Insulin Substrates 1 and 2 Are Corequired for Activation of Atypical Protein Kinase C and Cbl-Dependent Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase during Insulin Action in Immortalized Brown Adipocytes †
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Although insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2, among other factors, activate PI3K, there is little information on the relative roles of IRS-1and IRS-2 during aPKC activation by insulin action in specific cell types. Presently, we have used immortalized brown adipocytes in which either IRS-1 or IRS-2 has been knocked out by recombinant methods to examine IRS-1 and IRS-2 requirements for activation of aPKC. We have also used these adipocytes to see if IRS-1 and IRS-2 are required for activation of Cbl, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport and has been found to function upstream of both PI3K/aPKC and Crk during thiazolidinedione action in 3T3/L1 adipocytes [Miura et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 14335]. In brown adipocytes in which either IRS-1 or IRS-2 was knocked out, insulin-induced increases in aPKC activity and glucose transport were markedly diminished. These effects of insulin on aPKC and glucose transport were fully restored by retroviral-mediated expression of IRS-1 or IRS-2 in their respective knockout cells. Knockout of IRS-1 or IRS-2 also inhibited insulin-induced increases in Cbl binding to the p85 subunit of PI3K, which, along with IRS-1/2, may be required for activation of PI3K, aPKC, and glucose transport during insulin action in 3T3/L1 adipocytes. These findings provide evidence that directly links both IRS-1 and IRS-2 to aPKC activation in immortalized brown adipocytes, and further suggest that IRS-1 and IRS-2 are required for the activation of Cbl/PI3K during insulin action in these cells.
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