour of polyphenols common in fruits as free radical scavengers was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). After addi-tion of different standard concentrations to DPPH· (0·025 g litre−1), the percentage of remaining DPPH• was determined at different times from the absorbances at 515 nm. The percentage remaining DPPH• against reaction time followed a multiplicative model equation: ln [DPPHREM•]=b ln t+ln a. The slopes of these equations may be useful parameters to define the antioxidant capacity. The steeper the slope, the lower the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease by 50% the initial DPPH• concentration (EC50). This parameter, EC50, is widely used to measure antioxidant power, but it does not takes into account the reaction time. Time needed to reach the steady state to the concentration corresponding at EC50 (TEC50) was calculated, and antiradical efficiency (AE) was proposed as a new parameter to characterise the antioxidant compounds where AE=1/EC50TEC50. It was shown that AE is more discriminatory than EC50. AE values are more useful because they also take into account the reaction time. The results have shown that the order of the AE (×10−3) in the compounds tested was: ascorbic acid (11·44)>caffeic acid (2·75)⩾gallic acid (2·62)>tannic acid (0·57)⩾DL-α-tocopherol (0·52)>rutin (0·21)⩾quercetin (0·19)>ferulic acid (0·12)⩾3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, BHA (0·10)>resveratrol (0·05). © 1998 SCI.