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Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: Comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng

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Abstract

Extracts from the plant guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. To date, little research in humans has examined the potential psychoactive effects of these extracts. Extracts of Panax ginseng, which are often sold in combination with guarana, contain similar potentially active components, and have been shown to modulate cognitive performance. In this double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study, the cognitive and mood effects of separate single doses of: 75 mg of a dried ethanolic extract of guarana (approx 12% caffeine), 200 mg of Panax ginseng (G115), and their combination (75 mg/200 mg), were assessed in 28 healthy young (18-24) participants. On each day of the study (separated by a 7-day washout), cognitive performance and subjective mood were assessed pre-dose and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h post-dose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery, Serial subtraction tasks and Bond-Lader mood scales. In comparison to placebo, all three treatments resulted in improved task performance throughout the day. In the case of guarana, improvements were seen across 'attention' tasks (but with some evidence of reduced accuracy), and on a sentence verification task. While also increasing the speed of attention task performance, both ginseng and the ginseng/guarana combination also enhanced the speed of memory task performance, with little evidence of modulated accuracy. Guarana and the combination, and to a lesser extent ginseng, also led to significant improvements in serial subtraction task performance. These results provide the first demonstration in humans of the psychoactive effects of guarana, and confirmation of the psychoactive properties of ginseng. Given the low caffeine content (9 mg) of this dose of guarana extract, the effects are unlikely to be attributable to its caffeine content.

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... Initial studies conducted by Galduróz and colleagues (9,10) evaluated the acute (1g/day for 3days) and chronic (1g/day for 150-days) cognitive effects of guarana supplementation in young and elderly individuals, but found no changes to cognition, sleep, or anxiety in either group. No further studies have assessed the long-term effects, but several studies have since reported significant acute cognitive changes following guarana supplementation (7,(11)(12)(13). Kennedy et al. (2004) found both speed of attention and secondary memory were improved by a 75 mg dose of guarana. ...
... No further studies have assessed the long-term effects, but several studies have since reported significant acute cognitive changes following guarana supplementation (7,(11)(12)(13). Kennedy et al. (2004) found both speed of attention and secondary memory were improved by a 75 mg dose of guarana. The increase in speed of attention is reflected in a decrease of reaction time observed in several other studies (8,11,14,15). ...
... Kennedy et al. (2004) found both speed of attention and secondary memory were improved by a 75 mg dose of guarana. The increase in speed of attention is reflected in a decrease of reaction time observed in several other studies (8,11,14,15). Haskell et al. (2007) corroborated that secondary memory was improved with both 75 mg and 37.5 mg of guarana. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of guarana supplementation on cognitive performance before and after a bout of maximal intensity cycling, and to compare this to an equivalent caffeine dose. Twenty-five participants completed the randomised double-blind crossover trial by performing cognitive tests with 1 of 3 supplements, on 3 different days: guarana (125 mg/kg), caffeine (5 mg/kg) or placebo (65 mg/kg protein powder). After 30-minutes of rest, participants performed simple (SRT) and choice reaction time (CRT) tests, an immediate word recall test and Bond-Lader mood scale. This was followed by a cycling V̇O2max test, cognitive tests were then immediately repeated. Guarana supplementation decreased CRT before exercise (407 ± 45ms) in comparison to placebo (421 ± 46ms, P=.030) but not caffeine (417 ± 42ms). SRT after exercise decreased following guarana supplementation (306 ± 28ms) in comparison to placebo (323 ± 32ms, P=.003) but not caffeine (315 ± 32ms). Intraindividual variability on CRT significantly improved from before (111.4 ± 60.5ms) to after exercise (81.85 ± 43.1ms) following guarana supplementation, no differences were observed for caffeine and placebo (P>.05). Alertness scores significantly improved following guarana supplementation (63.3 ± 13.8) in comparison to placebo (57.4 ± 13.4, P=.014) but not caffeine (61.2 ± 12.8). There were no changes to V̇O2max, immediate word recall or any other Bond-Lader mood scales. Guarana supplementation appears to impact several parameters of cognition. These results support the use of guarana supplementation to possibly maintain speed of attention immediately following a maximal intensity exercise test (V̇O2max).
... Results found tryptophan-rich protein hydrolysate improves emotional responses and cognitive function. Similar studies related to supplement of diverse nutrition on mental energy can be found in the studies of Ginkgo biloba (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009), Ginseng (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004), Glucose (Reay et al., 2006), and Omega-3 (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Rogers et al., 2008). ...
... Although nutrition scientists reported that supplements improved mental energy, they did not specifically define mental energy. Researchers have referred to mental energy as attention ability (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009;Mohajeri et al., 2015), reaction time (Mohajeri et al., 2015), memory (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004Kennedy et al., , 2007, language (e.g., Snitz et al., 2009), visual processing speed (e.g., Reay et al., 2006;Kennedy et al., 2007), executive function (Snitz et al., 2009), or emotional experiences (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018). Further, with no definitive definition of mental energy, researchers have used all sort of measures such as depression and anxiety scales (e.g., Rogers et al., 2008), memory tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), attention tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), mood scales (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018), visual analog scales (Kennedy et al., 2004;Kuan et al., 2017), or self-developed questionnaires (e.g., Dammann et al., 2013;Kueh et al., 2018) to assess what they called "mental energy." ...
... Researchers have referred to mental energy as attention ability (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009;Mohajeri et al., 2015), reaction time (Mohajeri et al., 2015), memory (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004Kennedy et al., , 2007, language (e.g., Snitz et al., 2009), visual processing speed (e.g., Reay et al., 2006;Kennedy et al., 2007), executive function (Snitz et al., 2009), or emotional experiences (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018). Further, with no definitive definition of mental energy, researchers have used all sort of measures such as depression and anxiety scales (e.g., Rogers et al., 2008), memory tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), attention tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), mood scales (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018), visual analog scales (Kennedy et al., 2004;Kuan et al., 2017), or self-developed questionnaires (e.g., Dammann et al., 2013;Kueh et al., 2018) to assess what they called "mental energy." ...
Article
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Although considerable research indicates that mental energy is an important factor in many domains, including athletic performance (Cook and Davis, 2006), athletic mental energy (AME) has never been conceptualized and measured. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conceptualize and develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess AME. In Study 1, a focus group interview established the initial framework of AME. Study 2 used a survey to collect athletes' experiences of AME and develop a scale draft titled "Athletic Mental Energy Scale (AMES)." In Study 3, we examined the psychometric properties and the underlying structure of AMES via item analysis, internal consistency, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 4, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine AMES's factorial validity; and examined concurrent and discriminant validity by examining correlations with athletes' life stress, positive state of mind, and burnout. In study 5, we examined the measurement invariance of the 6-factor, 18-item AMES with Taiwanese and Malaysian samples. Study 6 examined the predictive validity by comparing AMES scores of successful and unsuccessful martial artists. Across these phases, results showed a 6-factor, 18-item AMES had adequate content validity, factorial structure, nomological validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity, measurement invariance, and reliability. We suggest future studies may use AMES to examine its relationships with athletes' cognition, affect, and performance. The application of AMES in sport psychology was also discussed.
... Scientific support is forthcoming for some of these motivations. Kennedy et al. (2004) reported an improvement in cognitive performance in humans, possibly due to the combination of CAF with other components of the extract (Angelo et al., 2008). Although there has been a great deal of interest in studying CAF from GUA including its benefits and harms, the most diverse pharmacological effects of guarana are associated with the tannins present in the plant seeds, which represent about 16% of the seed composition. ...
... An interesting result in terms of a physiological effect was obtained with purified guarana extract (containing CAF and tannins), which administered orally to rats showed a panicolytic effect; thus, the extract is indicated for certain formulations for mood disorders, such as panic disorder. The positive effects of guarana extract on attention, memory and mood performance were also demonstrated in humans by Kennedy et al. (2004), using simple formulations and in combination with Panax ginseng. In the extracts with low CAF content, there were no positive results; therefore, beneficial effects were attributed to the alkaloid. ...
... Currently, there is a growing interest for GUA, which is often attributed to CAF content depending on how the extract is prepared (Schimpl et al., 2013). In addition to CAF, guarana seeds are known to harbour a number of other possible stimulants such as flavonoids or other potentially psychoactive components, including saponins and tannins (Mattei et al.,,1998), which could enhance cognitive function (Pomportes et al., 2014;Kennedy et al., 2004;Veasey et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Each fruit contains from one to three seeds which, properly dried, give rise to a brown paste with a bitter taste. The Food and Drug Administration generally recognizes guarana as safe, although there are no established dosages and it is unclear how much guarana is in each drink, because many companies do not list a milligram amount. The increasing number of energy drink with caffeine-related clearly shows that there seems to be a real risk for adverse health effects such as arrhythmias. However, under moderate use and without combining other stimulants or alcohol, the risk for such side effects seem negligible. Anyway, there is an overwhelming lack of evidence to substantiate claims that guarana contribute to the enhancement of physical or cognitive performance. Additional well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed in order to assess claims made for this product and further elucidate potential adverse effects.
... Results found tryptophan-rich protein hydrolysate improves emotional responses and cognitive function. Similar studies related to supplement of diverse nutrition on mental energy can be found in the studies of Ginkgo biloba (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009), Ginseng (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004), Glucose (Reay et al., 2006), and Omega-3 (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Rogers et al., 2008). ...
... Although nutrition scientists reported that supplements improved mental energy, they did not specifically define mental energy. Researchers have referred to mental energy as attention ability (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009;Mohajeri et al., 2015), reaction time (Mohajeri et al., 2015), memory (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004Kennedy et al., , 2007, language (e.g., Snitz et al., 2009), visual processing speed (e.g., Reay et al., 2006;Kennedy et al., 2007), executive function (Snitz et al., 2009), or emotional experiences (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018). Further, with no definitive definition of mental energy, researchers have used all sort of measures such as depression and anxiety scales (e.g., Rogers et al., 2008), memory tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), attention tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), mood scales (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018), visual analog scales (Kennedy et al., 2004;Kuan et al., 2017), or self-developed questionnaires (e.g., Dammann et al., 2013;Kueh et al., 2018) to assess what they called "mental energy." ...
... Researchers have referred to mental energy as attention ability (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2007;Snitz et al., 2009;Mohajeri et al., 2015), reaction time (Mohajeri et al., 2015), memory (e.g., Kennedy et al., 2004Kennedy et al., , 2007, language (e.g., Snitz et al., 2009), visual processing speed (e.g., Reay et al., 2006;Kennedy et al., 2007), executive function (Snitz et al., 2009), or emotional experiences (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018). Further, with no definitive definition of mental energy, researchers have used all sort of measures such as depression and anxiety scales (e.g., Rogers et al., 2008), memory tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), attention tests (Kennedy et al., 2004), mood scales (e.g., Johnson et al., 2008;Quartiroli et al., 2018), visual analog scales (Kennedy et al., 2004;Kuan et al., 2017), or self-developed questionnaires (e.g., Dammann et al., 2013;Kueh et al., 2018) to assess what they called "mental energy." ...
Article
Full-text available
Although considerable research indicates that mental energy is an important factor in many domains, including athletic performance (Cook & Davis, 2006), athletic mental energy (AME) has never been conceptualized and measured. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conceptualize and develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess athletic mental energy. In Study 1, a focus group interview established the initial framework of athletic mental energy. Study 2 used a survey to collect athletes’ experiences of athletic mental energy and develop a scale draft titled “Athletic Mental Energy Scale (AMES).” In Study 3, we examined the psychometric properties and the underlying structure of AMES via item analysis, internal consistency, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 4, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine AMES’s factorial validity; and examined concurrent and discriminant validity by examining correlations with athletes’ life stress, positive state of mind, and burnout. In study 5, we examined the measurement invariance of the 6-factor, 18-item AMES with Taiwanese and Malaysian samples. Study 6 examined the predictive validity by comparing AMES scores of successful and unsuccessful martial artists. Across these phases, results showed a 6-factor, 18-item AMES had adequate content validity, factorial structure, nomological validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity, measurement invariance, and reliability. We suggest future studies may use AMES to examine its relationships with athletes’ cognition, affect, and performance. The application of AMES in sport psychology was also discussed.
