ArticleLiterature Review

Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners

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Abstract

Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite-and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics, as well as dispel myths and establish a theoretical basis on which to conduct future research. Differences are evident in areas such as help-seeking behaviors and correlates, thus demanding unique assessment and intervention strategies. This article presents further explanation of the latest research, recommendations for future studies, and effective as well as problematic methodological practices about same-gender domestic violence.

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... The approach taken by most previous studies with similar purpose is a within-group type of analysis [20,28]. Direct between-group analyses, comparing patterns in M-M, M-F and F-F relationships are scarce [29,30] and those that exists overlap with other issues and topics. A report by McClennen [29] reviewing specific methods of abuse, made between-group comparisons similar to those in the current study. ...
... Direct between-group analyses, comparing patterns in M-M, M-F and F-F relationships are scarce [29,30] and those that exists overlap with other issues and topics. A report by McClennen [29] reviewing specific methods of abuse, made between-group comparisons similar to those in the current study. Although conceptually similar, the comparisons were performed with population samples derived from multiple studies [20,28]. ...
... When comparing the methods of abuse between gay male and lesbian groups based on the same type of questionnaire, McClennen's [29] study showed similar results overall. For example, the majority of the methods used in the lesbian population were more severe and more common than those used in the male/male couples. ...
Article
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Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA), a major social problem, can lead to mental health conditions and is implicated in 30 % of female and 5 % of male homicide deaths. We hypothesized that due to distinct relationship structures and power dynamics which are immersed in varying sociocultural contexts, victims of male-male, female-female and female-male dyads experience different patterns of IPA. Our objectives were: (1) To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of male victim-male abuser (M-M), female victim-male abuser (F-M), male victim-female abuser (M-F), and female victim-female abuser (F-F) dyads. (2) To compare patterns of IPA reported by the victims in these groups. Out of 397 subjects in the general population that attempted this Internet-based study, 214 English-speaking subjects were older than 18 years, had experienced IPA, and provided complete information for the analysis. Victims of IPA were screened and specific methods of abuse were evaluated. M-Ms were significantly more educated (70 %) than other groups. F-Fs experienced more abuse before age 18 by a parent or relative. F-Fs experienced the most physical abuse while M-Ms the least (p = 0.004). Physical abuse or threats of abuse in front of children was reported more in F-Fs (p < 0.01) and least in M-Ms. IPA patterns differ significantly with F-Fs presenting the most physical profile and M-Ms presenting the least.
... Traditional IPV research has used feminist frameworks and social constructs of gender inequality to explain IPV as a crime that is frequently perpetrated by men against women (Dobash & Dobash, 1979;Hoyle, 2007;Johnson & Dawson, 2011;McClennen, 2005;Ristock, 2002). However, as a result of the emphasis on the domination of men over women, these approaches cannot adequately describe abuse between same-sex partners (McClennen, 2005). ...
... Traditional IPV research has used feminist frameworks and social constructs of gender inequality to explain IPV as a crime that is frequently perpetrated by men against women (Dobash & Dobash, 1979;Hoyle, 2007;Johnson & Dawson, 2011;McClennen, 2005;Ristock, 2002). However, as a result of the emphasis on the domination of men over women, these approaches cannot adequately describe abuse between same-sex partners (McClennen, 2005). For example, it is argued that the concept of patriarchy alone cannot explain instances of abuse that occur between women (Hoyle, 2007). ...
... In the United States, Het-IPV literature has indicated prevalence rates ranging from 7% to 33% (McClennen, 2005;Turell, 2000;Walters et al., 2013). In comparison, SS-IPV literature has reported a vast difference in prevalence, with victimization rates ranging from 15% to 75% (Burke et al., 2002; National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs [NCAVP], 2016;Waldner-Haugrud et al., 1997;Walters et al., 2013). ...
Article
During the past 50 years, there has been an increase in research and programming initiatives focusing on the issue of heterosexual intimate partner violence (Het-IPV). In comparison, less attention has been paid to same-sex intimate partner violence (SS-IPV). Furthermore, of the existing research, the majority focuses on SS-IPV incidents in the United States which, due to social and legal differences, cannot yield an accurate picture of SS-IPV in Canada. This descriptive study sought to understand the prevalence, characteristics, and types of SS-IPV and Het-IPV within a Canadian context, with an emphasis on understanding the differences and similarities of incidents reported to police services. It explores the influences of heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity on SS-IPV reporting and recognition. To assess this, data from Statistics Canada’s 2007–2011 Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Surveys were utilized. Participation in this survey is mandatory for all police services and, therefore, the sample used contains over 99% of incidents of IPV reported in Canada during the 4-year period ( N = 346,565). The results indicate that 4% of incidents of intimate partner violence reported to the UCR involved people engaged in same-sex relationships. It demonstrates that SS-IPV incidents are similar to Het-IPV incidents in reported prevalence, and the findings also show that there are differences in the types of violations reported and several incident characteristics, including levels of victim injury, and the population density of the offense location. These findings can provide a foundation for future research and raise further questions about how SS-IPV is responded to by the criminal justice system after it has been reported to police services.
... The investigations that analyze the prevalence of this phenomenon face several methodological limitations (Donovan, Hester, Holmes, and Mccarry, 2006;Hester et al., 2010;Murray et al., 2007), such as including small samples (Nowinski and Bowen, 2012;Rohrbaugh, 2006;, non-random samples (McClennen, 2005;Rohrbaugh, 2006;Younglove et al., 2002), unrepresentative samples (Burke and Follingstad, 1999;Hester et al., 2010;McClennen, 2005;Nowinski and Bowen, 2012;, nonprobabilistic samples (Buller, Devries, Howard, and Bacchus, 2014) and samples generally obtained through convenience methods (Buller et al., 2014;Nowinski and Bowen, 2012). ...
... The investigations that analyze the prevalence of this phenomenon face several methodological limitations (Donovan, Hester, Holmes, and Mccarry, 2006;Hester et al., 2010;Murray et al., 2007), such as including small samples (Nowinski and Bowen, 2012;Rohrbaugh, 2006;, non-random samples (McClennen, 2005;Rohrbaugh, 2006;Younglove et al., 2002), unrepresentative samples (Burke and Follingstad, 1999;Hester et al., 2010;McClennen, 2005;Nowinski and Bowen, 2012;, nonprobabilistic samples (Buller, Devries, Howard, and Bacchus, 2014) and samples generally obtained through convenience methods (Buller et al., 2014;Nowinski and Bowen, 2012). ...
... It should be highlighted that for most individuals, intimate partner violence is only one of the types of violence of which they are victims, as these people live in constant social oppression (Ristock and Timbang, 2005). These conditions contribute to the victim's silence, which some authors refer to as the "double closet": the first closet is not accepting one's homosexuality and the second is not admitting to the existence of intimate partner violence (McClennen, 2005;Nunan, 2004;Santos, 2006;Vickers, 1996). ...
