Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with urticarial plaques and hypereosinophilia in a child
Our report describes a previously healthy 10-year-old female who was seen for urticarial plaques and mild loss of appetite. An initial laboratory workup revealed an elevated leukocyte count of 30,000/microL and a peripheral eosinophil count of 22,500/microL. A skin biopsy showed a marked hypersensitivity tissue response with abundant eosinophils. Further investigation of her peripheral eosinophilia uncovered Giardia lamblia in a stool sample. Despite treatment with the anti-parasitic agent furazolidone, the patient's urticarial plaques, leukocyte count, and peripheral eosinophil count remained unchanged. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). ALL with hypereosinophilia (ALL/Eo) represents a rare and distinct subset of ALL, with more than 30 cases documented in the literature. Our discussion summarizes the clinical aspects of this disease and reviews the reported dermatological manifestations of ALL/Eo.
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Available from: Sue Duval
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ABSTRACT: Atopic disease is hypothesized to be protective against several malignancies, including childhood/adolescent leukemia. To summarize the available epidemiologic evidence, the authors performed a meta-analysis of associations between atopy/allergies, asthma, eczema, hay fever, and hives and childhood/adolescent leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They searched MEDLINE literature (1952-March 2009) and queried international experts to identify eligible studies. Ten case-control studies were included. Summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed via random-effects models. Odds ratios for atopy/allergies were 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60, 3.35) for 3 studies of leukemia overall, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.89) for 6 studies of ALL, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.22) for 2 studies of AML, with high levels of heterogeneity detected for leukemia overall and ALL. Inverse associations were observed for ALL and asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02), eczema (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), and hay fever (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.66) examined separately. Odds ratios for ALL differed by study design, exposure data source, and latency period, indicating that these factors affect study results. These results should be interpreted cautiously given the modest number of studies, substantial heterogeneity, and potential exposure misclassification but are useful in designing future research.
Available from: Emanuele Ammatuna
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ABSTRACT: The hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) include a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by the persistent increase of the number of eosinophils in blood and bone marrow. Few cases of paediatric hypereosinophilia (pHES) have been described in the literature. Early identification of pHES that may evolve towards a lymphomyeloproliferative disease is relevant in light of prognostic and therapeutic implications. Molecular features of 10 pHES patients were analysed at presentation and during their clinical course, including analysis of BCR-ABL1 and FIP1L1/PDGFRA fusion genes, quantitation of WT1 gene copy number and clonality of T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH). All patients had normal karyotype and germline TCR configuration. Five children showed IGH clonality at presentation: of these, two developed a B non-Hodgkin lymphoma and a B-lineage acute lymphocytic leukaemia at six and 12 months respectively, two spontaneously reverted to a polyclonal IGH profile during the follow-up, and the last one persisted with pHES without B-clonal evolution after 19 months. One patient had a PDGFRA/FIP1L1 fusion and achieved hematologic and molecular remission after imatinib therapy. IGH rearrangement was observed to be a frequent molecular feature of pHES and may precede B-cell clonal expansion and evolution into B-cell malignancies in children.
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