... In a non-sporting context a number of randomised, controlled, balanced-crossover, single-dose (200-400 mg) trials have demonstrated consistent improvements in the accuracy of memory tasks [198][199][200] and the speed of attention task performance [200,201]. Single doses have also decreased the latency of cerebro-electrical evoked potentials as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) [202], and improved the performance of difficult working memory/executive function tasks and concomitantly reduced mental fatigue [203,204]. ...
... In a non-sporting context a number of randomised, controlled, balanced-crossover, single-dose (200-400 mg) trials have demonstrated consistent improvements in the accuracy of memory tasks [198][199][200] and the speed of attention task performance [200,201]. Single doses have also decreased the latency of cerebro-electrical evoked potentials as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) [202], and improved the performance of difficult working memory/executive function tasks and concomitantly reduced mental fatigue [203,204]. A recent study [205] also showed that 7 days' supplementation increased 'calmness', following both doses investigated (200/400 mg), and improved performance of the '3-back' working memory task following the higher dose, but with slower performance following the lower dose. ...
... However, extracts also contain significant levels of polyphenols and triterpene saponins [255]. Controlled single-dose trials have shown that guaraná extract (75 mg) can improve attention, executive function and working memory tasks [200], and engender dose-related (37.5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg and 300 mg guaraná) increases in alertness, 'contentedness' and memory task performance. However, most of these effects have been seen following doses of guaraná that contain nonpsychoactive levels of caffeine (4.5 mg/9 mg) [255]. ...
Article
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Subjective alertness and optimal cognitive function, including in terms of attention, spatial/working memory and executive function, are intrinsic to peak performance in many sports. Consumption of a number of plant-derived ‘secondary metabolite’ phytochemicals can modulate these psychological parameters, although there is a paucity of evidence collected in a sporting context. The structural groups into which these phytochemicals fall—phenolics, terpenes and alkaloids—vary in terms of the ecological roles they play for the plant, their toxicity and the extent to which they exert direct effects on brain function. The phenolics, including polyphenols, play protective roles in the plant, and represent a natural, benign component of the human diet. Increased consumption has been shown to improve cardiovascular function and is associated with long-term brain health. However, whilst short-term supplementation with polyphenols has been shown to consistently modulate cerebral blood-flow parameters, evidence of direct effects on cognitive function and alertness/arousal is currently comparatively weak. Terpenes play both attractant and deterrent roles in the plant, and typically occur less frequently in the diet. Single doses of volatile monoterpenes derived from edible herbs such as sage (Salvia officinalis/lavandulaefolia) and peppermint (Mentha piperita), diterpene-rich Ginkgo biloba extracts and triterpene-containing extracts from plants such as ginseng (Panax ginseng/quinquefolius) and Bacopa monnieri have all been shown to enhance relevant aspects of cognitive function and alertness. The alkaloids play toxic defensive roles in the plant, including via interference with herbivore brain function. Whilst most alkaloids are inappropriate in a sporting context due to toxicity and legal status, evidence suggests that single doses of nicotine and caffeine may be able to enhance relevant aspects of cognitive function and/or alertness. However, their benefits may be confounded by habituation and withdrawal effects in the longer term. The efficacy of volatile terpenes, triterpene-rich extracts and products combining low doses of caffeine with other phytochemicals deserves more research attention.
... Accordingly, many scientific studies using guarana have focused on health effects associated with caffeine, such as cognitive and stimulant effects (Silva, Soares-Freitas, Sampaio, et al., 2019). Other studies have indicated that guarana's benefits to human health originate from a complex synergistic effect among its various components rather than caffeine alone (Haskell et al., 2007;Kennedy et al., 2004;Ruchel et al., 2016). In the last decade, guarana has attracted the interest of pharmaceutical industries due to its effects on diverse aspects of human health, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes . ...
... In human studies, encapsulated guarana powder doses of 75 mg/day acutely improved attention, memory, and speed of performance (Kennedy et al., 2004); doses of 35−75 mg/day for 5 days resulted in improved cognitive performance; and a dose of 300 mg/day for the same period improved alertness, albeit with a lesser effect on cognition than that observed with lower doses (Kennedy et al., 2004). Doses greater than 300 mg/day showed no significant effect (Silvestrini et al., 2013). ...
... In human studies, encapsulated guarana powder doses of 75 mg/day acutely improved attention, memory, and speed of performance (Kennedy et al., 2004); doses of 35−75 mg/day for 5 days resulted in improved cognitive performance; and a dose of 300 mg/day for the same period improved alertness, albeit with a lesser effect on cognition than that observed with lower doses (Kennedy et al., 2004). Doses greater than 300 mg/day showed no significant effect (Silvestrini et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a plant from the Amazon region with cultural importance. Despite its early ancestral use by indigenous tribes, the first reports regarding the benefits of guarana consumption for human health were published in the 19th century. Since then, the use of guarana seed in powder and extract forms has been studied for its diverse effects on human health, such as stimulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, and anti-obesity effects. These effects are attributed to the high content of bioactive compounds found in guarana seeds, especially methylxanthines and flavonoids. In fact, the Brazilian Food Supplement Law has officially acknowledged guarana as a source of bioactive compounds. The number and diversity of studies focused on guarana and human health are increasing; thus, organizing and describing the available evidence on guarana and its applications is necessary to provide a framework for future studies. In this narrative review, we have organized the available information regarding guarana and its potential effects on human health. Guarana produces unique fruits with great potential for human health applications. However, the available evidence lacks human studies and mechanistic investigations. Future studies should be designed considering its applicability to human health, including intake levels and toxicity studies.
... Les premiers travaux, réalisés sur des modèles animaux, indiquent un effet bénéfique de l'ingestion de guarana sur l'activité motrice, ainsi que sur certains processus cognitifs (apprentissage et mémoire) et sur l'humeur, tout en étant dépourvu de toxicité (Espinola et al. 1997;Mattei et al. 1998). Plus récemment Kennedy et al. (2004) Dans une seconde étude de la même équipe, Haskell et al. (2007) ont investigué les effets de différentes doses de guarana (37,5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg et 300 mg) sur la performance cognitive dans un protocole au design expérimental similaire à celui de l'étude précédente (Kennedy et al. 2004). Les résultats suggèrent que seuls les dosages les plus faibles (37,5 mg et 75 mg) améliorent la performance de mémorisation comparés au Pl. ...
... Les premiers travaux, réalisés sur des modèles animaux, indiquent un effet bénéfique de l'ingestion de guarana sur l'activité motrice, ainsi que sur certains processus cognitifs (apprentissage et mémoire) et sur l'humeur, tout en étant dépourvu de toxicité (Espinola et al. 1997;Mattei et al. 1998). Plus récemment Kennedy et al. (2004) Dans une seconde étude de la même équipe, Haskell et al. (2007) ont investigué les effets de différentes doses de guarana (37,5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg et 300 mg) sur la performance cognitive dans un protocole au design expérimental similaire à celui de l'étude précédente (Kennedy et al. 2004). Les résultats suggèrent que seuls les dosages les plus faibles (37,5 mg et 75 mg) améliorent la performance de mémorisation comparés au Pl. ...
... Par conséquent, les hypothèses explicatives des effets psychostimulants du guarana ont donc rapidement été attribuées à sa teneur élevée en caféine. Néanmoins, il a d'abord été constaté chez l'animal (Espinola et al. 1997 ;Campos et al. 2005), puis chez l'homme (Kennedy et al. 2004;Haskell et al. 2007) que les effets bénéfiques du guarana étaient effectifs pour des doses de caféine très faibles, ne permettant pas d'expliquer les effets obtenus. Ces doutes ont été confirmés dans une étude chez l'animal où il a été suggéré que contrairement à la caféine, le mécanisme d'action du guarana n'était pas basé sur une action antagoniste aux récepteurs à l'adénosine (Campos et al. 2005). ...
Thesis
Dans de nombreuses activités physiques et sportives, la performance dépend de l’efficacité des processus physiologiques et cognitifs sollicités dans l’action. Plus précisément, il semblerait que celle-ci soit fréquemment influencée par l’efficacité des processus décisionnels qui s’effectuent sous pression temporelle. A ce titre, ce travail de thèse s’intéresse à l’effet de l’administration de trois supplémentations nutritionnelles classiquement consommées par les athlètes (hydrates de carbone, caféine et guarana) sur le fonctionnement cognitif au cours d’un exercice. Nos résultats indiquent que l’ingestion isolée de ces trois composés améliore la vitesse du traitement de l’information lors d'une tâche décisionnelle dès la fin d’un exercice. Par ailleurs, l’utilisation de la caféine en rinçage de bouche semble aussi pertinente, puisque nos résultats suggèrent une amélioration probable de l’efficacité des processus relatifs à la gestion d’un conflit au cours de l’exercice. Enfin, une diminution de la perception de l’effort est aussi rapportée lors de l’ingestion de caféine et de guarana, ou de l’utilisation d’hydrates de carbone en rinçage de bouche. L’ensemble de ces résultats indique une potentialisation de l’effet de l’exercice sur la performance cognitive. Il suggère aussi que la mise en place de supplémentations nutritionnelles lors d’un exercice améliore l’efficacité de processus cognitifs qui s’avèrent être essentiels à la performance sportive.
... Guarana's stimulant properties have been attributed to its caffeine content and high quantities of saponins and tannins [60]. The cognitive benefit of guarana is proposed to be related to its ability to decrease the physiological response to physical or psychological stressors [59]. It has been proposed that the impact of guarana on cognition is due to the synergistic effect of its constituents, such as caffeine [105] and theanine [106]. ...
... Four studies, involving a total of 224 participants, examined the effect of acute doses of guarana on cognition (see Table 3). Two utilised crossover designs [59,61] and two used an independent groups design [58,61]. Sample compositions varied across the studies: predominantly female (two studies), approximate even gender distribution (one study), and active males only (one study). ...
... Sample compositions varied across the studies: predominantly female (two studies), approximate even gender distribution (one study), and active males only (one study). A standardised guarana extract was used by Kennedy et al. [59] (75 mg) and Haskell et al. [58] (37.5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg). The other two studies administered a multivitamin + guarana supplement (Berocca Boost®, hereby referred to as MVM + G) in the form of an effervescent tablet dissolved in water. ...
Article
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Intake of dietary supplements has increased, despite evidence that some of these have adverse side effects and uncertainty about their effectiveness. This systematic review examined the evidence for the cognitive benefits of a wide range of dietary supplements in healthy young adult samples; the aim was to identify if any might be useful for optimising cognitive performance during deployment in military personnel. Searches were conducted in 9 databases and 13 grey literature repositories for relevant studies published between January 2000 and June 2017. Eligible studies recruited healthy young adults (18–35 years), administered a legal dietary supplement, included a comparison control group, and assessed cognitive outcome(s). Thirty-seven of 394 identified studies met inclusion criteria and were included for synthesis. Most research was deemed of low quality (72.97%; SIGN50 guidelines), highlighting the need for sound empirical research in this area. Nonetheless, we suggest that tyrosine or caffeine could be used in healthy young adults in a military context to enhance cognitive performance when personnel are sleep-deprived. Caffeine also has the potential benefit of improving vigilance and attention during sustained operations offering little opportunity for sleep. Inconsistent findings and methodological limitations preclude firm recommendations about the use of other specific dietary supplements.
... Thus, we propose the CDR computerized assessment system (Keith A. Wesnes, 2000) for the evaluation of the effects of guarana on cognition accompanied by the Serial of 3s and Serial of 7s tasks. The CDR battery has been found sensitive for the assessment of the cognitive effects of herbal extracts and can be used to both mentally impaired and healthy participants (Kennedy, 2004). ...