Chapter
The Jyväskylä model of working with intimate partner violence (IPV) started twenty years ago as a multi-professional collaborative project in Jyväskylä, Finland. The two main collaborating agencies, the local Crisis Centre Mobile and Jyväskylä University Psychotherapy Training and Research Centre, serve both victims and perpetrators of IPV, and co-operate with various social and welfare agencies and the police. Perpetrators are offered group treatment preceded by individual treatment. From the outset, the process and utility of group treatment for male perpetrators of IPV has mainly been researched by applying discursive and narrative approaches. The treatment program combines a feminist perspective and psychotherapeutic approaches to violence-specific interventions, such as safety planning. These aspects have also been a focus of research. Dialogical and discursive approaches have been applied in analyzing interaction at both the group and individual levels. This chapter reviews the latest results of this research project. Recently, languagebased analyses have focused on the identity construction of male perpetrators as well as on the discursive processes and therapeutic strategies used in the treatment group. From the gendered viewpoint, the findings point to the importance of focusing on the construction of masculine identity, especially in relation to fatherhood. The findings also demonstrate how therapists can model the division of power between the genders as well as how sexuality and sexual violence are addressed in the group discussions. Moreover, the findings of the project show how IPV perpetrators vary in their individual processes of change. Change has been approached from the perspectives of reflexivity, mentalization, attachment style, and problem assimilation. In these studies, the success of the process has been evaluated on the basis of partner interviews. Overall, the results demonstrate the diversity that exists among perpetrators and point to the importance of adapting the therapeutic strategies deployed in group interventions for IPV to serve clients' individual needs.
... The severity of the consequences of this relational configuration on direct victims (the partner who suffers violence, and children, if there are any) required a series of surveys on the level of knowledge of the phenomenon, of preventive interventions, of taking charge of abuser and victim, of legal protection in defense of individuals involved. Some researchers argue that the cyclical pattern of violence supported by Walkers (1979) is still useful for understanding the development and maintenance of violent dynamics (McClennen, Summers, & Vaughn, 2002;Richards, Noret, & Rivers, 2003;McClennen, 2005). According to this model, which supposes the possibility to distinguish the role of the victim and the role of the author/authoress of violence, the cycle is divided in three stages: the first -called the phase of growth and anxiety-is one where there is a predominance of one of the two components of the couple who acts through emotional abuse and evident hostility against the rules and expectations that actually are broken. ...
... As consequence, LG subjects are obligated to live in the invisibility and silence. For this reason, the research sector, relatively new, on violence in same-sex intimate relationships is often examined, as well as in international level, in master Thesis and dissertations that often are not readily available to the public (McClennen, 2005;Rohrbaugh, 2006). From the silence escape only the members of the association Rainbow Families that since 2005 represents in Italy those who have realized their project about parenting, or who aim to create family based not on biology or on the law but on the responsibility, daily mutual commitment, so as on the respect and love (www.famigliearcobaleno.org). ...
... Social isolation and the threat of "outing" are extremely powerful factors. Therefore, revealing both the personal sexual orientation and the sexual violence is equivalent to a double -double closet-coming out that it often provokes further isolation and psycho-physical vulnerability (McClennen, 2005). ...
Article
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Violence in same sex relationships is characterized by systematic path of dominance and control, even often stigmatized by abusive and powerful behaviors; especially, in the homosexual relationships some risk factors, as the lack of balance between the couple and the threat of public outing, play fundamental role. The relevance to identify both risk and protective factors, suggested by variable dispositions in intimate partner violence (dependence's style, violation), situational dispositions (social support homo-negativity) and factors connected to the quality and managing ability of intimate dynamics (communication, conflict, sexuality). Some findings collected by an investigation conducted by a group of Sicilian participants (Italy) show their tendency to not have specific role, in absence of outing, in the dynamics of intimate partner conflicts. Rather, they tend to value positive aspects of the relationships, minimizing the danger of aggressive behaviors. Findings highlight the need to contrast deeply the phenomenon integrating interventions with specific actions. Especially, these actions should be addressed to social, educational, informational and political dimension, in order to fight the strong sexual discrimination in Italian area.
... In the 1970s, in parallel with the growth of second-wave feminism and women's rights movements, a spotlight was shone on IPV as a complex and problematic social issue (McClennen, 2005;Russell, 2015). Within their theoretical framework, partner violence was primarily considered as a phenomenon perpetrated by men against women in heterosexual couples, the aim of which was to exert power and control over victims. ...
... Conversely, the stereotype that assumes that males are the sole perpetrators of violence limits the perception of the man as a victim, reducing gay victims' likelihood of recognizing themselves as victims and asking for help (Potoczniak et al., 2003;Duke and Davidson, 2009;Calton et al., 2015). Moreover, gender role stereotypes have produced myths about mutual violence (Hanson, 1996;Potoczniak et al., 2003;McClennen, 2005;Duke and Davidson, 2009). This view is related to the conception of women (straight or lesbian) and gay men as incapable of perpetrating violence due to their feminine traits, which has resulted in the belief that violence between lesbian and gay partners only occurs on an equal basis, i.e., involving both partners, as a result of arguments and conflicts (Duke and Davidson, 2009). ...
... Both these conditions are potentially stigmatizing. Victims of SSIPV might find themselves 'doubly closeted' as members of a sexual minority and subject to partner violence (Renzetti, 1989;McClennen, 2005). Furthermore, they might fear being 'doubly stigmatized' or being re-traumatized by service providers through denial of help, lack of recognition, or openly homophobic behavior (Renzetti, 1996;Simpson and Helfrich, 2005). ...
Chapter
Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in same-sex couples is poorly explored as a phenomenon compared to its heterosexual counterpart. In 2015, only about 3% out of all IPV studies focused on same-sex couples. As a consequence, it is often hard to find services and interventions focused on Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence (SSIPV), especially ones that keep in mind specific factors related to sexual minority status; despite some overlapping areas with heterosexual IPV, service providers dealing with SSIPV should be aware of the existence of specific needs. Objective: The objective of the present work is to provide a narrative review of literature on the state of SSIPV interventions and services on an international level, with a specific focus on the help-seeking process and help-providers’ experiences. Method: A bibliographic search was conducted on EBSCO (Family Studies Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, Mental Measurements Yearbook, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Social Sciences Abstracts, Sociology Source Ultimate, Violence & Abuse Abstracts). Results: The literature review highlights a lack of attention on the development and dissemination of intervention and coping strategies oriented towards LGB people, who turn to informal ways of obtaining support (e. g. acquaintances, friends, family members, community members) or give up in their search for support entirely. Existing services targeting IPV and their respective providers, despite possessing useful features for dealing with the phenomenon in the general population (empathetic listening, concentration on couple dynamics, protection services) rarely have the necessary tools for dealing with the more sensitive and specific situations of SSIPV cases, such as the consequences of minority stress, relationships with original families, violence dynamics typical of same-sex couples or barriers for access to services. In their scarcity, existing SSIPV services also tend to only focus on aspects related to identity development and on the impact of minority stress. Due to a heteronormative view of violence, SSIPV victims tend to struggle when trying to access services, partly because of fears that involve: services not being able to address their needs, services being exclusively for heterosexual couples, the possibility of being doubly stigmatized due to homonegative attitudes. Conclusions: Coherently with the dominant heteronormative view of intimate partner violence, both knowledge about SSIPV and its related interventions are limited as of today. Users and providers alike require more focused services, better training and education on these themes. Therefore, additional services geared towards homosexual victims of IPV appear necessary.
