Societal Costs and Morbidity of Pertussis in Adolescents and Adults

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 01/2005; 39(11):1572-80. DOI: 10.1086/425006
Source: PubMed


Since the 1980s, the reported incidence of pertussis among adolescents and adults has been steadily increasing. To understand whether the benefits of an acellular pertussis vaccine formulated for adolescents and adults might offset its costs, policy makers will need information about morbidity and societal (medical and nonmedical) costs of pertussis.
Adolescents (age, 10-17 years) and adults (age, >or=18 years) with confirmed pertussis illness were identified by the Massachusetts enhanced pertussis surveillance system. We evaluated medical costs in a cohort of patients who had confirmed pertussis during the period of January 1998 through December 2000; nonmedical costs, by means of prospective interviews, in a cohort of patients who had confirmed pertussis during the period of December 2001 through January 2003; and morbidity in both cohorts. Our main outcome measures were mean costs per case, in 2002 US dollars.
In the analysis of medical costs, 1679 adolescents and 936 adults were found to have mean costs of 242 dollars and 326 dollars, respectively (P<.05). In interviews with 314 adolescents and 203 adults, adults had significantly higher nonmedical costs (447 dollars) than those of adolescents (155 dollars). A total of 83% of adolescents missed a mean of 5.5 days from school (range, 0.4-32 days), and 61% of adults missed a mean of 9.8 days from work (range, 0.1-180 days) because of pertussis. Thirty-eight percent of adolescents and 61% of adults were still coughing at the time of the interview, which occurred an average of 106 days and 94 days, respectively, after cough onset.
Pertussis causes significant morbidity in and costs for adolescents and adults, with time losses comprising the largest proportion of the cost. Societal costs should be considered when making decisions about potential vaccine use in the future.

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    • "Hospitalization rates were highest in infants <3 months old, however among >4 year olds, the hospitalization rate was highest in those ≥65 years [7]. Adult pertussis is important as it can be associated with considerable morbidity, hospitalizations, and societal costs such as absenteeism [6] [7] [8]. Adults are also a reservoir of infection for vulnerable infants who have not completed the infant vaccination schedule, and are at risk of fatal infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although studies have described factors associated with pertussis hospitalization in children, data on adult hospitalization are sparse. We examined the association between patient characteristics and hospitalization among older adults with pertussis. We conducted a nested case-control study of participants in the 45 and Up prospective cohort in New South Wales, Australia, with an incident pertussis diagnosis during 2006-2012. Cases were defined as those with a hospitalization coded as 'whooping cough' or 'non-specific respiratory disease/cough' between a week prior and 6 weeks after the diagnosis of pertussis based on laboratory tests. Controls were participants diagnosed with pertussis but not hospitalized. Among 265,287 participants, the incidence of pertussis and pertussis hospitalization was 83.9 (95% [confidence interval] CI, 78.7-89.6) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.1-4.1)/100,000 person-years, respectively. Among 33 cases and 882 controls, factors associated with hospitalization were increasing age (compared to those 45-54 years, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.4 (95% CI, 1.6-18.2) and 8.9 (95% CI, 2.3-34.7) in those aged 65-74 years and 75+ years, respectively) and smoking (ever versus never, aOR 2.37 (95% CI, 1.11-5.06)). The risk of pertussis hospitalization is substantially higher in ≥65 years old. A booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine could be readily integrated into routine vaccination for this age group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Vaccine
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    • "f (Yawn et al., 2007) g (Singhal et al., 2011) h (Masseria & Krishnarajah, 2013) i (Lee et al., 2004) large majority (85 %) of pneumococcal burden due to NPP. Likewise, herpes zoster made up 11 % of total cases, but 20 % of total adult VPD costs among those 65 and older. "
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    ABSTRACT: Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population could increase these costs dramatically.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of Prevention
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    • "The use of charges is a proxy for the direct medical costs and represents the upper bound of the direct cost of physician office and hospital encounters from the current study. Historical direct medical costs (i.e., 2002 US$) of adult pertussis cases in the U.S. obtained from published literature range from $181 to $5,310 per patient depending on a number of factors including geographic location, population and type of services examined [31,32]. Additionally, while not studied here, the indirect costs for the patients and their caregivers should also be considered in the societal economic burden. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background While the incidence of pertussis has increased in adolescents and adults in recent years in the U.S., little is known about the incidence and economic burden of pertussis in older adults. This study provides evidence of the incidence of pertussis and direct medical charges associated with pertussis episodes of care (PEOCs) in adults aged 50 years and older in the U.S. Methods PEOCs were divided into periods before and after the initial pertussis diagnosis was made (i.e., the index date) to capture any conditions immediately preceding the pertussis diagnosis that may have represented misdiagnoses and subsequent conditions that may have represented sequelae. Data were extracted from IMS's recently acquired SDI databases of longitudinal, patient-level practitioner claims and hospital operational billing records collected from private practitioners and hospitals, respectively, across the U.S. Patients 50 years and older with one or more ICD-9-CM diagnoses for pertussis/whooping cough and/or a laboratory test positive for Bordetella pertussis between 1/1/2006 and 10/31/2010 were eligible for study inclusion. Resource utilization and charges (i.e., unadjudicated claims) associated with the patient's physician and hospital care were analyzed. The nationally projected incidence of pertussis was estimated using a subsample of patients with the required data necessary for projection. Results Estimated incidence of diagnosed pertussis ranged from 2.1-4.6 cases per 100,000 people across the two age groups (50–64 and [greater than or equal to] 65) during the years 2006 to 2010. The analysis of charges included 5,748 patients [greater than or equal to] 50 years of age with pertussis. Average charges across the entire episode of care were $1,835 and $14,428 per patient in the outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The average number of outpatient (i.e., private practitioner) visits was 2 per patient in both the pre-index and post-index periods. Conclusions In the U.S., the incidence of diagnosed pertussis in adults 50 years and older has increased between 2006 and 2010. Healthcare utilization and charges associated with pertussis are substantial, suggesting the need for additional prevention and control strategies and a higher degree of clinical awareness on the part of health care providers. Additional research regarding pertussis in older populations is needed to substantiate these findings.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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