... Studies made on guarana show that the herb improves decisionmaking performance (Pomportes et al., 2014), temporal performance (Pomportes et al., 2017), task performance (Kennedy et al., 2004), working memory and attentional processing (Scholey et al., 2013). Promising effects in some cognitive domains were found by Haskell et al. (2007), Kennedy et al. (2004), Scholey et al. (2013) and Nehlig (2010. ...
... Studies made on guarana show that the herb improves decisionmaking performance (Pomportes et al., 2014), temporal performance (Pomportes et al., 2017), task performance (Kennedy et al., 2004), working memory and attentional processing (Scholey et al., 2013). Promising effects in some cognitive domains were found by Haskell et al. (2007), Kennedy et al. (2004), Scholey et al. (2013) and Nehlig (2010. ...
Article
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Objectives Guarana (Paullinia cupana) from the Sapindaceae family, native to the Amazon basin, is a natural stimulant herb that can be found in popular energy drinks, pharmaceutical shops or local herb shops. With the use of natural health products increasing, guarana has gained a fair amount of popularity in the past years. In this systematic review, we examined the effects of guarana supplementation on cognitive performance. A secondary objective was to compare guarana with caffeine on cognitive performance. Methods Searches were made in PubMed using the terms ‘Guarana’ or ‘Paullinia cupana’. Filters focused on Controlled Clinical trials. Inclusion criteria were met by studies using interventions with guarana, while focusing on guarana’s effects on cognition. Participants needed to be young, healthy adults. Studies not published in English or Greek were excluded. The last date of our search was March 7, 2019. Results A total of 29 studies were identified and screened. After screening, 17 studies were excluded. The remaining 12 studies were found eligible for data extraction. After reading the full text of the 12 studies, 3 studies were excluded. In the end, 9 studies were found eligible for our systematic review (n = 369 participants). In these studies, guarana showed to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at cognitive tasks. No significant differences were found when comparing guarana with caffeine. Conclusion Guarana seems to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at tasks, but no significant effects were found when compared with caffeine. High quality randomized controlled clinical trials with a low risk of bias are needed to further study the herb.
... A typical dose is 75 mg of guarana extract (approximately 12% caffeine) administered as a tablet [243]. Guarana should not be used in persons with cardiovascular disease, who are pregnant or breastfeeding, have chronic headaches, diabetes, insomnia, mental disorders, stomach ulcers, or are taking theophylline [244]. ...
... The available literature suggests that the cardiovascular effects experienced by those consuming up to 600 mg of caffeine per day are, in most cases, mild, transient, and reversible, with no per-manent adverse effects [262]. A typical dose of guarana is 75 mg of extract (approximately 12% caffeine) taken as a tablet [243]. Each such tablet, therefore, contains an average of 9 mg of caffeine. ...
Article
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Nootropics, also known as “smart drugs” are a diverse group of medicinal substances whose action improves human thinking, learning, and memory, especially in cases where these functions are impaired. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the potential effectiveness and importance of nootropics. Based on their nature and their effects, this heterogeneous group of drugs has been divided into four subgroups: classical nootropic compounds, substances increasing brain metabolism, cholinergic, and plants and their extracts with nootropic effects. Each subgroup of nootropics contains several main representatives, and for each one, its uses, indications, experimental treatments, dosage, and possible side effects and contraindications are discussed. For the nootropic plant extracts, there is also a brief description of each plant representative, its occurrence, history, and chemical composition of the medicinal part. Lastly, specific recommendations regarding the use of nootropics by both ill and healthy individuals are summarized.
... The Paullinia cupana is a plant that exhibits various biological properties, such as antioxidant (Basile et al., 2005;Jimoh, Sofidiya & Afolayan, 2007;Mattei, Dias, Espínola, Carlini, & Barros, 1998), antimicrobial (da Fonseca, Leal, Costa, & Leitão, 1994, anti-allergic (Jippo et al., 2009), antiplatelet (Haller, Jacob & Benowitz, 2005), antitumor (Fukumasu et al., 2008), anti-fatigue (Haskell, Kennedy, Wesnes, Milne, & Scholey, 2007;Kennedy, Haskell, Wesnes, & Scholey, 2004), and antiobesogenic activities (Lima et al., 2005). ...
... Our study did not evaluate the physical performance, but this variable is directly related to the decrease of fatigue (Duarte et al., 2009). Other studies have also shown that the ingestion of guarana is directly related to an improvement of human mood, increase of cognitive performance, and reduction of mental fatigue (Haskell et al., 2007;Kennedy et al., 2004Kennedy et al., , 2008. ...
Article
The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) supplementation in capsules, for 30 days, were evaluated for the following dosages: placebo, 200 mg/day, and 400 mg/day. Clinical symptomatology, hematological, biochemical, and renal function parameters were evaluated in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialytic treatment. Most patients in the groups of 200 mg/day and 400 mg/day of guarana reported increased mood/energy, decreased fatigue, and increased appetite. The rate of patients reporting increased headache, insomnia, gastric discomfort, and nausea/vomiting was higher in the 400 mg/day group, while most patients in the placebo group and 200 mg/day of guarana group did not report any changes. The 200 mg/day and 400 mg/day groups had higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values after 30 days of supplementation when compared to the placebo group. Additionally, a reduction in hematological parameters and increase in glucose were seen in the placebo group. Guarana, especially at a dosage of 200 mg/day, is safe and effective in improving clinical symptoms and maintaining hemoglobin and hematocrit values.
... O guaraná (Paullinia cupana) é mundialmente uma das bebidas mais agradáveis, não apenas por seu sabor, mas também por seus atributos terapêuticas (KENNEDY et al., 2004). Segundo o Ministério da Saúde, no Brasil, o extrato de guaraná usado no composto líquido destinado ao consumo na forma de extrato obtido da fruta das plantas Paulliniasorbilis ou Paullinia cupana que possui de 3 a 5% de cafeína, bem como 1% de teobromina. ...
... Guarana (Paulliniacupana) is one of the most pleasant drinks worldwide, not only for its flavor, but also for its therapeutic attributes (KENNEDY et al., 2004). According to the Ministry of Health, in Brazil, the guarana extract used in the liquid compound intended for consumption in the form of an extract obtained from the fruit of the plants Paulliniasorbilis or Paulliniacupana which has 3 to 5% caffeine, as well as 1% theobromine. ...
... In contrast to our findings, Reay et al. reported that a single dose of Panax Ginseng (200 mg, G115) improves cognitive performance, such as serial seven task in healthy adults, but high dosages (400 mg, G115) and placebo conditions did not improve the cognitive performance [41]. Other Ginseng studies also demonstrated that cognitive functions, such as speed of the attention task [42], and secondary memory performance of cognitive research battery [43], improved following a single dose of Panax Ginseng (200 mg, 400 mg, respectively). Some possible explanations, such as the modulation of blood glucose and nitric oxide (NO) production have been proposed as potential mechanisms that may contribute to the improvement of cognitive performance [41]. ...
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To examine the efficacy of wild ginseng extract (WGE) on psychomotor and neuromuscular performance recovery following acute eccentric exercise. This study was a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled design with a 14-day washout period. Ten male adults, aged 27.1 ± 4.33 years old, voluntarily participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to one of two parallel conditions (WGE or placebo) in a counterbalanced manner. Subjects consumed two packs of WGE (350 mg/package) or placebo drink immediately after acute eccentric exercise and the following four days. The eccentric exercise consisted of 20 min of downhill running at 60% of VO2peak and five sets (of 20) of drop jump exercise. Computer-based cognitive function test and neuromuscular performance tests, including straight leg raise, vertical jump, isometric leg strength, and anaerobic power test were administered four times, at baseline, 2 h, 48 h, and 96 h after acute exercise. The interleukin-6 (IL-6), myoglobin, cortisol, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed at each time point. A significance level was set at 0.05. No significant differences between the WGE and the placebo groups were observed in psychomotor and neuromuscular performance variables. Blood markers, including IL-6 (p = 0.013), myoglobin (p < 0.001), and cortisol level (p = 0.047) were changed significantly across the time. A post-hoc test revealed that a significant increase in IL-6 was observed only in the placebo group (p = 0.014), while no significant changes found in the WGE condition. The perceived muscle soreness was not different between the WGE and the placebo conditions. The administration of WGE immediately after acute eccentric exercise and the following four days have no benefits on psychomotor and neuromuscular performance recovery in healthy adults. However, the acute WGE supplementation may attenuate the eccentric exercise-induced inflammatory process, such as IL-6, but future study with a large sample size is required to clarify the anti-inflammation process in response to acute eccentric exercise.
... In whole foods, polyphenols are found alongside a wide range of other plant-derived bioactive compounds and yet, to date, very little research exists on the co-administration of phytochemicals. Where data do exist, we see that combinations of phytochemicals can reveal synergistic effects [15][16][17]. With regard to co-administration of polyphenols with other phytochemicals, those with similar or complementary putative mechanisms may be of most interest. ...
Article
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Background: In whole foods, polyphenols exist alongside a wide array of other potentially bioactive phytochemicals. Yet, investigations of the effects of combinations of polyphenols with other phytochemicals are limited. Objective: The current study investigated the effects of combining extracts of beetroot, ginseng and sage with phenolic-rich apple, blueberry and coffee berry extracts. Design: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design investigated three active beverages in 32 healthy adults aged 18-49 years. Each investigational beverage comprised extracts of beetroot, ginseng and sage. Each also contained a phenolic-rich extract derived from apple (containing 234 mg flavanols), blueberry (300 mg anthocyanins) or coffee berry (440 mg chlorogenic acid). Cognition, mood and CBF parameters were assessed at baseline and then again at 60, 180 and 360 min post-drink. Results: Robust effects on mood and CBF were seen for the apple and coffee berry beverages, with increased subjective energetic arousal and hemodynamic responses being observed. Fewer effects were seen with the blueberry extract beverage. Conclusions: Either the combination of beetroot, ginseng and sage was enhanced by the synergistic addition of the apple and coffee berry extract (and to a lesser extent the blueberry extract) or the former two phenolic-rich extracts were capable of evincing the robust mood and CBF effects alone.
... Conversely, effects can be described as increased alertness and reduced fatigue associated with improved performance of activities [3,18,27,44,51]. ...
... Neale et al [68] have recently reviewed some relevant clinical studies on the effects of G115 on cognitive functions, namely, studies by Reay et al [93], Reay et al [92], Reay et al [90], Sünram-Lea et al [111], Kennedy et al [112], Kennedy et al [113], Scholey and Kennedy [114], and Kennedy et al [115]. This review assessed that G115 enhances cognition effects comparable with those from modafinil therapy. ...