... En esta línea, Poorman, Seelau, y Seelau (2003) subrayan que la violencia perpetrada por los hombres hacia las mujeres ha sido catalogada como más importante y grave. Dicha asunción se fundamenta en postulados del paradigma feminista que atribuyen al patriarcado y al sexismo las causas de la violencia masculina hacia las mujeres en las relaciones íntimas (McClennen, 2005). Por tanto, investigar la violencia en parejas del mismo sexo implica superar el paradigma heterosexual que define la mayor parte del movimiento de "violencia doméstica" (Ristock, 2003). ...
... Un cuerpo creciente de estudios constata la existencia de violencia también en parejas del mismo sexo (Nowinski y Bowen, 2012). Sin embargo, las cifras de su prevalencia son divergentes: unos estudios la asemejan a parejas heterosexuales (McClennen, 2005), mientras otros muestran predominio de la violencia en parejas del mismo sexo (Goldberg y Meyer, 2013), especialmente cuando se compara entre hombres que tienen sexo con otros hombres y hombres heterosexuales (Finneran, Chard, Sineath, Sullivan y Stephenson, 2012). Las cifras de prevalencia varían como puede observarse en la Tabla 1, donde se recogen (de forma no exhaustiva) diversos estudios al respecto. ...
... Las víctimas extienden esa percepción negativa a otros servicios profesionales y terapéuticos, al verlos como no sensibles ni útiles a su problemática específica. Ello facilita que las víctimas prosigan la relación con sus agresores ocultando muchas veces el abuso (McClennen, 2005). ...
Article
Currently, health policies and programs from most occidental countries ignore violence in same- sex partners and do not offer any attention to the victims. Thus, data giving evidence of this type of violence is required to discard assumptions regarding the irrelevance of this phenomenon. This paper analyzes the most recent approaches to this phenomenon and reviews studies referring to the prevalence and type of violence exerted. Factors associated with this violence are analyzed in depth, along with its effects on victims' health. In addition, methodological limitations concerning this topic are stated. Finally, this paper highlights future research areas and also key issues for those who work in prevention, treatment and/or intervention.
... This idea implicated serious issues because not only did it created obstacles in providing services for homosexual victims but it also contributed to increasing the tendency to minimize IPV severity (McClennen, 2005). Such an assumption could neglect the study of other types of violence apart from the physical one, such as psychological abuse . ...
... The outcomes were severe, and included physical injury, social isolation, property destruction and loss, and disruption to work, education, and career development (Buford et al., 2007;Chard et al., 2012;Barrett, 2015). Moreover, victims often reported that the abuse was not mutual and was instead suffered, and the consequences of it made them feel trapped, hopeless, and isolated (Ferraro and Johnson, 2000;McClennen, 2005). There were also similarities with regard to the reasons for remaining with the abusive partner. ...
... Merrill and Wolfe (2000) discussed "recognition failure" as the failure to recognize intimate violent behaviors and, therefore, to seek or offer help such because of widespread ignorance regarding SSIPV. Several authors support public and specialized education believing that it would reduce the incidence of this phenomenon, by promoting earlier help-seeking and strengthening informal and formal support systems for victims (McClennen, 2005;Borne et al., 2007). Merrill and Wolfe (2000) recommended similar suggestions, considering that SSIPV assessment and treatment should include the following aspects: ...
Article
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Over the past few decades, the causes of and intervention for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been approached and studied. This paper presents a narrative review on IPV occurring in same sex couples, that is, same sex IPV (SSIPV). Despite the myth that IPV is exclusively an issue in heterosexual relationships, many studies have revealed the existence of IPV among lesbian and gay couples, and its incidence is comparable to (Turell, 2000) or higher than that among heterosexual couples (Messinger, 2011; Kelley et al., 2012). While similarities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) IPV were found, unique features and dynamics were present in LGB IPV. Such features are mainly related to identification and treatment of SSIPV in the community and to the need of taking into consideration the role of sexual minority stressors. Our findings show there is a lack of studies that address LGB individuals involved in IPV; this is mostly due to the silence that has historically existed around violence in the LGB community, a silence built on fears and myths that have obstructed a public discussion on the phenomenon. We identified the main themes discussed in the published studies that we have reviewed here. The reviews lead us to the conclusion that it is essential to create a place where this subject can be freely discussed and approached, both by LGB and heterosexual people.
... However, lesbian and bisexual women may fear secondary victimisation and international research points to low reporting of IPV incidents in same-sex relationships to authorities (Kuehnle & Sullivan, 2003). When cases are indeed reported, research paints a picture of inadequate and at times even homophobic police responses, such as minimising the seriousness of the case and trivialising the abuse because it is perpetrated by a woman (Jablow, 2000;Vickers, 1996); dismissing the violence as mutual abuse (likely due to relying on a heterosexist understanding of IPV, resulting in ambiguity around who the perpetrator is when a simplistic positioning of men as aggressors and women as victims cannot be applied) (McClennen, 2005); and failure to intervene or arrest the perpetrator (Comstock, 1991). ...
... 211). McClennen (2005) notes that the lack of appropriate and responsive professional support services can contribute to lesbian and bisexual women remaining in abusive relationships as they do not believe that they will receive help if they speak out about their abuse. ...
... Campbell, 2002;Coker et al., 2002). Negative mental health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women who experience partner abuse are amplified in contexts where they receive limited social support, which is often the case in contexts marked by widespread homophobia and heterosexism (McClennen, 2005). ...
... In addition, existing research on IPV often employs gender-based explanations for IPV that focus on misogyny, patriarchy, and the influence of gender on relationship violence (Ristock, 2002). Such explanatory models have been criticized, however, because they rely heavily on heterosexual assumptions of male violence against women and ignore same-sex IPV (Dutton, 2012;McClennen, 2005;Ristock, 2002). Same-sex IPV has been cited as a challenge to the gendered nature of IPV by demonstrating that it is an abuse of power that can occur in any type of relationship, between individual of any gender (Rohrbaugh, 2006). ...
... Sexual minorities report similar (Carvalho et al., 2011;Edwards et al., 2015;Seelau & Seelau, 2005;Walters et al., 2013) or higher (Graham, Jensen, Givens, Bowen, & Rizo, 2016;West, 2012) rates of IPV compared with their heterosexual peers. Similarities also exist across same-sex and opposite-sex relationships in types of violence, including physical, sexual, emotional, and financial abuse and the cyclical nature of abuse (McClennen, 2005). SMW experiencing IPV, however, must contend with additional sources of stress and stigmatization. ...
