Phenotypic and Molecular Analyses of X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (“Lubag”) in Women

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 13400 E Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.
JAMA Neurology (Impact Factor: 7.42). 01/2005; 61(12):1956-9. DOI: 10.1001/archneur.61.12.1956
Source: PubMed


X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) or "lubag" is an X-linked recessive disorder that afflicts Filipino men, and rarely, women. Genetic confirmation is performed through haplotyping or detection of disease-specific changes in the DYT3 gene.
To describe the phenotypes and molecular data of 8 symptomatic female patients with XDP from 5 kindreds.
Case series.
The average age of onset of symptoms was 52 years (range, 26-75 years). Six of 8 patients had parkinsonism, whereas only 1 had dystonia. The initial symptom was focal tremor or parkinsonism in 4, chorea in 3, and focal dystonia (cervical) in 1. Seven of 8 patients had slow or no progression of their symptoms and required no treatment. The patient with disabling parkinsonism was responsive to carbidopa/levodopa. Seven were heterozygous for the XDP haplotype, whereas 1 was homozygous.
The phenotypes of female patients with XDP may include parkinsonism, dystonia, myoclonus, tremor, and chorea. The dystonia, if present, is mild and usually nonprogressive. Similar to men with XDP, parkinsonism is a frequent symptom in women. In contrast to men, affected women have a more benign phenotype, older age of onset, and milder course. Extreme X-inactivation mosaic may be a cause of symptoms in women with XDP, but a homozygously affected woman has also been observed.

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    • "Regarding manifesting females with XDP, an initial report alluded to a milder course and that they do not present with dystonia, or if they do, the dystonia is usually focal, non-progressive, and non-disabling.6 A scrutiny on the clinical profile of the affected females in the XDP registry indicate that their clinical presentation do not significantly vary from their male counterparts. "
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical phenotype of X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP) is typically one that involves a Filipino adult male whose ancestry is mostly traced in the Philippine island of Panay. Dystonia usually starts focally in the lower limbs or oromandibular regions, then spreads to become generalized eventually. Parkinsonism sets in later into the disease and usually in combination with dystonia. /DYT3/ and /TAF1/ are the two genes associated with XDP. An SVA retrotransposon insertion in an intron of /TAF1/ may reduce neuron-specific expression of the /TAF1/ isoform in the caudate nucleus, and subsequently interfere with the transcription of many neuronal genes. Polypharmacy with oral benzodiazepines, anticholinergic agents and muscle relaxants leaves much to be desired in terms of efficacy. The medications to date that may appear beneficial, especially in disabling dystonias, are zolpidem, muscle afferent block with lidocaine-ethanol and botulinum toxin type A. Despite the few cases undergoing deep brain stimulation, this functional surgery has shown the greatest promise in XDP. An illustrative case of XDP in a family depicts the variable course of illness, including a bout of "status dystonicus," challenges in therapy, reckoning with the social impact of the disease, and eventual patient demise. Indeed, there remains some gaps in understanding some phenomenological, genetic and treatment aspects of XDP, the areas upon which future research directions may be worthwhile.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010
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    • "Figure 2shows phenotype of four patients with XDP. Although men are primarily affected, XDP has also been detected in a few women (Evidente et al., 2004). In women, involvement is much milder with an average age at onset of 52 years, frequently only minor motor anomalies such as parkinsonism and cervical dystonia, and a slow or no progression of symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Presently, 17 distinct monogenic primary dystonias referred to as dystonias 1- 4, 5a,b, 6-8, 10-13 and 15-18 (loci DYT 1-4, 5a,b, 6-8, 10-13, 15-18) have been recognized. Twelve forms are inherited as autosomal dominant, four as autosomal recessive and one as an X-linked recessive trait. Three additional autosomal dominant forms (DYT9, DYT19 and DYT20) might exist based on linkage mapping to regions apparently different from, yet in close proximity to or overlapping with the known loci DYT18, DYT10 and DYT8. Clinically, this group of movement disorders includes pure dystonias and dystonia plus syndromes. In addition, dyskinesias (paroxysmal dystonias), although phenotypically distinct from classical dystonias, are discussed within this group. In pure dystonias, dystonia is occasionally accompanied by tremor. In dystonia plus syndromes, dystonia as the prominent sign concurs with other movement abnormalities such as myoclonus and parkinsonism. In the dyskinesias, dystonia occurs as a paroxysmal sign in association with other movement anomalies and sometimes seizures. While gross neuropathological changes are absent in most primary dystonias, including the paroxysmal forms, striking morphological alterations are found in some, such as in the X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome (DYT3). Neuropathological findings at the microscopic level have also been reported in several cases of dystonia 1 and 5, both of which were previously thought to be morphologically normal. One locus, DYT14 had been erroneously assigned, by linkage mapping, in a family with dystonia 5. There are two forms of dystonia 5, one autosomal dominant and one autosomal recessive. These forms are designated here as dystonia 5a and dystonia 5b (DYT5a, DYT5b), respectively. The disease gene has been identified in 10 primary dystonias, seven autosomal dominant (TOR1A/DYT1, GCH1/DYT5a, THAP1/DYT6, PNKD1/MR-1/DYT8, SGCE/DYT11, ATP1A3/DYT12 and SLC2A1/DYT18), two autosomal recessive (TH/DYT5b and PRKRA/DYT16) and one X-chromosomal recessive (TAF1/DYT3). This article summarizes all known aspects on each of the monogenic primary dystonias, including phenotype, neuropathology, imaging, inheritance, mapping, molecular genetics, molecular pathology, animal models and treatment. Suggestions for the diagnostic procedure in primary dystonias are given. Although much is now known about the molecular basis of primary dystonias, treatment of patients is still mainly symptomatic. The only exceptions are dystonias 5a and 5b with their excellent long-term response to L-dopa substitution.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Brain

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