Article
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Ginseng products on the market show high variability in their composition and overall quality. This becomes a challenge for both consumers and health-care professionals who are in search of high-quality, reliable ginseng products that have a proven safety and efficacy profile. The botanical extract standardization is of crucial importance in this context as it determines the reproducibility of the quality of the product that is essential for the evaluation of effectiveness and safety. This review focuses on the well-characterized and standardized ginseng extract, G115, which represents an excellent example of an herbal drug preparation with constant safety and efficacy within the herbal medicinal products. Over the many decades, extensive preclinical and clinical research has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of G115. In vitro and in vivo studies of G115 have shown pharmacological effects on physical performance, cognitive function, metabolism, and the immune system. Furthermore, a significant number of G115 clinical studies, most of them double-blind placebo-controlled, have reinforced the findings of preclinical evidence and proved the efficacy of this extract on blood glucose and lipid regulation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, energy, physical performance, and immune and cognitive functions. Clinical trials and 50 years of presence on the market are proof of a good safety profile of G115. Keywords: Blood glucose and lipid regulation, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Energy and physical performance, G115 standardized ginseng extract, Immune and cognitive functions
... Several biological effects are attributed to guarana's chemical matrix, such as antioxidant (Basile et al. 2005;Majhenič et al. 2007;Bittencourt et al. 2013), antitumor (Fukumasu et al. 2006a(Fukumasu et al. , b, 2008Hertz et al. 2014;Cadoná et al. 2016Cadoná et al. , 2017, in vitro anti-senescent (Machado et al. 2015), hypolipimiant (Suleiman et al. 2016;Ruchel et al. 2016), anti-inflammatory (Krewer Cda et al. 2014Ruchel et al. 2016), antifatigue effects (de Oliveira et al. 2011), and improvement of cognitive performance (Kennedy et al. 2004). Moreover, prior investigations suggested that guarana displays protective effects against environmental pollutants, such as cadmium (Leite et al. 2011(Leite et al. , 2013 and paraquat (Bonadiman et al. 2017), and against toxicity caused by MeHg exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans (Arantes et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known environmental pollutant associated with neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. However, epidemiological data showed that people living in the Amazon region although exposed to MeHg do not present these effects probably due to the protective effect of certain foods. We hypothesized here if guarana, a highly caffeinated fruit and consumed on a daily basis by Amazon people, could have some protective effect against MeHg toxicity using two complementary approaches. To assess locomotor impairment and sleep disruption, we used fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) model, and to evaluate neuroinflammation, we used human SH-SY5Y neural cells by measuring inflammatory cytokines levels. Results showed that guarana had a protective effect on the locomotor activity of male fruit flies reducing the excessive sleepiness caused by MeHg and increasing daily activity. Also, guarana increased the viability of flies and attenuated neural cells mortality. In addition, guarana reduced all pro-inflammatory cytokines levels increased by MeHg, along with caspase-1, caspase -3, caspase-8, and 8-dOHG levels, whereas increased the anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine levels, which was decreased by MeHg. Our study provides new insights on the protective effects of guarana on the viability, locomotor activity, sleep, and activity patterns in vivo and the in vitro neuronal anti-inflammatory effect against MeHg toxicity.
... The effect of guarana is not only explained by caffeine, but a possible synergistic action with other ingredients such as ginseng is questioned. Kennedy, Haskell, Wesnes, & Scholey (2004) administered 75 mg guarana and/or 200 mg ginseng and observed the acute effect of the administered active ingredients 1-6h after administration on various computer-controlled cognitive abilities (similar to PVT). The positive effects of an acute dose of ginseng on cognitive abilities and mood 1-6h after administration was first presented by Kennedy, Scholey, & Wesnes (2001). ...
Conference Paper
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Energy drinks are frequently purported as a non-alcoholic beverage food commodity to im-prove cognitive function and concentration and as such is marketed especially on vulnerable populations such as professional drivers, students, managers. We aimed to explore the acute dose-effect of commercially available multi-ingredient beverage on cognitive performance. Twenty adult university students, caffeine-deprived received two 500 ml non-alcoholic, glucose-free, multi-herbal extract drinks differing in ingredients dose: DRINK100, threefold higher concentration dosage (DRINK300) and ingredients-free, flavored-matched placebo (PLA) in a double-blind, three-way cross over, randomized order, separated by a 7-day wash-out period. Cognitive functions, autonomous nervous system activity, and specific mental performance were assessed. Drinks were consumed in the late evening (20 p.m.). Standardized psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) to detect reaction time, lapses and the total score and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (software-driven, standing/lying down with ~300 beats recorded in each position, relative change in total power score be-tween consecutive measurements was used) took place immediately prior and 60, 120 and 180 min post-drink consumption (post-drink). Thirty minutes of the cognitively demanding task (continuous manual text transcription) was commenced immediately and in 90, and 150 min post-drink. Total word counts were used in assessing mental performance chang-es. The ecologically valid methodology was used to mimic typical students time of drink consumption. During the 60min post-drink, the level of alertness decreased independently of the drink category, however, DRINK300 increased correct: lapsus ratio in 120 min and this remained elevated until the end of testing. No significant effect of DRINK100 over PLA on vigilance was present. DRINK300 led to an increase in autonomic nervous system activity after drink admin-istration in 60–90 minutes post-drink with a clear decline observed in PLA. This corresponds with a significant increase in the number of words transcripted in the corresponding time in DRINK300, however, not sustained in 180 min post-drink. We demonstrate an acute and transitional dose-effect of multi-herbal caffeine-containing non-energetic beverage on cognitive and autonomous nervous system performance. The effect appears to be evident immediately ( < 30 min) post-drink. A beverage containing guar-ana equivalent to 120 mg of caffeine reduce cognitive performance impairment and this is sustained over ~180 min.
... La drogue correspond à la graine,(210) (202).La graine contient de fortes concentrations en caféine, ainsi que d'autres bases puriques de la famille des méthylxanthines : théobromine et théophylline,(202). Les extraits de guarana améliorent les performances cérébrales et réduisent la fatigue mentale,(211) (212).Concernant les effets indésirables du guarana, la littérature fait état de douleurs musculaires, de troubles gastro-intestinaux, d'anxiété, d'irritabilité, d'insomnie, de fibrillation auriculaire et d'hypertension artérielle,(210) (213). Les intéractions potentielles et les précautions d'emplois sont celles liées à la présence de caféine. ...
Thesis
De tout temps et dans de nombreuses cultures, l’Homme a cherché dans son environnement, et plus particulièrement dans les plantes, les moyens de se soigner. Aujourd’hui, même si notre médecine moderne a permis l’émergence d’un arsenal thérapeutique efficace, la phytothérapie connait un regain d’intérêt. Cette thèse a pour but de constituer une aide utile à l’usage du praticien souhaitant conseiller la phytothérapie comme traitement de l’insomnie. Nous avons ainsi fait un rappel de l’architecture et de la physiologie du sommeil ainsi que des différents types d’insomnies. Rappel suivi d’un retour en arrière sur les usages de drogues végétales dans les médecines traditionnelles. Nous avons abordé le rôle du pharmacien et son conseil, et présenté l’état de nos connaissances sur les principales drogues végétales disponibles et indiquées dans le traitement de l’insomnie. En plus de présenter ces différentes drogues végétales, nous nous sommes efforcés de confirmer les propriétés qui leurs sont traditionnellement attribuées. Nous avons ainsi compilé un grand nombre d’études scientifiques qui ont permis de citer de nombreux principes actifs, mécanismes d’action, et de confirmer l’efficacité de tel ou tel extrait de drogue végétale. Nous avons aussi regroupé les effets indésirables, cas de toxicité, intéractions et contreindications citées dans la littérature. De plus cette étude s’est étendue aux drogues permettant de traiter des facteurs importants souvent associés à l’insomnie : anxiété, dépression ou encore fatigue diurne.
... One case report shows that ginseng reduced the diuretic effect of furosemide and other loop diuretics but this interaction needs further evaluation (Bressler, 2005;Charrois et al., 2006). Caffeine and ginseng improve cognitive performance so care is needed when used simultaneously (Kennedy, Haskell, Wesnes, & Scholey, 2004). Ginseng interacts with anti-diabetics and insulin via lowering the blood glucose level, as ginseng and is reported to improve insulin sensitivity (Vuksan et al., 2008) so diabetics need more attention while using ginseng. ...
Article
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Background: Mechanistic studies suggest that ginseng, as dietary supplement, plays a key role in disease prevention by modulating the immune function of human body. The root of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius (Family: Araliaceae) are commonly known as ‘ginseng’. Ginseng roots are well known for their high content of saponins, ginsenosides, phenolic compounds, including carbohydrates and carotenoids. In recent years, there is a growing interest in the role of ginseng as a nutraceutical or functional food with increasing market value. Extracts and bioactive compounds isolated from ginseng are studied for their various health promoting activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperglycemic, skin protecting, anti-osteoporotic anticancer, anti-infective and respiratory problems. Scope and approach: The present review reports structural and functional diversity of ginseng, key bioactive compounds, their immunity boosting potential and studies related to cell mediated and humoral immunity of ginseng. Immunity-boosting power of ginseng against cancer, autoimmune diseases and viral and bacterial infections has been compiled. The vaccine adjuvant role, safety profile and drug interactions ginseng and derived products are also discussed. Nano-ginseng as immune modulators has been a unit of article. The clinical trials carried out and patent portfolio of ginseng against immune disorders is the important section of this article. Patent search was performed by using The Patent Lens search engine and results included under heading “Ginseng based Patents for immunomodulation”. Key isolated compounds have been mentioned along with their structures to give a quick overview of the chemical constituents. Key findings and conclusions: After critically reviewing the immune potential of ginseng both in vitro and in vivo and even describing the clinical data in humans we reached at conclusion that ginseng can be considered as good candidates for the development of novel functional foods that has natural potential to modulate immunity against various diseases. Future work will have to focus on the identification of the relevant compounds from ginseng, the thorough preclinical characterization and selection of the candidate bioactives, and the rational design of immunotherapy studies involving objective as well as subjective parameters for measuring clinical efficacy. We believe that this review will be a valuable resource for more studies on ginseng as a dietary supplement in relevance to immune-modulation.
... Guarana has been used for a long time by the Indians as a stimulant and this effect is greatly associated with the presence of a large amount of caffeine in guarana seeds as above-mentioned. The psychoactive properties of the guarana extract were first observed by Kennedy et al. (2004). The results showed that doses of guarana (75 mg) and ginseng alone, or the combination of the two plants, led to an improvement in cognitive performance in humans. ...
Article
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Seeds of guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae) feature diverse pharmacological functions, for example, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, stimulating, and cognitive functions, as well as liver protection and weight loss. Many of these actions are probably due to the high content of methylxanthines and tannins in its seeds. In Brazil, the world's largest producer of guarana, the plant material is predominantly used in the soft drinks industry, although it is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Although the Amazon region has the largest cropping area, the state of Bahia is the main guarana producer in Brazil (71%). This review focuses mainly on the possible pharmacological actions of guarana that have been investigated. Moreover, it discusses less-considered topics, such as the toxicology and quality control of seeds and extractives of guarana that will ultimately influence the safety of its use. In addition, it presents a detailed discussion of the methods used to prepare herbal drugs and their extracts, focusing on the importance of standardization and on the direct impact of preparatory factors, on the pharmacological properties of guarana extracts.
... Avaliou-se os efeitos do guaraná em ratos sobre a capacidade de manter a memória e reverter amnésia (ESPINOLA et al., 1997 Com relação aos seres humanos, os efeitos cognitivos do guaraná têm se mostrado controversos. Por um lado, já foi observado que o guaraná aumenta os efeitos psicoativos melhorando o desempenho, sendo este efeito principalmente sobre a atenção e precisão (KENNEDY et al., 2004). O mesmo grupo demonstrou recentemente num estudo duplo-cego placebo os efeitos de diferentes doses do guaraná em humanos (HASKELL et al., 2007). ...