... These explanations rely on social or cultural explanations linking relationship violence to larger systems of patriarchy and misogyny (Dutton, 2012;Ristock, 2002), resulting in socially accepted and sanctioned gender inequality (Sokoloff & Dupont, 2005). Although authors using these gender-based theoretical explanations have made important contributions to the literature, they have been criticized for essentializing the role of gender in IPV (Elliot, 1996;McClennen, 2005;Renzetti, 1992;Ristock, 2002;Sokoloff & Dupont, 2005). Research on IPV among SMW has also confronted essentialized notions of gender within a butch/femme dichotomy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual-minority women (SMW) are believed to experience comparable or higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than heterosexual women. In this study, we expand upon existing research by examining the intersectional relationships among self-perceptions of femininity and masculinity, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and IPV. Data are obtained from the most recent wave of the longitudinal Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study that included a diverse sample of SMW (N = 608). We use multivariate generalized linear models to investigate self-perceptions of femininity and masculinity, race/ethnicity, and SES differences in multiple types of IPV, including moderate IPV, severe IPV, and a sexual-minority-specific measure of IPV, threat of “outing” one’s partner. Results suggest no differences across self-perceptions of femininity and masculinity in SMW’s reporting of victimization but clear differences based on race/ethnicity and SES. Implications for providing support to SMW who experience IPV and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... In line with the heteronormative stereotypic notion of women's incapability of violence, FSSIPV-inclusive research to date has tended to fall into one or both of the following categories: (1) reports of the estimated national prevalence of FSSIPV; and/or (2) heterosexual groups' and individuals' gender role stereotypes about women's samegender relationships, and the possibility of violence in those relationships (e.g., McClennen, 2005;Messinger, 2011). Compared to attention given to issues collectively faced by the LGBTQ population, the relatively large dedication of federal, state, and private funding for research related to violence against women and domestic violence since the original signing of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) has been almost 4 exclusively used for developing services for presumed heterosexual, cis-gender, female survivors of abuse perpetrated by male intimate partners with similarly presumed heterosexual and cis-gender characteristics (Ristock, 2001). ...
... (1) to estimate and report the extent of IPV among the U.S. lesbian, gay, and bisexual population (no distinctions were made regarding transgender individuals), and (2) to reiterate findings from previous inquiries exploring the prevalence of IPV among this population (McLaughlin & Rozee, 2001;Morrow & Hawxhurst, 1989;Renzetti, 1992Renzetti, , 1998Ristock, 2001Ristock, , e.g., 2002Robson, 1990). A subset of researchers examining intimate partner violence over the past few decades have worked to specifically understand both the prevalence and causes of female same-sex IPV (Eaton et al., 2008;6 Glass et al., 2008;Hassouneh & Glass, 2008;Little & Terrance, 2010;McClennen, 2005;Ristock, 2003Ristock, , 2011e.g., C. Smith, 2011); however much of our understanding of the contexts of and mechanisms underlying FSSIPV is rooted in heterosexist conceptualizations related to men's masculinity and their socially sanctioned dominance and aggression (Davis & Glass, 2011). Normative heterosexual relationships have historically been characterized by the male member of the relationship being the "partner in control" (Johnson, 1995(Johnson, , 2006. ...
Thesis
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In response to a dearth of empirical literature concerning the mechanisms underlying female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) perpetration, the purpose of this research is to inform intimate partner violence intervention and prevention strategies specific to sexual minority women. In particular, this research aims to inform a working intersectional model predicting FSSIPV perpetration, and to evaluate the face validity and construct coverage of existing survey measures related to gender, minority stress, and violence. Fourteen lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer women recruited from the greater Portland, Oregon area participated in a series of in-depth, semi- structured, open-ended one-on-one and focus group interviews. Participant recruitment involved a combination of purposive and convenience sampling methods aided by the involvement of multiple community partners working in violence and education related fields. Interview and focus group questions addressed participants' experiences with gender role stress and minority stress. Grounded theory analysis of participants' narrative responses informed the coverage and relevance of constructs in a working intersectional model predicting women's use of violence in their same-gender intimate relationships. In particular, findings indicate that sexual minority women's experiences of gender role stress and minority stress, particularly in combination, were especially influential on their identities. Sexual minority women's experiences with minority stressors were not confined to minority stressors specific to their gender identities and sexual orientations, but intersected with minority stressors related to race and class as well. These findings support an intersectional and contextually-minded approach to IPV intervention and prevention strategies.
... This isolation may increase in the case of same-sex couples, given that the abuser isolates the victim, who can also be isolated or have less social support because of being part of a stigmatized minority group. Thus, reporting the abuse will involve a double revelation: about one's sexual-affective orientation and about being the victim of abuse by a same-sex intimate partner (McClennen, 2005). Therefore, violence in same-sex couples has been referred to as the double closet (McClennen, 2005). ...
... Thus, reporting the abuse will involve a double revelation: about one's sexual-affective orientation and about being the victim of abuse by a same-sex intimate partner (McClennen, 2005). Therefore, violence in same-sex couples has been referred to as the double closet (McClennen, 2005). ...
Article
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In recent decades, the study of psychological abuse in same-sex couples has increased, but the perpetration of psychological abuse and the influential psychosocial factors have been studied less. However, some previous studies have shown the importance of the insecure attachment style and outness as relevant psychosocial factors in the perpetration of psychological abuse. The aim of this research is to study the influence of the insecure attachment style on psychological abuse perpetration in same-sex couples, and the moderating role of the level of outness as antecedent variables of the perpetration of psychological abuse. An online survey was conducted with respondents from Spanish-speaking countries with 305 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual or pansexual adults. Results confirm that overall outness moderates the relationship between the insecure attachment style and the perpetration of psychological abuse. Specifically, taking into account the three subscales of outness (to family, to the world, and to religion), outness to the world moderates the relationship between the insecure attachment style and the perpetration of psychological abuse. The subscales of outness to family and to religion did not show significant results. The results obtained contribute to elucidating some of the relevant antecedent psychosocial factors in the perpetration of psychological abuse in same-sex couples. Practical implications and recommendations for future studies are included.
... Contudo, a violência trata-se de um fenômeno que não se encontra inerente ao gênero ou à orientação sexual (Dias, 2016). Apesar de se assistir a um crescente reconhecimento científico relativamente à existência de violência nos relacionamentos íntimos entre parceiros do mesmo sexo, é patente a necessidade de se desenvolverem pesquisas que abordem esta problemática (Burke et al., 2002;Kimmes et al., 2019;McClennen, 2005), tornando-se imprescindível trabalhar-se questões como a formação dos profissionais que trabalham com a população LGBT+, propiciando, assim, o desenvolvimento e a implementação de programas de prevenção e intervenção adequados, tanto às vítimas quanto aos agressores LGBT+ (Badenes-Ribera et al., 2015;McClennen, 2005;Nunan, 2004;Roberts, 2005), afigurando-se necessário, também, o desenvolvimento de programas de formação e campanhas direcionadas à própria comunidade LGBT+, de modo a aumentar o seu conhecimento sobre esta problemática (Badenes-Ribera et al., 2015), e por forma a desconstruir os mitos (Dias, 2016) e as barreiras ainda existentes entre a população LGBT+ e a sociedade no geral. Constata-se, contudo, e para uma melhor abordagem do fenômeno, a necessidade de maior receptividade aos estudos por parte da população visada e das instituições que prestam auxílio à mesma. ...
