Article

Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating

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Abstract

In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

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... This is a completely new form of recreation, the biomechanics of which are yet to be elucidated [5]. Safety is a primary concern, given that only one text on the medical treatment of participants has been published [6]. Without exception, all arbitrarily chosen katers interviewed in that study had visited a doctor for one reason or the other pertaining to this activity, averaging 1.4 visits per skater per year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. ...
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One hundred and eighty-two patients presented with 200 inline-skating injuries over a 30-month period. Of these, 14 % were admitted to hospital, 10 % required operative treatment. Fractures (49 %), contusions/lacerations (27 %) and capsular/ligamentuous injuries (16 %) were the most prevalent types of injury. Children had an even higher risk of sustaining fractures (62 %). Falling on the extended arm caused 44 % of all injuries. Thirteen percent resulted from torque mechanisms of the leg, whereas direct trauma to elbow or knee (5 % each) were uncommon injury mechanisms. Injuries of the elbow, forearm, wrist and hand accounted for 55.5 % of all cases and 71 % of all fractures. Head (13 %), knee (9.5 %) and ankle (9 %) were other regions frequently involved. Protective equipment was often used only for uninjured regions, whereas the injured regions had most often been left unprotected. In einem 30-Monats-Zeitraum wurden 200 Inline-Skatingverletzungen bei 182 Patienten behandelt; 14 % der Patienten wurden stationär aufgenommen, 10 % operiert. In 49 % handelte es sich um Frakturen, in 27 % um Prellungen oder Schürfungen und in 16 % um Kapsel-Band-Verletzungen. Bei Kindern lag der Frakturanteil mit 62 % noch deutlich höher. 44 % aller Verletzungen und 75 % aller Frakturen entstanden durch den Sturz auf die ausgestreckten Arme. Der zweithäufigste Verletzungsmechanismus (13 %) war ein Verdrehtrauma des Beins; Stürze auf die Knie oder die angewinkelten Ellbogen betrafen nur je 5 %; 55,5 % aller Verletzungen und 71 % aller Frakturen traten an Ellbogengelenk, Unterarm, Handgelenk und Hand auf; andere häufig verletzte Regionen waren Kopf (13 %), Knie (9,5 %) und Sprunggelenk (9 %). Während die Skater ihre Gelenkschützer an den nicht verletzten Gelenken ebenso häufig angelegt hatten wie unverletzte Vergleichsskater, waren gerade die verletzten Regionen auffallend schlecht geschützt.
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In-line roller skating is a growing recreational fitness activity, but little is known about the use of personal protective equipment, such as helmets, wrist guards, elbow and knee pads, by participants. An unobtrusive observational study was performed on a stratified random sample of adult and child in-line skaters in Oakland County, Michigan. A follow-up observational study was performed on locations identified as having high rates of in-line skating activity. The prevalence of personal protective equipment use varied greatly with the type of equipment. Helmet use was less than 10% in both phases of the study; wrist guard use ranged from 46% to 65%; and intermediate values were noted for the use of elbow and knee pads. Recreational in-line skating is concentrated in paved public areas and is largely a young adult activity. The use of some items of personal protective equipment is common, although few skaters wear all recommended items. Efforts to prevent or reduce accidental injury should include consideration of all these factors.
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Article
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Seventy-eight fractures are reported in 61 children who fell while in-line skating. Distal radius or radius and ulna fractures as a result of falls on the outstretched hand occurred in > 75% of cases. Almost half of the patients were novices with < 4 weeks of experience on in-line skates. In fact, one in eight children sustained a fracture during the first attempt at the sport. Closed reductions were needed in 26 cases. Only two of 61 children were wearing any protective equipment at the time of the fracture.
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Rollerblading is increasingly popular in the UK. Over 12 weeks, we treated 29 patients of whom 34 per cent required operative intervention. There was a wide range of injuries, those of the radius being most common, and some (e.g. femoral and pelvic fractures) being quite severe. The value of protective equipment is discussed.