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O câncer é a segunda maior causa de morte no Brasil, atrás apenas de doenças cardíacas. Por isto, é evidente que grandes recursos sejam direcionados para a pesquisa no descobrimento de novas opções com a finalidade de erradicar esta doença. Dentre estas opções, a quimioprevenção do câncer tem chamado a atenção já que, mesmo com os imensos avanços no conhecimento sobre os mecanismos da carcinogênese e conseqüente desenvolvimento de novas drogas, os dados estatísticos de mortalidade não se tornaram menores. Somando-se a estes fatos, deve ser considerado que no Brasil o tratamento padrão do câncer não chega a todas as pessoas por ser extremamente caro. Desta forma, a quimioprevenção do câncer com fatores presentes na dieta ou oriundos de fontes consideradas baratas como fitoterápicos, deve ser apreciada. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos quimiopreventivos e antineoplásicos de uma planta brasileira, o guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis). Foram utilizados alguns experimentos em camundongos como indução genotóxica em fígado pela Dietilnitrosamina (DEN); carcinogênese pulmonar induzida pela 4-(metilnitrosamino)-1-(3-piridil)-1-butanona (NNK), uma nitrosamina presente no tabaco; tumor ascítico de Ehrlich; disseminação hematógena de melanoma B16/f10; e cultivo de células tumorais e não tumorais. Além disso, caracterizou-se o papel da Conexin43 na carcinogênese pulmonar induzida pelo NNK e os efeitos do guaraná sobre o receptor CAR e sua ação quando da administração do ligante do CAR, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropiridiloxi)]benzeno (TCPOBOP). Pudemos observar efeitos quimiopreventivos e antineoplásicos do guaraná dependendo do modelo utilizado, demonstrando que seu modo de ação principal é a redução da proliferação celular. Além disso, observamos que os tumores de pulmão dos animais tratados com a planta apresentavam menor tamanho, menor grau maligno, menor índice de proliferação celular e menor ativação do fator de transcrição CREB. Observamos também que a Conexina43 (Cx43) tem importante papel na carcinogênese pulmonar induzida pelo NNK, atuando como supressor tumoral e em fases tardias possivelmente tendo papel inverso, ou seja, como um oncogene. Caracterizamos os efeitos do guaraná sobre a ativação do receptor CAR e demonstramos que, por si só, o guaraná induz a expressão do CAR, além de alterar a expressão de alguns de seus transcritos como a CYP2B10 e CYP3A11. Ao analisarmos os efeitos de extratos de guaraná sobre células de tumor de pulmão (E9) in vitro, verificamos o mesmo efeito antiproliferativo, diminuindo a expressão do PCNA e da Conexina43 de maneira dose-dependente, além de verificar um aumento da expressão do receptor CAR. Ao fim propomos uma hipótese de mecanismo de ação baseando-se nas alterações encontradas oriundas da administração do guaraná. Concluímos que o guaraná apresenta componentes com ação antitumoral em camundongos, tendo efeito quimiopreventivo ou antineoplásico dependendo do modelo utilizado.
... Paullinia cupana Asteraceae Cognitive ability [18], hepatoprotective [19] Brazilian amazon basin Seeds ...
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In recent decades, the use of plants as a natural remedy has been widely applied in traditional medicine and the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, in order to confirm the potential benefits of anticancer drug development from natural sources, in-depth screening assessments are necessary. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of eight medicinal plants against breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Remarkably, among all the tested plant extracts, Pyracantha angustifolia and Paullinia cupana extracts showed maximum inhibition in the two cancer cell line models, as detected by cell viability assays, but not in normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, induction of cell cycle arrest was seen in both cancer cell models after treatment with extracts derived from the fruits of P. angustifolia and the seeds of P. cupana. Phytochemical and antioxidant analyses demonstrated the presence of high phenolic and flavonoid contents, including an increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity. The growth inhibition of human breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells mediated by both extracts appears to be associated with apoptosis and upregulated expression of pro-apoptotic genes (caspase-3, caspase-7, tumor suppressor protein-p53, cytochrome c, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, and Bcl-2-associated X-protein). Together, these results indicate that P. angustifolia and P. cupana offer a promising approach for the development of anticancer agents. However, further detailed research is required to make these plants applicable for therapeutic use
... Human cognition may be enhanced by energy drinks containing caffeine and/or other stimulants (such as taurine, vitamin B, guarana, yerba mate, acai, ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, glucuronolactone, and ginkgo biloba), which are thought to improve cognitive performance, alertness, mood, attentional performance, increase wakefulness, help maintain attentional focus, concentration, endurance information processing and vigilance, decrease fatigue, and reduce reaction times (Seidl et al., 2000;Kennedy et al., 2004;Deslandes et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Heckman et al., 2010;Alsunni, 2011;Gurley et al., 2015;Boolani et al., 2017;Socci et al., 2017;Karabay et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Human cognition may be enhanced by energy drinks containing caffeine and/or other stimulants, which are thought to improve attentional as well as motor performance, and reduce reaction times. Due to the fact that literature shows that even low doses of caffeine may improve cognitive performance, we investigated an acute effect of a single dose of a caffeinated energy dietary supplement, on attention and motor responses by means of event related potentials. Healthy volunteers were examined in double blind, placebo controlled study. EEG recordings from 32 channels were performed in three sessions: before the supplementation (session 1), 30 min after the supplementation (session 2) and 90 min after the supplementation (session 3) in three tasks: visual P3, auditory P3, and motor task. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed reduced P3 amplitude increase after energy dietary supplementation (compared to placebo group) throughout all sessions (up to 90 min after consumption) in the visual task, and speeding the classification process observed as a decrease of P3 midpoint latency, but only 30 min after supplementation. The latter effect was present in both, but more pronounced in the visual task. Nonparametric cluster based permutation analysis showed one significant cluster in the placebo group from visual P3 task (approximately between 400 and 520 ms) over the centro‑parietal area, which was absent in the study group. Our results suggest that caffeinated energy dietary supplement containing only 55 mg of caffeine may enhance some attentional processes observed by changes in P3 features, but not in motor performance.
... Bir çalışmada sadece 9 mg kafein, 200 mg Panax ginseng ya da kombine olarak ikisini de içeren 75 mg guarana'nın yutulmasını takiben karşılaştırmalı olarak 6 saat boyunca bilişsel performans üzerine etkileri gösterilmiştir [42]. Ancak ginseng tüketiminin bilişsel yararı olduğunu kanıtlayan çalışmalar yetersizdir. ...
Article
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Toxicological Evaluation of Energy Drinks on Health Effects Energy drinks have been consumed to provide energy requirement and maintain mental alertness. It has been shown that the primary consumers of energy drinks are teenagers and adults. The researches on energy drinks, which are generally focused on the behavior and physical activities of consumption of energy drinks, are less and limited. The studied parameters have provided limited data and have not enough information on their health effects and safety. Since the limited studies on energy drinks, to evaluate the effects of energy drinks on health, in this review the toxicity of ingredients of energy drinks were evaluated. Moreover, it has been concluded that it is necessary to provide the deliberative consumption of energy drinks, to give necessary education on this issue, and to execute essential regulations of energy drinks.
... Paullinia cupana is a plant native to the Amazon basin which is especially common in Brazil [100]. A review study on the effect of Guarana among healthy individuals reported an improvement in reaction time and accuracy of performance at cognitive tasks [82]. ...
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Introduction: Cognitive enhancers (CEs), also known as "smart drugs", "study aids" or "nootropics" are a cause of concern. Recent research studies investigated the use of CEs being taken as study aids by university students. This manuscript provides an overview of popular CEs, focusing on a range of drugs/substances (e.g., prescription CEs including amphetamine salt mixtures, methylphenidate, modafinil and piracetam; and non-prescription CEs including caffeine, cobalamin (vitamin B12), guarana, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and vinpocetine) that have emerged as being misused. The diverted non-prescription use of these molecules and the related potential for dependence and/or addiction is being reported. It has been demonstrated that healthy students (i.e., those without any diagnosed mental disorders) are increasingly using drugs such as methylphenidate, a mixture of dextroamphetamine/amphetamine, and modafinil, for the purpose of increasing their alertness, concentration or memory. Aim: To investigate the level of knowledge, perception and impact of the use of a range of CEs within Higher Education Institutions. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Whilst 1400 studies were identified within this study through a variety of electronic databases (e.g., 520 through PubMed, 490 through Science Direct and 390 through Scopus), 48 papers were deemed relevant and were included in this review. Results: The most popular molecules identified here included the stimulant CEs, e.g., methylphenidate, modafinil, amphetamine salt mixtures and caffeine-related compounds; stimulant CEs' intake was more prevalent among males than females; drugs were largely obtained from friends and family, as well as via the Internet. It is therefore suggested that CEs are increasingly being used among healthy individuals, mainly students without any diagnosed cognitive disorders, to increase their alertness, concentration, or memory, in the belief that these CEs will improve their performance during examinations or when studying. The impact of stimulant CEs may include tolerance, dependence and/or somatic (e.g., cardiovascular; neurological) complications. Discussion: The availability of CEs for non-medical indications in different countries is influenced by a range of factors including legal, social and ethical factors. Considering the risk factors and motivations that encourage university students to use CE drugs, it is essential to raise awareness about CE-related harms, counteract myths regarding "safe" CE use and address cognitive enhancement in an early stage during education as a preventative public health measure.
... Additionally, the seeds from Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) contain tannins and methylxanthines as active compounds. Two double-blind and placebo-controlled studies confirmed the positive effects of standardized guarana seed extracts on mental health due to an improvement in cognitive performance in healthy participants, and on fatigue in breast cancer patients [154,155]. In two animal studies, guarana seed administration was associated with changes in the rat gut microbiome. ...
... Additionally, the seeds from Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) contain tannins and methylxanthines as active compounds. Two double-blind and placebo-controlled studies confirmed the positive effects of standardized guarana seed extracts on mental health due to an improvement in cognitive performance in healthy participants, and on fatigue in breast cancer patients [154,155]. In two animal studies, guarana seed administration was associated with changes in the rat gut microbiome. ...
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Plant extracts have long been known to contain a plethora of bioactive compounds and induce numerous therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Similar to several other NDs, Huntington’s disease (HD) also has pathological hallmarks such as oxidative stress and accumulation of protein aggregates. Plant extracts such as Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala and guarana showed appreciable protective efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo models. Curcumin attenuated Htt protein proteins in mouse models. Therefore, it can be understood that various kinds of plants produce numerous bioactive molecules that show exemplary therapeutic efficacy against HD. This chapter highlights the pros and cons of plant extracts in the treatment of HD.
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There are several types of ginseng, including Asian (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), both of which are considered adaptogens. For both plants, the active constituents come from the roots. Based on available clinical evidence, Asian ginseng would be the preferred ginseng for congestive heart failure, menopause, or erectile dysfunction, whereas American ginseng would be preferred for diabetes, cognitive enhancement, and prevention or treatment of upper respiratory infections. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on ginseng, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of the herb’s use in treating ophthalmological, ENT, cardiovascular, cardiometabolic, genitourinary, neurologic, and immune disorders, among others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of ginseng’s active constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
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Thesis
Bu araştırmanın temel amacı; futbolcularda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerji üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinde antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin aracılık rolünün belirlenmesidir. Araştırma kapsamında, futbolcularda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerjiyi etkileyeceği ve antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin bu ilişkide aracılık rolüne sahip olduğu ileri sürülen teorik bir model kurulmuş ve bu model yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2019-2020 sezonunda Türkiye profesyonel futbol liglerinde futbol oynayan ve araştırmamıza gönüllü olarak katılan 334 futbolcu oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada sosyo-demografik değişkenler ile ilgili bilgiler, araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan Kişisel Bilgi Formu ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın amacına ulaşmak için Türkçe uyarlaması Adiloğulları ve Görgülü tarafından gerçekleştirilen Lane ve arkadaşlarının “Sporda Duygusal Zekâ Envanteri”, Türkçe uyarlaması Altıntaş ve arkadaşları tarafından gerçekleştirilen Jowett ve Ntoumanis’ in “Antrenör – Sporcu İlişkisi Envanteri”, Türkçe uyarlaması Yıldız ve arkadaşları tarafından gerçekleştirilen Lu ve arkadaşlarının “Atletik Zihinsel Enerji Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır.Araştırma sonucunda duygusal zekânın, atletik zihinsel enerji ve antrenör – sporcu ilişkisini etkilediği; antrenör – sporcu ilişkisinin ise atletik zihinsel enerjiyi etkilediği ve duygusal zekâ ile atletik zihinsel enerji arasındaki dolaylı ilişkide aracılık rolü üstlendiği tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak önerilen teorik model doğrulanmıştır. / The main purpose of this study is to determine the mediator role of the coach-athlete relationship in the indirect effect of emotional intelligence on athletic mental energy in football players. Within the scope of the research, a theoretical model has been established which suggests that emotional intelligence affects athletic mental energy and that the coach-athlete relationship played a mediator role in this relationship. This model has been tested using structural equation modeling. The study group of the research consists of 334 football players playing in Turkish Professional Football Leagues in the 2019-2020 season. In the study, information about socio-demographic variables were collected with a Personal Information Form created by the researcher. To achieve the purpose of the study, Lane et al’s “Emotional Intelligence Inventory in Sports”, adapted to Turkish by Adiloğulları and Görgülü; Jowett and Ntoumanis’s “Trainer – Athlete Relationship Inventory”, adapted to Turkish by Altıntaş et al; Lu et al’s “Athletic Mental Energy Scale”, adapted to Turkish by Yıldız et al were used. As a result of the research, it was determined that emotional intelligence affects athletic mental energy and the coach-athlete relationship. Also, it was determined that the coach-athlete relationship affects athletic mental energy and played a mediator role in the indirect relationship between emotional intelligence and athletic mental energy. Consequently, the proposed theoretical model has been confirmed.