... Contudo, a violência trata-se de um fenômeno que não se encontra inerente ao gênero ou à orientação sexual (Dias, 2016). Apesar de se assistir a um crescente reconhecimento científico relativamente à existência de violência nos relacionamentos íntimos entre parceiros do mesmo sexo, é patente a necessidade de se desenvolverem pesquisas que abordem esta problemática (Burke et al., 2002;Kimmes et al., 2019;McClennen, 2005), tornando-se imprescindível trabalhar-se questões como a formação dos profissionais que trabalham com a população LGBT+, propiciando, assim, o desenvolvimento e a implementação de programas de prevenção e intervenção adequados, tanto às vítimas quanto aos agressores LGBT+ (Badenes-Ribera et al., 2015;McClennen, 2005;Nunan, 2004;Roberts, 2005), afigurando-se necessário, também, o desenvolvimento de programas de formação e campanhas direcionadas à própria comunidade LGBT+, de modo a aumentar o seu conhecimento sobre esta problemática (Badenes-Ribera et al., 2015), e por forma a desconstruir os mitos (Dias, 2016) e as barreiras ainda existentes entre a população LGBT+ e a sociedade no geral. Constata-se, contudo, e para uma melhor abordagem do fenômeno, a necessidade de maior receptividade aos estudos por parte da população visada e das instituições que prestam auxílio à mesma. ...
Article
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Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estudar a prevalência da violência na intimidade nos relacionamentos homossexuais, gays e lésbicos. A amostra foi constituída por 48 participantes de nacionalidade portuguesa, com idades compreendidas entre os 18 e os 55 anos (M=26.50; DP=8.011), sendo que 72.9% (n=35) se identificam como lésbicas (sexo feminino) e 27.1% (n=13) se identificam como gay (sexo masculino). As tipologias de violência identificadas com maior prevalência pelas vítimas foram a violência psicológica, seguindo-se a violência física, a violência socioeconômica e a violência sexual. No contexto de perpetração de abuso, as tipologias de violência identificadas com maior prevalência foram a violência psicológica, seguindo-se a violência física e, por fim, com a mesma prevalência, a violência sexual e a violência socioeconômica. Afigura-se necessário um maior investimento na produção de conhecimento científico nesta área.
... Otros autores como Poorman, Seelau, E.P. y Seelau, S.M. (2003) indican que la violencia perpetrada por los hom bres hacia las mujeres ha sido cataloga -da como más importante y grave que otros tipos de violencia. Dicha afirmación se sustenta en postulados del feminismo que otorgan al patriarcado las causas de la violencia masculina hacia las mujeres en las relaciones íntimas (McClennen, 2005). ...
... Otros autores como Poorman, Seelau, E.P. y Seelau, S.M. (2003) indican que la violencia perpetrada por los hom bres hacia las mujeres ha sido cataloga -da como más importante y grave que otros tipos de violencia. Dicha afirmación se sustenta en postulados del feminismo que otorgan al patriarcado las causas de la violencia masculina hacia las mujeres en las relaciones íntimas (McClennen, 2005). ...
Article
The recognition of same-sex relationships has increased, but same-sex intimate partner violence has been less studied. Historically, this problem had been studied in heterosexual relationships, women being victims and men main aggressors. This heteronormative approach to intimate partner violence (IPV) often neglects same-sex relationships (Finneran, Chard, Sineath, Sullivan, & Stephenson, 2012; Russell, 2015). For this study, IPV is defined as every act causing psychological, physical or sexual damage, within the context of intimate relationships (Harvey et al., 2007) perceived as such. To our knowledge, there are no studies about IPV in same-sex relationships in Chile. Data about this topic is scarce in the Latin American context (Ferreira et al., 2015). Therefore, it is necessary to provide contextualized knowledge about IPV in same-sex relationships to face this psychosocial problem. The aim of this study was to describe IPV in same-sex relationships in gay men and lesbian women and its sociodemographic characteristics. In addition, results are compared to detect possible differences between groups. LGBT populations are considered a difficult-to-reach or hidden population (Paz-Bailey et al., 2013). For this reason, a snowball sampling procedure was used. The sample consists of 467 participants who identify themselves as gay men (57.4%) or lesbian women (42.6%), aging from 18 to 67 years (M = 27.9; SD = 7.9). The sample was recruited in four Chilean cities (Antofagasta, Valparaíso, Santiago, and Concepción). A specially designed questionnaire was administered to collect data for this study. Results were obtained through descriptive and comparative analyses with a Chi-square Test. Analyses indicate that 80 subjects (17.2%) had experienced some form of IPV (psychological, physical, or sexual); 87.7% of them reported psychological violence; and about half of them (47.5%) physical violence. Likewise, 19.3% respondents reported that there had been an IPV perpetrator. For group analysis, 20.1% of lesbian women and 19.3% of gay men reported some IPV experience. Statistically significant differences between gay men and lesbian women respondents were detected for psychology violence perpetrated [x²(1) = 6.37, p = .01, w = .64]. Gay men reported a higher percentage perpetrating psychological violence in their relationship (87.5%), as compared to the group of lesbian women (65.8%). Also, a statistically significant relation was found between IPV experiences and educational levels [x²(3) = 10.53, p = .01, w = .51]. Subjects with higher educational levels report less IPV frequency. Finally, a statistically significant relation was found between IPV victims and IPV perpetrators. This study represents the first approach to describe and characterize IPV in gay men and lesbian women, thus creating a baseline for making comparisons with future findings on LGBT issues in Chile and Latin America. Results support evidence concerning greater prevalence of psychological violence in both gay men and lesbian women, as compared to other types of violence such as physical and sexual (Barrett & St. Pierre, 2013; Finneran y Stephenson, 2013; Hellemans et al., 2015; Messinger, 2011). In addition, this resultis similar to those of previous studies on general population (Russell, 2015). An important result is IPV mutuality in the sample, namely, IPV occurs in two directions: persons experiencing partner violence concurrently perpetrate violence against their partners. Findings support the view that, in general, violence in same-sex relationships takes place gradually from relation al dynamics marked by violence (Barrientos, Rodríguez-Caballería, Escartín & Longares, in press). In this context, although data from this study are exploratory-descriptive, they make up a good approach to the problem since they include gay men and lesbian women from different Chilean areas of varied sociodemographic characteristics. If similar findings are reported in other studies, they could help direct psychosocial interventions, public policies, and future research. In any case, results must be carefully considered since they are non-representative samples and, in theory, not comparable with each other. Limitations and implications for future IPV research in same-sex relationships are discussed.
... Accompanying female victim/male perpetrator stereotypes in SHA literature is a heterosexual bias. Literature on same-sex SHA is relatively scarce compared to heterosexual SHA, even though prevalence rates are similar across sexualities (McClennen, 2005;Messinger, 2011). In addition, sexual minority status has been found to convey risk of additional harm, but frameworks to understand and recognise same-sex abuse are still relatively new and untested (Carvalho et al., 2011;Donovan & Hester, 2010). ...
