Homologous muscle acellular matrix seeded with autologous myoblasts as a tissue-engineering approach to abdominal wall-defect repair
Section of Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Via Gabelli 65, I-35121 Padova, Italy. Biomaterials
(Impact Factor: 8.56).
06/2005; 26(15):2567-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.07.035
Myoblasts were obtained by culturing in vitro, single muscle fibers, isolated by enzymatic digestion from rat flexor digitorum brevis, and their phenotype was confirmed by myogenic differentiation factor, myogenic factor-5, myogenin and desmin. Cultured myoblasts were harvested and seeded on patches of homologous acellular matrix, obtained by detergent-enzymatic treatment of abdominal muscle fragments. Myoblast-seeded patches were inserted between obliqui abdominis muscles on the right side of 1-month-old rats, while non-seeded patches were implanted on the left side. Thirty days after surgery, non-seeded patches were completely replaced by fibrous tissue, while the structure of myoblast-seeded patches was well preserved until the 2nd month. Seeded patches displayed abundant blood vessels and myoblasts, and electromyography evidenced in them single motor-unit potentials, sometimes grouped into arithmic discharges. Ninty days after implantation, the thickness of myoblast-seeded patches and their electric activity decreased, suggesting a loss of contractile muscle fibers. In conclusion, the present results indicate that autologous myoblast-homologous acellular muscle matrix constructs are a promising tool for body-wall defect repair, and studies are under way to identify strategies able to improve and maintain the structural and functional integrity of implants for longer periods.
Available from: Nathalie Chevallier
- "Whether MAS is a good support for cells of non-muscle origin and whether it can be exploited in trans-species experiments , such as cultivating human cells in murine MAS, remains to be addressed. However, accumulating evidence suggests that acellular scaffolds of biological origin are multipurpose and may be exploited for cell culture and tissue engineering of different tissue types regardless of their origin (Badylak et al., 1998; Conconi et al., 2005; Wolf et al., 2012). It is widely accepted that the niche supports stem cells and controls their self-renewal in vivo (Spradling et al., 2001) by modulating asymmetric cell division and ensuring stem cell renewal and the production of a number of committed daughter cells that is sufficient for tissue homeostasis and repair (Kuang et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of decellularized organs possesses the characteristics of the ideal tissue-engineering scaffold (i.e., histocompatibility, porosity, degradability, non-toxicity). We previously observed that the muscle acellular scaffold (MAS) is a pro-myogenic environment in vivo. In order to determine whether MAS, which is basically muscle ECM, behaves as a myogenic environment, regardless of its location, we analyzed MAS interaction with both muscle and non-muscle cells and tissues, to assess the effects of MAS on cell differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein treatment of C2C12 cells cultured within MAS induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro, thus suggesting that MAS does not irreversibly commit cells to myogenesis. In vivo MAS supported formation of nascent muscle fibers when replacing a muscle (orthotopic position). However, heterotopically grafted MAS did not give rise to muscle fibers when transplanted within the renal capsule. Also, no muscle formation was observed when MAS was transplanted under the xiphoid process, in spite of the abundant presence of cells migrating along the laminin-based MAS structure. Taken together, our results suggest that MAS itself is not sufficient to induce myogenic differentiation. It is likely that the pro-myogenic environment of MAS is not strictly related to the intrinsic properties of the muscle scaffold (e.g., specific muscle ECM proteins). Indeed, it is more likely that myogenic stem cells colonizing MAS recognize a muscle environment that ultimately allows terminal myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MAS may represent a suitable environment for muscle and non-muscle 3D constructs characterized by a highly organized structure whose relative stability promotes integration with the surrounding tissues. Our work highlights the plasticity of MAS, suggesting that it may be possible to consider MAS for a wider range of tissue engineering applications than the mere replacement of volumetric muscle loss.
Available from: Alessandra Costa
- "The resulting scaffold supported myoblast growth and differentiation in vitro. When the decellularized muscle seeded with myoblasts was implanted between the obliquus externus abdominis and the obliquus internus abdominis, neovascularization and the formation of new myofibers occurred within 2 months (Conconi et al., 2005). Merritt et al. decellularized a rat gastrocnemius (GAS) by means of a protocol based on osmotic shock and detergent solutions that required several days (Merritt et al., 2010b). "
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ABSTRACT: Effective clinical treatments for volumetric muscle loss resulting from traumatic injury or resection of a large amount of muscle mass are not available to date. Tissue engineering may represent an alternative treatment approach. Decellularization of tissues and whole organs is a recently introduced platform technology for creating scaffolding materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The muscle stem cell niche is composed of a three-dimensional architecture of fibrous proteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans, synthesized by the resident cells that form an intricate extracellular matrix (ECM) network in equilibrium with the surrounding cells and growth factors. A consistent body of evidence indicates that ECM proteins regulate stem cell differentiation and renewal and are highly relevant to tissue engineering applications. The ECM also provides a supportive medium for blood or lymphatic vessels and for nerves. Thus, the ECM is the nature's ideal biological scaffold material. ECM-based bioscaffolds can be recellularized to create potentially functional constructs as a regenerative medicine strategy for organ replacement or tissue repopulation. This article reviews current strategies for the repair of damaged muscle using bioscaffolds obtained from animal ECM by decellularization of small intestinal submucosa (SIS), urinary bladder mucosa (UB), and skeletal muscle, and proposes some innovative approaches for the application of such strategies in the clinical setting.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
- "In line with our findings, an increase in HA and TN within the interstitial matrix induced by myofiber damage may enhance myoblast proliferation and migration while inhibiting premature fusion, allowing for more extensive repair of the musculature. Nevertheless, attempts to engineer replacements for skeletal muscle defects tend to rely upon exogenous scaffolding composed of either inert polymers or ECM typical of the differentiated state, which promotes fusion, reduces cell proliferation and ultimately results in limited functionality (Conconi et al., 2005; Kin et al., 2007; Merritt et al., 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: Urodele amphibians regenerate appendages through the recruitment of progenitor cells into a blastema that rebuilds the lost tissue. Blastemal formation is accompanied by extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Although this remodeling process is important for appendage regeneration, it is not known whether the remodeled matrix directly influences the generation and behavior of blastemal progenitor cells. By integrating in vivo 3-dimensional spatiotemporal matrix maps with in vitro functional time-lapse imaging, we show that key components of this dynamic matrix, hyaluronic acid, tenascin-C and fibronectin, differentially direct cellular behaviors including DNA synthesis, migration, myotube fragmentation and myoblast fusion. These data indicate that both satellite cells and fragmenting myofibers contribute to the regeneration blastema and that the local extracellular environment provides instructive cues for the regenerative process. The fact that amphibian and mammalian myoblasts exhibit similar responses to various matrices suggests that the ability to sense and respond to regenerative signals is evolutionarily conserved.
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