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Botanically known as Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), guarana is widely grown in Amazon region and naturally in Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. It is used in sugar and/or carbonated soft drinks, herbal teas and energy drinks in the form of guarana extract. Guarana has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant effects; improves cognitive performance; triggers weight loss and reduces lipid peroxidation. It has important effects on various methods and treatments from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, from memory and liveliness to cancer. It is also known that guarana enhances biological activities and psychological effects on the body. This compilation has been conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of guarana, its metabolites, the mechanism of its effect on psychological activities and health. GUHES 2 (2020) 709067
Article
Botanically known as Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), guarana is widely grown in Amazon region and naturally in Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. It is used in sugar and/or carbonated soft drinks, herbal teas and energy drinks in the form of guarana extract. Guarana has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant effects; improves cognitive performance; triggers weight loss and reduces lipid peroxidation. It has important effects on various methods and treatments from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, from memory and liveliness to cancer. It is also known that guarana enhances biological activities and psychological effects on the body. This compilation has been conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of guarana, its metabolites, the mechanism of its effect on psychological activities and health.
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Objective: Lack of mental energy is one of the leading reasons adults turn to dietary supplements, with three out of ten supplement users hoping to improve their energy level; even more consume caffeine-containing products for the same reason. Despite this interest from consumers, there is no consensus scientific definition of mental energy or sole validated instrument for measuring it. We performed this review to summarize main findings from research regarding the influence of natural dietary compounds on three aspects of mental energy: cognition (vigilance), motivation (to do mental work), and mood (feelings of energy and/or absence of feelings of fatigue). Methods: A narrative review of key papers. Results: In addition to caffeine, a number of other compounds, including the polyphenols, which are found in all plant-derived products, and the phytochemicals in culinary herbs and herbal products such as Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba, have been shown in animal models to modulate neurotransmitter activity potentially relevant to mental energy. Inadequate intake of B vitamins could also potentially have a negative effect on mental energy due to their role in overall energy production, as precursors of key cofactors in the citric acid cycle, as well as their role in brain function and neurotransmitter synthesis. Consumption of some of these products may have direct or indirect effects on one or more elements of mental energy. Conclusion: Large, prospective clinical trials of these products using appropriate, validated instruments designed to measure mental energy may be worthwhile if sufficient evidence exists to justify such trials.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cognitive symptom is a “core” symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with clear deficit in memory, social and occupational function, and may persist during the remitting phase. Therefore, the remission of cognitive symptom has been considered as one of the main objectives in the treatment of MDD. Herbal antidepressants have been used to treat MDD, and there has been great advances in the understanding of the ability of these herbs to improve cognitive deficit linked to brain injury and various diseases including depression, Alzheimer disease, diabetes and age-related disorders. This systematic review summarizes the evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials of herbal antidepressants with positive effects on cognitive deficit. The potential mechanisms by which herbal antidepressants prevent cognitive deficit are also reviewed. This review will facilitate further research and applications. Materials and methods We conducted an open-ended, English restricted search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus for all available articles published or online before 31 December 2019, using terms pertaining to medical herb/phytomedicine/phytochemical/Chinese medicine and depression/major depressive disorder/antidepressant and/or cognitive impairment/cognitive deficit/cognitive dysfunction. Results 7 prescriptions, more than 30 individual herbs and 50 phytochemicals from China, Japan, Korea and India with positive effects on the depressive state and cognitive deficit are reviewed herein. The evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials proves that these herbal antidepressants exhibit positive effects on one or more aspects of cognitive defect including spatial, episodic, aversive, and short- and long-term memory. The action mode of the improvement of cognitive deficit by these herbal antidepressants is mediated mainly through two pathways. One pathway is to promote hippocampal neurogenesis through activating brain derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. The other pathway is to prevent neuronal apoptosis through the inhibition of neuro-inflammation and neuro-oxidation. Conclusion These herbal antidepressants, having potential therapy for cognitive deficit, may prevent pathological processes of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, these herbal medicines should provide a treasure trove, which will accelerate the development of new antidepressants that can effectively improve cognitive symptom in MDD. Studies on their molecular mechanisms may provide more potential targets and therapeutic approaches for new drug discovery.
Chapter
Dementia is a chronic condition characterized by the decreased cognitive capacity, which is more severe than in case of normal aging. Cognitive impairment is a major social and economic problem of modern society, which affects about 47 million people worldwide. The first stage of dementia (mild cognitive impairment) is characterized by the decline of memory, executive function, attention, visuospatial skills and speech. Pathogenic links of cognitive impairment are represented by neuroinflammation, excessive amyloid-β protein deposition, oxidative stress, hyperphosphorylation etc. In the recent years, the interest in natural plant-derived compounds for the treatment of cognitive decline has increased. In this chapter, we summarize the available evidence supporting the benevolent action of some botanicals and phytochemicals on cognitive function. The most widely studied plants include Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and Camellia sinensis (green tea), but there also some other promising ones like guarana, grape, soy etc. These nutraceuticals mostly influence memory, learning and attention. At the moment it is quite difficult to make a definite conclusion on the effects of nutraceuticals on cognitive decline, because human trials show significant discrepancies. This underpins the need of future trials and scientific analysis.
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Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. Qi Fu Yin is mainly used to treat dementia, particularly AD, in the clinic, but its comprehensive mechanisms are not known. Objective In this research, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of Qi Fu Yin in AD by network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods First, the chemical constituents in Qi Fu Yin were obtained from five databases and classified according to their structure. Targets of chemical constituents and AD-related targets were also collected from the databases. Then, overlapping genes between Qi Fu Yin and AD were identified by intersection analysis. MetaCore was used to gather enrichment information. Combination synergy analysis was performed by Cytoscape. After ligand-receptor docking, the binding affinity was verified by ADP-Glo™ kinase assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Results We found 12 classes with 977 components in Qi Fu Yin. A total of 511 compounds and 577 potential target proteins in Qi Fu Yin were found to be related to AD. The pathways of Qi Fu Yin in AD included oxidative stress and immune response. There was the best binding affinity between 11 pairs of genes and compounds. Furthermore, CDK5 was inhibited by nepetin with an IC50 of 3.172 μM and kaempferol with an IC50 of 2.659 μM. Ceanothic acid and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited GSK3β, and the IC50 values were 8.732 μM and 8.06 μM, respectively. Conclusion Qi Fu Yin might alleviate Tau hyperphosphorylation by nepetin, kaempferol, ceanothic acid and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, yeni bir kavram olarak değerlendirilebilecek atletik zihinsel enerjinin ölçümü için Lu ve arkadaşları (2018) tarafından geliştirilen Atletik Zihinsel Enerji Ölçeği'nin (AZEÖ) Türkçeye uyarlanması ve psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesidir. Çalışmaya farklı branşlarda müsabık seviyede faal (futbol, basketbol, voleybol, hentbol, çim/buz hokeyi, atletizm, judo, taekwondo, tenis, yüzme, oryantiring, wushu, bisiklet) 174'ü erkek (%60,6) (x̄yaş=22,57±3,29), 113'ü kadın (%39,4) (x̄yaş=22.25±2.82) olmak üzere toplam 287 sporcu gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Ölçek 18 madde ve 6 alt boyuttan oluşmakta, 6'lı Likert tipinde değerlendirilmektedir. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliliği için birinci ve ikinci düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ayrı ayrı incelenmiş, güvenirlik değerlendirmesi için ise iç tutarlılık katsayıları hesaplanmış, iç tutarlılığın belirlenmesi adına madde toplam test korelasyonları da incelenmiştir. Birinci düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analiz sonuçlarında elde edilen uyum iyiliği indeks değerleri, x2/sd(x2=251,392, sd=120)=2,09, RMSEA=0,062, SRMR=0,053, GFI=0,91, CFI=0,95 olarak belirlenmiştir. İkinci düzey doğrulayıcı faktör analiz sonuçlarında elde edilen uyum iyiliği indeks değerleri ise, x2/sd(x2=336,325, sd=129)=2,60, RMSEA=0,075, SRMR=0,064, GFI=0,90, CFI=0,92 olarak belirlenmiştir. Ölçeğin Cronbach Alpha değerlerinin, 0,78 ile 0,91 arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak Atletik Zihinsel Enerji Ölçeği'nin Türkçe versiyonunun sporcular için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğu söylenebilir. / / This study aimed to adapt the Athletic Mental Energy Scale (AMES) ,which has been developed by Lu et al. (2018) to Turkish, and to investigate its psychometric properties. For this purpose, a total of 287 athletes participated in the study voluntarily,174 of whom were male (x̄age =22,57±3,29), and 174 were female (x̄age=22,25±2,82) who were active in different sport branches (football, basketball, volleyball, handball, field/ice hokey, track and field, judo, taekwondo, tennis, swimming, orienteering, wushu, bicycle). AMES consists of 18 items and 6 sub-dimensions and is evaluated as 6 Likert type. First and second level confirmatory factor analyses were examined for construct validity of the scale. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for reliability assessment, and item-total test correlations were also examined to determine internal consistency. In the first level confirmatory factor analysis results, the goodness of fit index values were determined as x2/sd(x2=251,392, sd=120)=2,09, RMSEA=0,062, SRMR=0,053, GFI=0,91, CFI=0,95. In the second level confirmatory factor analysis results, the goodness of fit index values were determined x2/sd(x2=336,325, sd=129)=2,60, RMSEA=0,075, SRMR=0,064, GFI=0,90, CFI=0,92. It was determined that the internal consistency coefficients of the questionnaire changed between 0.78 and 0.91. As a result, it can be said that the Turkish version of "Athletic Mental Energy-AMES" is a valid and reliable measurement tool for athletes.
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Botanically known as Paullinia cupana (Sapindaceae), guarana is widely grown in Amazon region and naturally in Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. It is used in sugar and/or carbonated soft drinks, herbal teas and energy drinks in the form of guarana extract. Guarana has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant effects; improves cognitive performance; triggers weight loss and reduces lipid peroxidation. It has important effects on various methods and treatments from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, from memory and liveliness to cancer. It is also known that guarana enhances biological activities and psychological effects on the body. This compilation has been conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of guarana, its metabolites, the mechanism of its effect on psychological activities and health. GUHES 2 (2020) 709067
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Guarana is an abundant fruit in bioactive compounds, responsible for different pharmacological actions, which guarantees enormous economic and social interest. For this reason, it has become a product used on a large scale for the manufacture of beverages, food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this narrative review we seek to present the current status of the effect of guarana consumption as a food supplement on physical performance. In this context, we gathered several studies that used guarana alone or in combination with other substances in order to identify its ergogenic effects associated with physical exercise and sports. However, the information available requires research involving the participation of human beings who practice and do not practice sports and physical activity.