Thesis
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Coach-athlete sexual relationships (CASR) and sexual harassment and abuse (SHA) in sport can profoundly impact athletes’ welfare and performance. Yet, it is often ignored due to sensitivity, secrecy, and lack of knowledge. There is no previous research on SHA in sport in Sweden, and legal, consensual, same-sex CASR is under-researched. The overall purpose of this doctoral thesis is to examine CASR in competitive sport in Sweden. More specifically: a) athletes’ experiences of CASR; b) prevalence of SHA in coach-athlete relationships; c) conceptual and theoretical issues to broaden the under-standing of CASR and SHA, will be examined. Survey methodology is employed in Article I to explore the prevalence of SHA, coach-athlete relationship factors, and association between relationship factors and SHA. A random sample of current and former male and female Swedish athletes (n=477) aged 25 participated. Article II outlines critical issues of CASR, and theories and conceptualisations of romantic love, sexual consent, and female athlete sexual agency is further developed in the thesis research summary. Drawing on interviews with five female elite athletes aged 23-30, experiences of CASR are analysed in-depth using discourse analyses in Article III and narrative case study design in Article IV. Results show that athletes’ experiences of CASR are positively and negatively di-verse but potentially problematic because boundary ambiguity, secrecy, and isolation are common. Social and ethical dilemmas may also occur because CASR intersect con-trasting discourses regarding elite sport, coach–athlete relationships, and romantic love. Moreover, CASR integrate professional and private contexts in which equality and power deviate. The research illustrates empirically and theoretically how female elite athletes exercise agency and recognise consensual, mutually desired CASR where ro-mantic love is priority. However, sexual consent can be ambivalent rather than a mutu-ally exclusive yes/no dualism. Socially, consent is a process of negotiation informed by contextual factors, sexual agency, and social structure. In addition, 5.5% prevalence of SHA perpetrated by male coaches is reported, distributed throughout the sampled ath-letes’ gender, age, sport performance levels, and individual/team sports in the sample. In conclusion, this thesis expands knowledge of athletes’ experiences of love, sexual consent, and abuse in CASR. Previous evidence of SHA in sport is confirmed to include sport in Sweden. Implications for sport and sport sciences are offered.
... Otros autores como Poorman, Seelau, E.P. y Seelau, S.M. (2003) indican que la violencia perpetrada por los hom bres hacia las mujeres ha sido cataloga -da como más importante y grave que otros tipos de violencia. Dicha afirmación se sustenta en postulados del feminismo que otorgan al patriarcado las causas de la violencia masculina hacia las mujeres en las relaciones íntimas (McClennen, 2005). ...
... Same-sex and heterosexual couples may share a number of risk markers, but there may also be differences between these populations in terms of risk markers for IPV, which may be explained, in part, by the differences in the nature of gender socialization experienced by men and women (McClennen, 2005). That is, beyond the ostensible similarities between risk markers for IPV among same-sex couples and heterosexual couples, it is also important to consider that individuals in same-sex relationships may contend with additional risk markers. ...
Article
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has largely focused on heterosexual relationships, but, in recent years, researchers have expanded their focus to include same-sex relationships. Using meta-analytic techniques, this study was conducted to examine the relative strength of various risk markers for men and women being perpetrators and victims of physical IPV in same-sex relationships. Articles were identified through research search engines and screened to identify articles fitting the inclusion criteria, a process that resulted in 24 studies and 114 effect sizes for the meta-analysis. The strongest risk marker among those with at least two effect sizes for both male and female perpetration was psychological abuse perpetration. The strongest risk marker among those with at least two effect sizes for IPV victimization was also perpetration of psychological abuse for males and psychological abuse victimization for females. Among same-sex-specific risk markers, internalized homophobia and fusion were the strongest predictors for being perpetrators of IPV for men and women, respectively. HIV status and internalized homophobia were the strongest risk markers for IPV victimization for men and women, respectively. Of 10 comparisons between men and women in risk markers for IPV perpetration and victimization, only 1 significant difference was found. The results suggest that although same-sex and heterosexual relationships may share a number of risk markers for IPV, there are risk markers for physical IPV unique to same-sex relationships. Further research and increased specificity in measurement are needed to better study and understand the influence of same-sex-specific risk markers for IPV.
... Qualitative studies and small surveys confirm that these barriers often produce a "double closet" for LGBTQ+ people, that is, feeling the need to keep secret not only their sexual orientation or intimate relationships but also the abuse and trauma they are experiencing (McClennen, 2005;St Pierre & Senn, 2010). This double closet has numerous consequences for men's mental health. ...
Article
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem. However, there is limited research conducted on and about men who are survivors. This project extends previous research by examining the post-traumatic impact of diverse forms of IPV (sexual, physical, emotional, control, and stalking) on the internalized and externalized mental health of gay, bisexual, and straight men. Using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (2011; N = 18,957), we find that all men are equally likely to report emotional victimization and controlling tactics (with between 50% and 70% doing so), while bisexual men are significantly more likely to report physical and sexual violence and gay men are significantly more likely to report intimate stalking. Due to these experiences, gay men are significantly more likely to report missing school or work, but bisexual men are significantly more likely to rate their current overall mental health as poor. Around 10% of all men, regardless of sexual orientation, report post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology and 30% of all men report difficulty sleeping. This research suggests that sexual orientation is a critical area of focus in the study of violence and mental health for men and that we can no longer ignore the voices and needs of men survivors: Invisibility is not invincibility.
... Indeed, in their analysisHatcher et al. (2015)highlighted that the effect size of IPV on ART adherence is greater than other " well-known " factors limiting adherence, including depression, substance use and stigma. While men can also experience IPV from women (or other men they may be in sexual relationships with) (Johnson, 2010;McClennen, 2005) the overwhelming evidence is that women experience significantly more IPV perpetrated by men and that men's violence against women has greater harmful impacts (Johnson, 2010;WHO & UNAIDS, 2013). As such, the focus of this paper is on women's experiences of IPV perpetrated by men. ...
Article
Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to "'ending AIDS" by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Southern and Eastern Africa there has recently been a significant push to strengthen programming around this through broad funding and programming streams. However, while gender inequality underpins IPV and HIV acquisition, in different contexts a variety of other factors intersect to shape this vulnerability. Using reflections focused on young women living in urban informal settlements and the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention, this paper illustrates the need to understand the specific drivers of HIV and IPV in any given context and the need for interventions to prevent this. Any intervention needs to include three key components: 1) resonate with the lived realities of women they target; 2) tackle multiple factors shaping women's vulnerability to IPV and HIV simultaneously; and 3) consider how best to work with men and boys to achieve improved outcomes for women. Such an approach, it is argued, resonating with the "slow research" movement, will yield better outcomes for interventions, but will also require a fundamental rethinking of how interventions to prevent IPV and HIV amongst women are conceptualised, with a greater emphasis on understanding the ways in which gender resonates in each context and how interventions can operate.
... LGBQT* survivors may well anticipate discrimination both from staff members and the heterosexual survivors using these services and may worry that their sexual orientation (and one could assume, gender identity) will be revealed should they actually seek help (Bornstein et al., 2006;McClennen, 2005;Helfrich & Simpson, 2006). ...
... Asimismo, la mayoría de los estudios previos fueron realizados usando cuestionarios estructurados, útiles para obtener datos de prevalencia del fenómeno, pero que en ocasiones pueden dificultar la comprensión del significado preciso que tiene la violencia experimentada para las personas (Longares et al., 2018b). Dada la necesidad señalada en estudios previos de estudiar la violencia en parejas intragénero mediante metodologías cualitativas (Bornstein, Fawcett, Sullivan, Senturia & Shiu-Thornton, 2006;McClennen, 2005), más concretamente el abuso psicológico (Barrientos et al., 2016), y de analizar los posibles factores psicosociales influyentes sobre el fenómeno (Potoczniak, Mourot, Crosbie-Burnett & Potoczniak, 2003), este trabajo pretendió contribuir a mejorar el conocimiento sobre el tipo de estrategias de abuso psicológico experimentadas en relaciones de pareja intragénero, sobre algunos de los factores que pueden influir en la perpetración de esa violencia y sobre las dificultades para identificar tal abuso. Para ello se utilizó el análisis temático de entrevistas a personas autoidentificadas como víctimas de dicha violencia. ...
