Felson, D. T., Goggins, J., Niu, J., Zhang, Y. & Hunter, D. J. The effect of body weight on progression of knee osteoarthritis is dependent on alignment. Arthritis Rheum. 50, 3904-3909

Boston University Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.76). 12/2004; 50(12):3904-9. DOI: 10.1002/art.20726
Source: PubMed


Whereas obesity increases overall loading of the knee, limb malalignment concentrates that loading on a focal area, to the level at which cartilage damage may occur. This study evaluated whether the effect of body weight on progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA) differs depending on the degree of limb malalignment.
The study population comprised 228 veterans and community recruits with symptomatic knee OA (pain on most days and radiographic disease) who volunteered to participate in a natural history study and from whom baseline radiographs were obtained to assess alignment; 227 (99.6%) completed a 30-month followup. Of 403 knees assessed at baseline, 394 (97.8%) were followed up. Participants' body mass index (BMI) was assessed at each examination. The main outcome measure was progression of knee OA, defined as narrowing of the tibiofemoral joint space by 1 grade (semiquantitative scale 0-3) on radiographs of the fluoroscopically positioned knee. The association between BMI and the risk of knee OA progression was assessed after adjusting for age, sex, and limb alignment, using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations.
Of 394 knees, 90 (22.8%) showed disease progression, and limb alignment was strongly associated with progression risk. The risk of progression increased with increasing weight (for each 2-unit increase in BMI, odds ratio [OR] for progression 1.08, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.00-1.16). However, among those knees with neutral alignment (0-2 degrees ), increases in BMI had no effect on risk of progression (OR 1.00), and in those with severe malalignment (> or =7 degrees ), the effect was similarly null (OR 0.93). The effect of BMI on progression was limited to knees in which there was moderate malalignment (OR per 2-unit increase in BMI 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.45).
Although elevated BMI increases the risk of knee OA progression, the effect of BMI is limited to knees in which moderate malalignment exists, presumably because of the combined focus of load from malalignment and the excess load from increased weight. This has implications for clinical recommendations and for trials testing weight loss in those with knee OA.

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    • "Obesity accelerates the progression of knee osteoarthritis in the presence of moderate knee malalignment [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. Based on a systematic review of 25 studies, Butterworth and colleagues noted an association between higher body mass index (BMI) and higher rates of chronic heel pain, non-specific foot pain, and tendonitis [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the effects of weight reduction on foot structure, gait, and dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. Design In a 3-month randomized-controlled trial, participants were randomized to receive either a weight loss intervention based on portion-controlled meals or a delayed-treatment control. Participants 41 adults (32 F, 9 M) with a mean + SD age of 56.2 + 4.7 years and a BMI of 35.9 + 4.2 kg/m2. Measurements Arch Height Index (AHI), Malleolar Valgus Index (MVI), spatial and temporal gait parameters, plantar peak pressure (PP) and weight were measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Results The intervention group experienced significantly greater weight loss than did the control group (5.9 ± 4.0 kg versus 1.9 ± 3.2 kg, p = 0.001) after 3 months. There were no differences between the groups in anatomical foot structure or gait. However, the treatment group showed a significantly reduced PP than the control group beneath the lateral arch and the metatarsals 4 (all P values < .05) at 3 months. The change in PP correlated significantly with the change in weight at the metatarsal 2 (r = 0.57, p = 0.0219), metatarsal 3 (r = 0.56, p = 0.0064) and the medial arch (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001) at 6 months. Conclusion This was the first RCT designed to assess the effects of weight loss on foot structure, gait, and plantar loading in obese adults. Even a modest weight loss significantly reduced the dynamic plantar loading in obese adults. However, weight loss appeared to have no effects on foot structure and gait.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Gait & Posture
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    • "Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is also the most common type of musculoskeletal disorder. While OA can affect virtually all joints, knee OA is of particular interest since it has the potential to severely limit mobility1,2,3,4). Severity of knee OA can be determined radiographically using the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria5). "
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] A wide variety of accelerometer tools are used to estimate human movement, but there are no adequate data relating to gait symmetry parameters in the context of knee osteoarthritis. This study's purpose was to evaluate a 3D-kinematic system using body-mounted sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) on the trunk and limbs. This is the first study to use spectral analysis for data post processing. [Subjects] Twelve patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) (10 male) and seven age-matched controls (6 male) were studied. [Methods] Measurements with 3-D accelerometers and gyroscopes were compared to video analysis with marker positions tracked by a six-camera optoelectronic system (VICON 460, Oxford Metrics). Data were recorded using the 3D-kinematic system. [Results] The results of both gait analysis systems were significantly correlated. Five parameters were significantly different between the knee OA and control groups. To overcome time spent in expensive post-processing routines, spectral analysis was performed for fast differentiation between normal gait and pathological gait signals using the 3D-kinematic system. [Conclusions] The 3D-kinematic system is objective, inexpensive, accurate and portable, and allows long-term recordings in clinical, sport as well as ergonomic or functional capacity evaluation (FCE) settings. For fast post-processing, spectral analysis of the recorded data is recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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    • "Factors such as diet, increased body mass and obesity have been studied in both clinical and basic scientific research, as they relate to osteoarthritis onset and progression.3,7,8,9-15 Additionally, the literature also investigated the role that increased adipose tissue plays in increased inflammatory response in the joint tissues.7,16,17 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Our objective in this article is to test the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a factor in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis, and to characterise the quality of the articular cartilage in an appropriate rat model. Methods: T2DM rats were obtained from the UC Davis group and compared with control Lewis rats. The diabetic rats were sacrificed at ages from six to 12 months, while control rats were sacrificed at six months only. Osteoarthritis severity was determined via histology in four knee quadrants using the OARSI scoring guide. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed as a secondary form of osteoarthritic analysis. Results: T2DM rats had higher mean osteoarthritis scores than the control rats in each of the four areas that were analysed. However, only the results at the medial and lateral femur and medial tibia were significant. Cysts were also found in T2DM rats at the junction of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Immunohistochemical analysis does not show an increase in collagen II between control and T2DM rats. Mass comparisons also showed a significant relationship between mass and osteoarthritis score. Conclusions: T2DM was found to cause global degeneration in the UCD rat knee joints, suggesting that diabetes itself is a factor in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis. The immunohistochemistry stains showed little to no change in collagen II degeneration between T2DM and control rats. Overall, it seems that the animal model used is pertinent to future studies of T2DM in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:203-11.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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