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To describe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by in-line skaters at four different skate settings (rink, park, trail and street) in Melbourne and rural Victoria, and to compare local PPE with reported international use. Unobtrusive observations of in-line skaters at four types of skate settings (rinks, parks, trails, street) in Melbourne and rural Victoria. Two-thirds of 490 observed in-line skaters (66.7%) wore none of the recommended PPE (wrist guards, elbow and knee pads and helmets). Only 2.2% wore all four pieces of PPE. Wrist guards were worn by 25.9% of skaters, knee pads by 23.5%, elbow pads by 6.9% and helmets by 5.5%. Younger skaters were least likely to wear any PPE. Trail skaters were more likely to wear PPE than skaters on rinks, parks and streets. Almost one-third of skaters did not have a heel brake on their skates. Use of PPE was influenced by group norms. Personal protective equipment use is low among in-line skaters in Victoria, and varies according to skate location. The use of PPE in Victoria is much lower than that reported overseas. Evidence of the effectiveness and the low use of PPE by skaters highlights the need to better promote the use of wrist guards, elbow and knee pads and helmets to skaters of all ages and abilities. There is opportunity for public health professionals to work in partnership with in-line skating bodies, organisers and sponsors of skating events, skate venue owners and managers, skating equipment manufacturers and hirers to promote PPE use.
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In-line skating is an increasingly popular recreational activity for both children and adults. As with any high-speed sport, traumatic injury is an associated hazard. It was the purpose of this study to focus on the injuries in children associated specifically with in-line skating with an emphasis on education and prevention. During a 9-year period, 331 injuries were identified, with 105 families completing an in-depth epidemiologic questionnaire. Sixty-one percent of the victims were boys, with an overall average age of 12 years. The upper extremity was most commonly injured (64%); the head and neck area was injured in 16% and the lower extremity in 20%. Fractures represented 38% of all injuries, with inexperience appearing to be the most common cause. An analysis of preventive strategies for childhood in-line skating was undertaken using Haddon's 10 basic preventive principles. Educational programs regarding instruction in in-line skating and the value of protective equipment need to be part of the school curriculum.
Article
To gain greater awareness and understanding of the circumstances leading to injuries associated with inline skating and to provide indices for determining preventive measures. Data on injuries during inline skating were collected from seven member states of the European Union (EU) through the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System (EHLASS). The mean incidence rate for injuries while inline skating is 17 per 100,000 inhabitants. In the EU in 1996, about 65,000 people were treated at an Emergency Department for an inline skate injury (excluding traffic injuries). About 60% of the victims are male, while the age group most at risk is 10-14 years old. Most injuries are due to a fall and wrist injuries are most common. The results of the analysis give indications for possible preventive measures. Although the features of the injuries often differ per country, the countries can learn from each other in preventing these types of injuries. Educational campaigns should be targeted at young teenagers, use of protective equipment (like wrist protectors) and skating techniques. EHLASS has potential for intercountry comparisons, but its value will improve if selecting hospitals and coding agreements will be standardised.
Article
Skateboarding and in-line skating are popular activities that attract millions of participants yearly and have spawned the development of skateparks (SPs). This study examined the types and distribution of injuries within a local commercial SP. Subjects were prospectively enrolled in a university Emergency Department (ED) after an injury at a local SP. One hundred subjects were enrolled over 1 year, representing 102 episodes and 106 injuries. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 80% of all injuries. Fractures and dislocations were the most frequent injuries (59%); six required operative management. One serious intra-abdominal injury occurred. Head and facial injuries occurred in 17% of subjects; none required operative repair. Admission rate was 9%. Safety equipment use was greater than 91%. Significantly more injuries occurred in the ramp/bars areas compared to the half-pipe and gully areas, suggesting that SP design may significantly influence injury patterns. A substantial number of injuries occurred at the SP, despite controlled conditions and equipment requirements.
Article
Dedicated skate parks have led to an increase in pediatric fractures referred to the authors' unit. The authors performed a prospective analysis of all patients presenting to their unit with fractures sustained while Rollerblading or skateboarding over a 5-month period. Epidemiologic data, user experience, wearing of protective gear, place of injury, and mechanism of injury were collected. Fracture type and its treatment were also recorded. The findings indicated that the use of skate parks is associated with a significant increase in the severity of fracture. This was not related to mean length of experience, age, or sex. The use of skate parks had an increased relative risk of 8.35 for fractures requiring manipulation or invasive orthopedic treatment. Only 5% of children were wearing some form of limb/joint protective gear. The authors believe there should be closer supervision and training of children and more emphasis on limb protective gear. The current high incidence of significant skate park injuries will otherwise continue, with implications for the well-being of these children and the burden on the healthcare system.