Article
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Although research on psychological abuse in same-gender couples has increased in recent decades, mainly in Englishspeaking countries, it is still scarce in Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this study was to examine experiences of victimization and perpetration of psychological abuse in same-gender relationships, possible explanations for this abuse, and the difficulties experienced by the victims in identifying it. Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people living in Spain who had experienced psychological abuse in samegender couples. Through the thematic analysis of the interviews, some psychological abuse strategies were identified: isolation from friends, isolation in the home, control over personal life, emotional abuse, imposing one's ideas, and threatening to out one's partner. Participants provided some explanations for psychological abuse: influence of internalized lesbophobia, biphobia, and gayphobia, seeing the partner as a possession, and a prior experience of violence. The invisibility of same-gender violence and the heteronormative view of gender roles in the couple are pointed out as difficulties for identifying abuse. This study expands scientific knowledge about the psychological abuse strategies experienced in same-gender couples in the Spanish context and singles out some factors that influence the phenomenon and lead to difficulties in identifying abuse.
... Janice Ristock also argues that it can be difficult for LGBTQ people to use their social networks to seek help from IPV out of fear that the violence may be seen as sign that their sexual or gender identity is unhealthy (Ristock, 2005: 10). Joan C. McClennen (2005) suggests that the silence sexual minorities are met with in the case of IPV causes individuals to be ʻdouble closetedentombed in their same-gender identity and in their personal pain of abuse.ʼ (150) In order to understand the different and changing conditions that inform the help-seeking of lesbian and queer victim-survivors, it is useful to turn to Kimberly Crenshaw's (1991) influential work ʻMapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of colorʼ. ...
... Participants suggested that judgments relating to further harm were impacted by the presence of children, either at the time, or forming a part of the relationship (sub code: a). However, not every instance of DA will feature children, and this is particularly the case in some same-sex relationships where responses to DA are equally under-researched and poorly represented within DA interventions (McClennen, 2005). Figure 1 highlights that the majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed that a higher DASH risk assessment would be a significant indicator to support a DVPN/O intervention. ...
Article
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Purpose The use of emergency barring orders (EBO) in the form of domestic violence protection notices and orders (DVPN-O) in reported domestic abuse (DA) cases is a relatively new development in the UK; the effectiveness of these orders has been challenged. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing their issue. Design/methodology/approach Freedom of information (FOI) requests were used alongside a survey tool. Practitioners ( n = 76; mainly police practitioners) were asked about approaches to EBO application, risk and training around DA. Findings The findings indicate that applications are impacted largely by domestic abuse stalking harassment risk grading, typically resulting in high-risk cases receiving the most attention. Criticisms suggesting that DVPN-Os are of limited use receive some support from this study; however, as their use is restricted to these higher-risk cases, the full effect of the orders may be limited. The most important factors in decision-making are the level of physical violence, repeated victimization and the victims support for a DVPN-O. Police intelligence and the presence of children also have an effect on risk ratings. Less importance was given to lower risk–graded cases, wider intelligence from family members and information from social networks. Findings also indicate that police training is largely limited to “on-the-job” experience, e-learning and e-mail bulletins. Practical implications Respondents proposed that training could be enhanced through victim stories, cross-discipline approaches and wider knowledge beyond isolated specialisms. A number of recommendations are made in line with: structuring professional judgment, using victim accounts in police training and movement toward an evidence-led approach. Originality/value This research demonstrates a clear link to the way in which risk and the use of EBO are used by police officers. This research also highlights the desire to see and hear from victims in police training. The value of this research is shown in both the combined approach of FOI requests and a survey and assessing a currently under-researched area of DA response.
... All of these aspects constitute heavy barriers to services for users, who may end up feeling doubly closeted by the experience of both IPV and their sexual orientation (McClennen, 2005). ...
Chapter
Introduction: Media representation of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) can influence public opinion and understanding of the phenomena, and guide health policies. The current review has the aim to explore and discuss international, scientific literature focused on the portrayal of IPV in written forms of news media. Method: Searching through EBSCO and PubMed, 2435 studies were found and 41 were included in the current review. Results: Bias in the portrayal of IPV was found within the studies included. While IPV-related news were mainly focused on male-perpetrated violence within heterosexual couples, little attention was paid to Same Sex Intimate Partner Violence (SSIPV). Newsworthy stories dominate IPV reporting within news media and a sensationalistic style was often employed. Furthermore, contextual information was often limited and the adoption of a thematic frame was rare, while news media were found to commonly employ an episodic frame. Official sources and family, friends and neighbours were the most quoted sources in news articles, while IPV experts were rarely drawn on for information. Regarding media representation of perpetrators, mainly regarding male abusers, news articles reported several reasons behind the violence with the consequence to justify and exonerate them from their responsibilities. Female perpetrators were found to be depicted, in some cases, as “mad” or “bad” people. Finally, victim blaming content emerged within many of the articles included. Conclusion: Bias in the media representation of IPV emerged in the current review, which needs to be addressed to positively influence public opinion and to promote an adequate understanding of the phenomena.
... Pagliaro, Paolini y Pacilli (2019) achacan la poca cantidad de investigación acerca de la IPV en parejas MsM a la creencia social de que los casos de IPV son menos comunes y menos graves en la comunidad LGTB. Sin embargo, los datos que tenemos nos indican que estas creencias carecen de fundamento: los estadísticos de frecuencia nos indican que el número de parejas cuyos integrantes son MsM que están sufriendo IPV iguala (Alexander, 2008;Edwards et al., 2015;Greenwood et al., 2002;McClennen, 2005;McClennen, Summers y Vaughan, 2002;Porter y Williams, 2011;Seelau, Seelau y Poorman, 2003) o supera (Blosnich y Bossarte, 2009;Goldberg y Meyer, 2013;Hamel, 2013;Harland, Peek-Asa y Saftlas, 2018;Messinger, 2011;Reuter, Sharp, y Temple, 2015;Snedecor, Muzzey y Ott, 2018;Tjaden y Thoennes, 2000;Walters, Chen y Breiding, 2013) las cifras de incidencia entre las parejas cisheteronormativas y las consecuencias sobre la salud de las víctimas son igual de negativas o incluso peores. Los MsM que han sufrido IPV son más propensos a padecer problemas de salud (Buller, Devries, Howard y Bacchus, 2014) infecciones de transmisión sexual (Black et al., 2011;Walters et al., 2013), abuso de sustancias y trastornos mentales (Stephenson y Finneran, 2016). ...