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Describes a series of experiments exploring the possibility that cognitive performance can be improved by increasing the availability and delivery of the brain's basic fuels, namely oxygen and glucose. Results suggest that, on the one hand, the body appears to mobilize such resources as and when necessary. On the other hand, directly or indirectly increasing the availability of oxygen or glucose can improve cognitive performance—particularly under conditions of cognitive 'strain.' Moreover it appears that the physiological responses to a cognitive load and a person's experience of mental effort are closely integrated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Caffeine clearance was determined in 13 healthy control subjects and in 13 patients with histologically proven cirrhosis. On separate occasions, 70 mg, 200 mg, and 300 mg single doses of anhydrous caffeine were administered orally with decaffeinated coffee to each subject. Subjects were analyzed individually, acting as their own controls, thus reducing interindividual variability. The present study showed that caffeine exhibited dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, particularly in subjects who showed high initial clearance with the low dose (70 mg) of caffeine. There was a significant decrease in caffeine clearance with increasing dose from 70 mg to 300 mg (n = 26, p less than 0.01, Dunnett's test), indicating saturable caffeine metabolism in the dose range tested. These findings imply that if caffeine is to be used as a guide to deteriorating liver function, serial caffeine clearance estimations should be performed in each individual subject, with use of the same dose of caffeine each time.
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It is known that glucose administration is capable of improving performance on tests of declarative verbal memory and non-mnemonic tasks requiring high "mental effort". At the same time, cognitively demanding tasks are associated with elevated heart rate, a response that could feasibly be part of a physiological mechanism serving to increase the delivery of glucose to active brain substrates. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover study examined the interaction between glucose administration, cognitive performance and heart rate during three tasks of differing mental demand and somatically-matched control tasks. The effects of a glucose drink on participants' performance on two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens) and a Word Retrieval (Verbal Fluency) task were assessed. Heart rates were monitored throughout the experiment, and participants rated each task in terms of its perceived mental demand. Serial Sevens was rated as the most mentally demanding task, followed by Word Retrieval, then Serial Threes. Glucose consumption significantly improved performance on Serial Sevens, with a trend for improved performance on Word Retrieval. Both Serial Sevens and Serial Threes were associated with significant heart rate elevation above that seen in somatically matched control tasks (ruling out the possibility that accelerated heart rate was due to peripheral mechanisms alone). Unexpectedly, participants in the glucose condition had higher heart rates during cognitive processing. Additionally, individuals whose baseline heart rates were below the median performed better on Serial Threes and Serial Sevens. We suggest that supplemental glucose preferentially targets tasks with a relatively high cognitive load, which itself (through unknown mechanisms) mobilises physiological reserves as part of a natural response to such tasks. Furthermore, baseline heart rate and responses to cognitive demand and glucose administration may represent important physiological individual differences.
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Chronic administration of extracts from the leaves of the tree Ginkgo biloba is known to improve aspects of cognitive performance. However, little is known about the effects of acute doses of Ginkgo on coherent cognitive domains. Recent factor analysis of test measures from subtasks of the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised assessment battery has revealed that four primary cognitive 'factors' corresponding to speed of attention, accuracy of attention, speed of memory and quality of memory can be useful to describe cognitive function changes. The present study aimed at assessing whether acute administration of Ginkgo biloba had any consistent effect on the four CDR factors. The study utilised a placebo-controlled, multi-dose, double-blind, balanced, crossover design. Twenty participants received 120 mg, 240 mg and 360 mg of a standardised extract of Ginkgo (GK501, Pharmaton, SA) or a matching placebo. Cognitive performance was assessed using the CDR computerised test battery immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were the four aspects of cognitive performance, which have previously been derived by factor analysis of CDR subtests. Compared with the placebo, administration of Ginkgo produced a number of significant changes on the performance measures. The most striking of these was a dose-dependent improvement of the 'speed of attention' factor following both 240 mg and 360 mg of the extract, which was evident at 2.5 h and was still present at 6 h. Additionally, there were a number of time- and dose-specific changes (both positive and negative) in performance of the other factors. We conclude that acute administration of Ginkgo biloba is capable of producing a sustained improvement in attention in healthy young volunteers.
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The effects of capsules containing 60 mg of a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba (GK501) and 100 mg of a standardised extract of Panax ginseng (G115) on various aspects of cognitive function were assessed in healthy middle-aged volunteers. A double blind, placebo controlled, 14 week, parallel group, repeated assessment, multi-centre trial of two dosing regimens, 160 mg b.i.d. and 320 mg o.d. was conducted. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy middle-aged volunteers successfully completed the study. On various study days (weeks 0, 4, 8, 12 and 14) the volunteers performed a selection of tests of attention and memory from the Cognitive Drug Research computerised cognitive assessment system prior to morning dosing and again, at 1, 3 and 6 h later. The volunteers also completed questionnaires about mood states, quality of life and sleep quality. The Ginkgo/ginseng combination was found significantly to improve an Index of Memory Quality, supporting a previous finding with the compound. This effect represented an average improvement of 7.5% and reflected improvements to a number of different aspects of memory, including working and long-term memory. This enhancement to memory was seen throughout the 12-week dosing period and also after a 2-week washout. This represents the first substantial demonstration of improvements to the memory of healthy middle-aged volunteers produced by a phytopharmaceutical.
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We have previously shown differential cognitive improvements following single doses of Ginkgo biloba and of Ginseng. There is also evidence that chronic administration of a combination of standardised extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng may improve aspects of cognitive performance both in pathological populations and the healthy middle aged. No investigation has thus far looked either at the cognitive effects of single doses of such a combination, nor the effects of the combination on healthy young volunteers. The present study investigated whether acute administration of a combination of standardised extracts of Ginkgo biloba (GK501, Pharmaton SA) and Ginseng (G115, Pharmaton SA) had any consistent effect on mood and aspects of cognitive performance ("quality of memory", "secondary memory", "working memory", "speed of memory", "quality of attention" and "speed of attention") that can be derived by factor analysis of the cognitive drug research computerised assessment battery. The study followed a placebo-controlled, double blind, balanced, crossover design. Twenty healthy young adult volunteers received 320, 640, and 960 mg of the combination, and a matching placebo, in an order dictated by random allocation to a Latin square, and with a seven-day wash-out period between treatments. Following a baseline cognitive assessment, further test sessions took place 1, 2.5,4 and 6 h after the day's treatment. The most striking result was a dose-dependent improvement in performance on the "quality of memory" factor for the highest dose. Further analysis revealed that this effect was differentially targeted at the secondary memory rather than the working memory component. There was also a dose dependent decrement in performance of the "speed of attention" factor for both the 320 and 640 mg doses. These results are discussed in the context of previous findings within this series of studies.
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Recent evidence suggests that chronic administration of Ginseng can improve cognitive performance in animals and in humans. No previous study has examined the possibility of cognitive effects following single doses of Ginseng in healthy adults. The present study investigated whether acute administration of Ginseng (G115, Pharmaton SA) had any consistent effect on mood and four aspects of cognitive performance ("Quality of Memory", "Speed of Memory", "Quality of Attention" and "Speed of Attention") that can be derived by factor analysis of the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery. The study followed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design. Twenty healthy young adult volunteers received 200, 400, and 600 mg of G115, and a matching placebo, in counterbalanced order, with a 7 day wash-out period between treatments. Following a baseline cognitive assessment, further test sessions took place 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h after the day's treatment. The most striking result was a significant improvement in "Quality of Memory" and the associated "Secondary Memory" factor at all time points following 400 mg of Ginseng. Both the 200 and 600 mg doses were associated with a significant decrement of the "Speed of Attention" factor at later testing times only. Subjective ratings of alertness were also reduced 6 h following the two lowest doses. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of a modulation of mood and cognitive performance by acute administration of Ginseng.
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Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa officinalis at or above the maximum employed here can improve cognitive performance and mood and may therefore be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results also suggest that different preparations derived from the same plant species may exhibit different properties depending on the process used for the sample preparation.
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Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.
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One of the prime necessities for the clinical psychiatrist in the completion of a mental examination is a quickly applicable and reasonably accurate test for the measurement of intellectual efficiency and the estimation of the degree of mental impairment. Most of the available psychologic tests are time consuming and require special technics, and not infrequently special training, for their application. The serial subtraction of 7 from 100 has been found to fulfil the essential requirements, and the purpose of this paper is to establish the standardization and thus to provide a basis of comparison for the results, which heretofore have been impressionistically interpreted. The successful performance of the test depends on the subject's ability to comprehend and utilize simple mathematical concepts involving symbolism and abstractions. As such, in addition to factors of memory and learning, it requires particularly abstract thinking ability. In a previous paper1 the evolution and development
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Administered 16 visual analog scales to 8 normal Ss to test the validity of the scales in measuring drug effects; Ss received 150 mg of butobarbitone sodium, 15 and 30 mg of flurazepam, and a placebo. Results indicate that (a) there were no significant effects on Factor 1 (Alertness), but there was a tendency for Ss to rate themselves as more alert after placebo; (b) there was a significant Drug * Times interaction effect on Factor 2 (Contentedness); and (c) Factor 3 (Calmness) also showed a significant Drug * Times interaction effect which was caused by the anti-anxiety effect of flurazepam. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
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Vita. Thesis (M.A.)--University of British Columbia, 1987. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 125-131).
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In an attempt to find out whether decreased blood sugar level is associated with impaired cognitive function, adverse emotional changes, or somatic symptoms, 35 subjects who suspected that they had hypoglycemia were given 5-hr glucose tolerance tests (GTTs). Nine blood samples were taken during the GTT, and the subject's mood, Serial Sevens Test (SST) performance, and somatic symptom reports were recorded on each occasion of sampling. The subjects reported significantly more negative affect and somatic symptoms after glucose nadir than before nadir. SST performance deteriorated at glucose nadir. These effects were more pronounced for subjects with high hypoglycemic index scores than for subjects with low index scores. The impairment in SST performance was greater for subjects who showed rapid decreases in blood sugar than for subjects who showed slow decreases. Dividing subjects by high and low nadirs did not reveal any differences in symptomatology.
Article
Guaraná is considered an ideal crop for supplementing the incomes of small peasant farmers in the Amazon basin. A fast-growing perennial, guaraná can be planted in the midst of manioc crops, allowing the formation of extensive orchards in the place of regenerating scrub once the manioc has been harvested. Traditional forms of guaraná agriculture practised by the Saterê-Mawé Indians compare favourably with the plantation system favoured by government agronomists. Indigenous techniques of hand-processing guaraná are also shown to produce better quality in the finished product than those practices adopted by industrial concerns. A detailed comparison of two systems of production show the Indians' implicit concern to avoid oxidization of the phenolic compounds in the seed, since this leads to the guaraná becoming dark in colour, bitter in taste, and irritating to the gastrointestinal tract. The short-term medicinal effects of guaraná are commonly thought to result from a high content of caffeine and associated alkaloids, as well as from considerable amounts of tannin. Future research may well show that various saponins also play an important part in the drug's pharmacology, particularly with regard to its long-term influence as a general tonic and prophylactic.
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Mice that ingested a suspension of guarana (Paullinia cupana, Sapindaceae) in a dose of 0.3 mg/ml showed a significant increase in physical capacity when subjected to a stressful situation such as forced swimming after 100 and 200 days of treatment. Such an effect, however, was not obtained with a concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, nor with the ingestion of a suspension of ginseng 5.0 mg/ml, nor of a solution of caffeine 0.1 mg/ml. Guarana, both after a single (3.0 and 30 mg/kg) or chronic administrations (0.3 mg/ml), was able to partially reverse the amnesic effect of scopolamine as measured through a passive avoidance test in mice and rats, indicating a positive effect on memory acquisition. However, no effect was observed when an active avoidance task was used in rats, even after 20 days of guarana administration. There was also a tendency of rats treated with 0.3 mg/ml of guarana to better maintain the memory of a Lashley III maze path. The animals had the same average lifespan, indicating a low toxicity of guarana, even after 23 months of treatment.
