Thomas NK. Resident burnout

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 01/2005; 292(23):2880-9. DOI: 10.1001/jama.292.23.2880
Source: PubMed


Intense work demands, limited control, and a high degree of work-home interference abound in residency training programs and should strongly predispose resident physicians to burnout as they do other health care professionals. This article reviews studies in the medical literature that address the level of burnout and associated personal and work factors, health and performance issues, and resources and interventions in residents. MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language studies reporting primary data on burnout or dimensions of burnout among residents, published between 1983 and 2004, using combinations of the Medical Subject Heading terms burnout, professional, emotional exhaustion, cynicism, depersonalization and internship and residency, housestaff, intern, resident, or physicians in training and by examining reference lists of retrieved articles for relevant studies. A total of 15 heterogeneous articles on resident burnout were thus identified. The studies suggest that burnout levels are high among residents and may be associated with depression and problematic patient care. However, currently available data are insufficient to identify causal relationships and do not support using demographic or personality characteristics to identify at-risk residents. Moreover, given the heterogeneous nature and limitations of the available studies, as well as the importance of having rigorous data to understand and prevent resident burnout, large, prospective studies are needed.

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    • "Over the last years, awareness that resident doctors are vulnerable to burnout has grown [1]. Residency is a stressful period in a physician's development where skills in a specialty need to be gained while simultaneously quality patient care is expected to be provided, leading to high levels of responsibility coupled with low levels of autonomy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R). Method. Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands' interface) and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor's support). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. Results. Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Conclusions. Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
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    • "Other factors include, indebtedness, the length of time spent in training, lack of social support, problems of relocation, difficult patients, and gender related issues (Levey, 2001; Thomas, 2004; Yussuf et al., 2006). These stressors have resulted in reported incidence of psychological symptoms with feelings of becoming less humanistic, more cynical and ''burning out'' during residency training (Hillhouse et al., 2000; Thomas, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The mental health of doctors is an issue of growing concern all over the world as it frequently interplays with their professional trainings and responsibilities. This study was done to determine the pattern and correlates of burnout among 204 doctors undergoing residency training. Eligible participants were interviewed using designed questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The mean age of participants was 33.44 ± 4.50. Ninety-three (45.6%) respondents reported burnout in the dimension of emotional exhaustion (EE), 118 (57.8%) in the dimension of depersonalization (D), and 126 (61.8%) in the dimension of reduced personal accomplishment (RPA). Factors that were significantly associated with all the dimensions of burnout were perceived heavy workload and presence of emotional distress (based on GHQ score of ≥ 3). The perception of call duty as being not stressful was negatively predictive of burnout in the emotional exhaustion subscale (Odds Ratio [OR] =0.52; 95%Confidence Interval [CI] =0.29-0.97; p=0.03), while emotional distress was a positive predictor (OR=6.97; 95%CI=3.28-14.81; p<0.001]. Absence of doctor-to-doctor conflict negatively predicted burnout in the depersonalization subscale (OR=0.36; 95%CI=0.17-0.76); p<0.01), while older age (OR=0.66; 95%CI=0.47-0.95; p=0.03) and adequate support from the management (OR=0.45; 95%CI= 0.22-0.90; p=0.02) constituted negative predictors of burnout in the reduced personal accomplishment subscale. Burnout is highly prevalent among resident doctors. Evolvement of comprehensive mental health services, training supports, conflict de-escalation/resolution mechanisms, and periodic assessment are indicated to mitigate work related distress with burn out among resident doctors, while improving their productivity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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    • "Reports on the association between sociodemographic characteristics and emotional burnout among medical residents were subjective as the majority of the published work proposed weak or negative correlations [29, 30]. Our study findings were similar. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was “fear of making mistakes.” Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies.Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life—the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief. SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952)
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Scientific World Journal
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