Socioeconomic Factors and Processes Associated With Domestic Violence in Rural Bangladesh

Empowerment of Women Research Program, Center for Applied Behavioral and Evaluation Research, Academy for Educational Development, Boston, MA, USA.
International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (Impact Factor: 1.94). 01/2005; 30(4):190-9. DOI: 10.1363/3019004
Source: PubMed


Although the pervasiveness of domestic violence against women in Bangladesh is well documented, specific risk factors, particularly those that can be affected by policies and programs, are not well understood.
In 2001-2002, surveys, in-depth interviews and small group discussions were conducted with married women from six Bangladeshi villages to examine the types and severity of domestic violence, and to explore the pathways through which women's social and economic circumstances may influence their vulnerability to violence in marriage. Women's odds of experiencing domestic violence in the past year were assessed by logistic regression analysis.
Of about 1,200 women surveyed, 67% had ever experienced domestic violence, and 35% had done so in the past year. According to the qualitative findings, participants expected women with more education and income to be less vulnerable to domestic violence; they also believed (or hoped) that having a dowry or a registered marriage could strengthen a women's position in her marriage. Yet, of these potential factors, only education was associated with significantly reduced odds of violence; meanwhile, the odds were increased for women who had a dowry agreement or had personal earnings that contributed more than nominally to the marital household. Women strongly supported educating their daughters, but pressures remain to marry them early, in part to avoid high dowry costs.
In rural Bangladesh, women's social and economic circumstances may influence their risk of domestic violence in complex and contradictory ways. Findings also suggest a disconnect between women's emerging expectations and their current realities.

Download full-text


Available from: Khairul Islam, Aug 12, 2014
    • "Individual-level sociodemographic variables were used as controls. Prior research shows that younger age (Bates et al., 2004; Rahman et al., 2011), early marriage (Erulkar, 2013), lower education (Erulkar, 2013; Linos et al., 2013), living in the poorest households (Rahman et al., 2011; Sambisa, Angeles, Lance, Naved, & Thornton, 2011), having many children (Sambisa et al., 2011), not having independent income (Naved & Persson, 2005), and living in rural areas (Yount & Li, 2009) are associated with elevated risks of IPV. In this study, age, age at first marriage, and age at first birth were all measured in years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR = 4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Violence and Victims
  • Source
    • "It is to be noted however that, in Bangladesh, DV is widespread across all socioeconomic classes. Indeed, DV is so deeprooted that numerous studies reveal that a married woman earning more than her husband often becomes the victim of DV – instances show that wives involved in microcredit programs are likely to become the victims of DV as the husbands fear losing their authority and dominance over their wives (Bates et al., 2004; Jeyaseelan et al., 2007; Koenig et al., 2003; Naved & Persson, 2005; Rahman et al., 2011a; Rani & Bonu, 2009; Sambisa et al., 2011). These indicate how patriarchal values and attitude help perpetuate DV. "
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: This is a new article published in 'Asian Social Work and Policy Review'
    Full-text · Research · May 2015
  • Source
    • "In Bangladesh, persons living in lower wealth quintiles have been less likely to attend school (NIPORT et al., 2013), and both women's young age and lower educational level have been associated with higher risks of physical and sexual IPV (Ahmed, 2005; Bates et al., 2004; Hadi, 2000, 2005; Koenig et al., 2003; Naved & Persson, 2005; Schuler, Hashemi, Riley, & Akhter, 1996). In Bangladesh specifically, marriages involving a dowry, poor spousal communication, women's contributions to household earnings in poor households, and a history of abuse of a woman's husband's mother by his father, all have been associated with higher risks of physical and sexual IPV in urban and rural areas (Bates et al., 2004; Naved & Persson, 2005, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this research, we used a multi-level contextual-effects analysis to disentangle the household- and community-level associations between income and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh. Our analyses of data from 2,668 women interviewed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women showed that household income was negatively associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. Controlling for residence in a low-income household, living in a low-income community was not associated with women's risk of experiencing IPV. These results support a household-level, not community-level, relationship between income and IPV in Bangladesh. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Violence Against Women
Show more