Article
We evaluated the effects of a Ginkgo biloba/ginseng combination on cognitive function in this 90-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (aged 40 to 65 years), selected on the basis of fulfilling the ICD-10 F48.0 criteria for neurasthenia, were assigned randomly to four equal dosing groups, receiving 80, 160, or 320 mg of the combination b.i.d. or placebo. Assessments were performed on the day before dosing, and again at Days 1, 30, and 90 at 1 hour after the morning dose and 1 hour after the afternoon dose. The assessments included the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system, the Vienna Determination Unit, cycle ergometry, and various questionnaires. The treatments were well tolerated by all volunteers. On Day 90 at 1 hour post morning dosing, dose-related improvements were seen on the CDR tests, the 320 mg dose being significantly superior to placebo. These effects, however, were reversed 1 hour after the afternoon dose, possibly suggesting that a longer inter-dosing interval would be preferable. The 80-mg dose produced a significant benefit on the ergometry assessment of heart rate at maximum load. There were also several supporting changes from other assessments, including an advantage of 320 mg over placebo on the global score from the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) at Day 90.
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The effects on toxic and behavioral levels of guarana (Paullinia cupana) were assessed in rats and mice subsequent to acute and chronic administrations and were compared to those produced by Ginseng (Panax ginseng). Experimental parameters included tests for antioxidant capacity in vitro and measured in vivo, toxicological screening, progress in weight, motor activity, death rate, and histopathological examination of the viscera. Guarana showed an antioxidant effect because, even at low concentrations (1.2 microg/ml), it inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation. In high doses of 1000-2000 mg/kg (i.p. and p.o.) it did not induce significant alterations in parameters for toxicological screening. No effects on motor activity were observed, neither did guarana alter the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital. Ginseng (250-1000 mg/kg i.p.), however, elicited reductions in motor activity, eyelid ptosis and bristling fur. Consumption of liquids containing guarana or ginseng and progress in weight of the animals remained at levels similar to the controls, even after prolonged administration. The percentage mortality was equivalent in control and in treated groups. The absence of toxicity of guarana was also demonstrated by histopathological examination, with no alteration being detected in heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, pancreas, kidneys, bladder and spleen.
Article
We investigated the effects of four ginseng saponins, ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rg2, -Rg3 and -Ro, on the responses induced by receptor stimulation of various stimuli. Ginsenoside-Rg2 (1-100 microM) reduced the secretions of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid but not by angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine and neurotensin. In guinea-pig, the ginsenoside also diminished the nicotine-induced secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal chromaffin cells, but it did not affect the muscarine- and the histamine-induced ileum contractions. On the other hand, ginsenoside-Rg3 (1-100 microM) reduced not only the acetylcholine-, the gamma-aminobutyric acid- and the neurotensin-induced secretions but also, at a higher concentration (100 microM), the angiotensin II-, the bradykinin- and the histamine-induced secretions from the bovine chromaffin cells. Furthermore, the saponin (3-100 microM) significantly inhibited the muscarine- and the histamine-induced ileum contractions of the guinea-pig. Ginsenoside-Rb1 and -Ro had no marked effect on their responses. These results strongly suggest that ginsenoside-Rg2 is a potent selective blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (ionotropic receptors) and ginsenoside-Rg3 is not only a blocker of ionotropic receptors but also an antagonist of muscarinic or histamine receptors.
Article
Previous research has identified that glucose administration can enhance cognitive performance, especially during more intense cognitive processing. There appears to be a reciprocal relationship between falling glucose levels and cognitive performance, particularly under conditions of cognitive demand. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover study examined the possibility that a high cognitive load may produce changes in blood glucose levels. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of glucose on tasks of varying cognitive demand load. The effects of a glucose drink on participants' performance of a serial subtraction task (computerised Serial Sevens), a somatically matched control task (key-pressing), a short interval Word Memory task and a Word Retrieval (Verbal Fluency) task were assessed. The change in blood glucose during the demanding computerised Serial Sevens was compared to the change occurring during the key-pressing control. Glucose consumption significantly improved performance on Serial Sevens, with a trend for improved performance on Word Retrieval and no effect on the Word Memory task. Compared with the control task, Serial Sevens resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose in both drink conditions. This accelerated decay was significantly greater following glucose than placebo. It is suggested that the amount of cognitive load associated with task performance is an index of its sensitivity to enhancement by glucose. Furthermore, a period of intense cognitive processing leads to a measurable decrease in levels of peripherally measured blood glucose, which may be linked to increased neural energy expenditure. However, the relative contribution of central and peripheral (e.g. cardiac) activity to this effect has yet to be determined.
Article
For the past 50 years, the main weapons in the war against cancer have been early detection and surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and attempts to develop gene therapy. However, the results so far are less than ideal. One strategy now is to switch from therapeutic approaches to prevention of cancer by improving lifestyle and by identifying effective natural products as chemopreventive agents. One promising candidate with cancer-preventive effects that are not specific to any organ is Panax ginseng C A Meyer, a herb with a long medicinal history. Its protective influence against cancer has been shown by extensive preclinical and epidemiological studies, but these effects need to be carefully investigated by scientific clinical trials focusing on the major cancer killers stomach, lung, liver, and colorectal cancer.
Article
It has previously been demonstrated in separate studies that single doses of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a combination of the two extracts can improve different aspects of cognitive performance in healthy young volunteers. The present study directly compared the effects of single doses of G. biloba, ginseng, and a product combining the two on aspects of mood and cognitive performance in the same cohort of healthy, young adult volunteers. The study followed a randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, cross-over design. Twenty participants received 360 mg of ginkgo, 400 mg of ginseng, 960 mg of a product combining the two extracts, and a matching placebo. Treatment order was dictated by random allocation to a Latin square, with a 7-day wash-out period between treatments. Cognitive testing comprised completion of the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised assessment battery and two serial subtraction mental arithmetic tasks. Mood was assessed with Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. Following a baseline cognitive assessment, further test sessions took place 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 h after the day's treatment was taken. The results largely supported previous findings. All three treatments were associated with improved secondary memory performance on the CDR battery, with the ginseng condition evincing some improvement in the speed of performing memory tasks and in the accuracy of attentional tasks. Following ginkgo and the ginkgo/ginseng combination performance of both the Serial Threes and Serial Sevens, subtraction tasks was also improved at the later testing sessions. No modulation of the speed of performing attention tasks was evident. Improvements in self-rated mood was also found following ginkgo and to a lesser extent the combination product.
Article
Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.
Article
Serious cardiovascular toxicity has been reported in people taking dietary supplements that contain ma huang (Ephedra) and guarana (caffeine). We assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a dietary supplement that contains these herbal stimulants. Eight healthy adults received a single oral dose of a thermogenic dietary supplement labeled to contain 20 mg ephedrine alkaloids and 200 mg caffeine after an overnight fast. Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for ephedrine alkaloid and caffeine concentrations, and heart rate and blood pressure were monitored for 14 hours. Plasma clearance and elimination half-lives for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and caffeine were comparable to published values reported for drug formulations. A prolonged half-life of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine was observed in 1 subject with the highest urine pH. Mean systolic blood pressure increased significantly to a maximum of 14 mm Hg above baseline at 90 minutes after ingestion (P <.001). There was a lag in the mean heart rate response that reached a maximum change of 15 beats/min above baseline at 6 hours after ingestion (P <.001). Diastolic blood pressure changes were insignificant. Two subjects who were taking oral contraceptives had longer caffeine half-lives (15.5 +/- 0.3 hours versus 5.6 +/- 1.7 hours) and lower values for oral clearance (0.34 +/- 0.01 mL/min. kg versus 0.99 +/- 0.41 mL/min. kg) than subjects who were not taking oral contraceptives. Botanical stimulants have disposition characteristics similar to their pharmaceutical counterparts, and they can produce significant cardiovascular responses after a single dose.
Article
Both Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng exert a number of physiological effects and have been shown to modulate aspects of cognitive performance. Whilst a number of studies have examined ginkgo's effects on electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, to date, none have investigated the EEG effects of ginseng. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover experiment, the effects of single doses of G. biloba (360 mg GK501), P. ginseng (200 mg G115), and an identical placebo, on auditory-evoked potentials, contingent negative variation (CNV), and resting power within the delta, theta, alpha, and beta wavebands, were assessed in 15 healthy volunteers. Each participant was assessed on three separate occasions 4 h after consuming that day's treatment. The order of presentation of the treatments was dictated by a Latin square with 7 days between testing sessions. The results showed that ginseng led to a significant shortening of the latency of the P300 component of the evoked potential. Both ginseng and ginkgo also led to significant reductions in frontal 'eyes closed' theta and beta activity, with additional reduction for ginseng in the alpha waveband. These findings demonstrate for the first time that P. ginseng can directly modulate cerebroelectrical activity, and that these effects are more pronounced than those following G. biloba.
Article
Ginseng has been used medicinally in the Far East for several millennia and is currently one of the most widely taken herbal products throughout the world. It has been attributed with a plethora of physiological effects that could potentially benefit cognitive performance or mood. Studies involving animals show that ginseng and its constituent ginsenosides can modulate indices of stress, fatigue, and learning. However, there is a lack of adequately controlled research showing behavioural effects following chronic administration to humans. Recent research has demonstrated that single doses of ginseng most notably engender cognitive benefits in terms of improved memory, but can also be associated with 'costs' in terms of attention task deficits following less mnemonically beneficial doses. A single dose of ginseng has also been shown to modulate cerebroelectrical (EEG) activity. It is suggested that ginseng would benefit from rigorous research further delineating its acute effects and exploring the relationship between acute effects and those seen during and following chronic administration regimens.
Article
Among the few purine alkaloid-containing genera consumed as stimulants, Paullinia is the least investigated with respect to both chemotaxonomy and within-the-plant allocation of caffeine and its allies. Since purine alkaloids (PuA) have been proved to be valuable marker compounds in chemotaxonomy, 34 species of Paullinia and related genera were screened for them, but only one, P. pachycarpa, was positive in addition to the already known P. cupana and P. yoco. The PuA allocation in P. pachycarpa was examined and found to be restricted to theobromine in the stem, leaves and flowers. Moreover, the theobromine concentration in the stem cortex increased significantly towards the base of the plant. Since the stem cortex of P. yoco is traditionally used by the natives of Colombia and Ecuador to prepare a caffeine-rich beverage, we suspected that within the genus Paullinia the PuA are preferentially allocated to the older parts of the stem and not to young shoots like e.g., in the coffee plant (Coffea spp.). Indeed, the axis (greenhouse) of P. cupana (guaraná), known for its caffeine-rich seeds, exhibited a basipetal PuA gradient (0.005-0.145%). Moreover, the analysis of young cortex samples (herbarium) and of one piece of old stem (museum collection) revealed the same for P. yoco, even though we found much less (0.5 vs 2.5%) caffeine in the old cortex as compared to the only two analyses in 1926 of similar material. However, this discrepancy may be explained by the high variability of the PuA pattern we detected among yoco, the diversity of which the Indians take advantage.
dMini Mental StateT: a practical method of grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician Postprandial hypoglycaemia and psychological symptoms
  • M Folstein
  • Se
  • Mchugh
  • F Hale
  • S Margen
M, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. dMini Mental StateT: a practical method of grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189. Hale F, Margen S, Rabak D. Postprandial hypoglycaemia and psychological symptoms. Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:125 – 30.
Design and analysis. New Jersey7 Prentice-Hall; 1991. Kirk RE. Experimental design: procedures for the behavioural sciences
  • G Kepple
Kepple G. Design and analysis. New Jersey7 Prentice-Hall; 1991. Kirk RE. Experimental design: procedures for the behavioural sciences. Belmont, CA7 Brooks/Cole; 1968.