Article
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Objetivo: Este artículo resume los resultados de la literatura científica obtenidos acerca de las recomendaciones existentes para intervenir en hombres perpetradores de violencia íntima de pareja (IPV) que tienen relaciones sentimentales con otros hombres (MsM). Método: Revisión sistemática. Cuatro bases de datos, apoyadas por la búsqueda manual en tres revistas científicas y en las referencias de otras revisiones sistemáticas sobre IPV en parejas MsM. Resultados: De los 17.835 resultados obtenidos, 139 fueron seleccionados por ser relevantes. Sin embargo, solo 14 cumplieron todos los criterios de inclusión y fueron aceptados en el análisis. El tipo de contribución y las recomendaciones ofrecidas en cada artículo fueron resumidas y explicadas. Conclusiones: Los datos mostraron una falta de resultados empíricos sobre los efectos de las intervenciones dirigidas a personas MsM que han cometido agresiones contra sus parejas. Además, no hay un acuerdo en la literatura científica sobre qué metodología se debe utilizar, por lo que existe una extensa variedad de propuestas sobre cómo debe enfocarse la intervención.
... Literature on same-sex abuse and violence is relatively scarce compared to heterosexual abuse (Messinger, 2011). Although most sexual abuse is perpetrated by men and while heterosexuality represents the sexual majority, prevalence rates are similar across sexualities (McClennen, 2005). Sexual minority status can inflict additional harm, but frameworks to understand and recognise same-sex abuse are still novel (Carvalho, Lewis, Derlega, Winstead, & Viggiano, 2011;Donovan & Hester, 2010). ...
Article
Elite-athlete Karin was 17 years old when the considerably older team coach Selma became her girlfriend. Responding to calls to prevent harm and sexual abuse in sport, this study represents Karin’s story, investigates how she makes sense of her coach–athlete sexual relationship, and analyses what can be learnt about consent. Although sexual consent is often the defining criterion of sexual abuse, consent is rarely explicitly defined or its social implications examined. Moreover, there are no studies on coach–athlete lesbian or gay relationships despite sexual minority vulnerability. The interview with Karin was analysed using narrative case study methods; represented as a short story and discussed in reference to sexual consent theory. The analysis outlines contextual factors conditioning the negotiation of consent and problematises heteronormative, gendered perpetrator and victim stereotypes. Secrecy, alienation and isolation is recognised, extending into additional vulnerability inflicted on socially problematic and atypical coach–athlete relationships. In conclusion, social implications of consent are more complex than yes/no to sex or inherent incapability to consent. Consent is multi-layered, alternately absent and present; an ongoing process that includes compromises, contradictions and (re)negotiations influenced by structure and agency. Further research examining a diversity of sexual experiences among majorities and minorities is proposed.
... The fact that domestic violence also occur between same-sex couples/partners (Elliot, 1996;McClennen, 2005;Renzetti & Miley, 2014) as well as between transgender and bisexuals (Ard & Makadon, 2011) confirm the conclusion of this paper that domestic violence is gender-neutral and men are not always the perpetrators. ...
Article
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Domestic violence is a bidirectional global human factor. It is actually gender-neutral, albeit in Nigeria and beyond, women are erroneously considered by most as "the victims" of domestic violence, and men as "the perpetrators". Using the doctrinal methodology, this paper explores the often ignored fact that men are also the victims of domestic violence perpetrated by women. It argues that even in a patriarchal society like Nigeria where women are considered as the "weaker sex" and men, "the head", men still suffer domestic violence perpetrated by women. It offers possible patterns and reasons for domestic violence against men, and why violated men are usually silent, ignored or unbelieved. Lastly, it makes suggestions for tackling the menace. The paper is an alternative insight to the often ignored perspective of domestic violence, especially in Nigeria. There is no known primary data on this subject, hence, this paper rests basically on secondary data.
Thesis
Existent research on same-sex intimate partner violence is still scarce, with the majority of research on intimate partner violence still being focused on violence within opposite-sex couples. Thus, the aim of this dissertation is to examine whether both State and Civil Society organizations’ support mechanisms are sufficient and willing to welcome, support and accompany these people, since the rate of registered complaints is very low. In order to do this, the dynamics of violence within the couple was analysed in order to understand whether or not they influenced support seeking, as well as the reasons that led the person to request or not such support; the needs of victims and services were also identified in order to provide an adequate response. This study was built on a qualitative methodology approach, using semi-structured, though sufficiently flexible interviews, especially those designed for the victims. The study includes 6 victims, 5 LGBT organizations and 12 representatives of services related to domestic violence, via formal and informal contacts within the Portuguese territory. The data collected highlighted: the social invisibility of the phenomenon, the isolation and secrecy of the LGB community in some situations, the clear lack of knowledge from victims on overall support mechanisms, the insufficient formal support network inside the country, the lack of specialized responses such as shelters for men and the speculated existence of prejudice and homophobia messages in some speeches. It was also demonstrated that there are discrepancies between the legislation and the real world, between theory and practice, plus the lack of training of professionals who should never be prejudiced. In conclusion, it was identified that although there is a growing awareness by professionals and society in general concerning same-sex intimate partner violence, there is a clear lack of information among victims, which reveals the need for campaigns and further development of this topic – in line with the campaign two decades ago concerning heterosexual women who are the victim of intimate partner violence. Furthermore, support services present severe limitations in the support structures available, namely location. At the level of the LGBT movements, there is also a low investment.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the state of the literature regarding college students’ attitudes toward LGBT individuals, and then narrows that focus to discuss criminal justice majors in particular. The status of criminal justice education on LBGT issues is discussed, with particular attention to why such issues are important for undergraduate criminal justice education. The authors suggest a paradigm for inclusion of such issues in criminal justice curriculum globally, modeled after the decision to include race and gender issues in that same curriculum.
Article
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The link between domestic violence and animal abuse has now been well established, indicating that where there is one form of abuse, there is often the other. Research on this link, however, has almost exclusively focused on heterosexual cisgender people's relationships. Lacking, then, is an exploration of the possibly unique links between domestic violence and animal abuse in the context of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people's relationships. In this paper we adopt a feminist intersectional approach informed by Critical Animal Studies to advocate for a non-pathologising approach to understanding LGBT people's relationships with regard to the link between domestic violence and animal abuse.
Article
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prominent problem within relationships (Centers for Disease Control, n.d.). As more research is conducted on IPV, it has become apparent that the prevalence of females perpetrating IPV is similar to the rates of males (Archer, 2000), which challenges the feminist theories of men's IPV that assert it is strongly related to patriarchy. This debate over sex differences in perpetration rates means LGBTQ+ populations become ignored due to contradicting many of the popular theories for IPV perpetration and victimization, creating a gap in research. Therefore, this systematic literature review was conducted in an attempt to highlight the prevalence of IPV within LGBTQ+ relationships. The main aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate the prevalence of IPV within same-sex relationships and its behavioral manifestations. Further implications for research will also be considered.
Article
The current research investigated the impact of perceiver attitudes (i.e., homonegativity, traditional gender-roles, and same-sex violence misconceptions) and victim injury on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). Due to gender-role stereotypes about different injury capabilities for men and women, it has been proposed that such stereotypes alone are substantial enough to explain why prototypical IPV (i.e., male-on-female) is perceived as more serious than non- prototypical IPV (i.e., male-on-male, female-on-female, and male-on-male). Study 1 found that prototypical IPV was perceived as significantly more serious than non-prototypical IPV, with the female-on-male incident rated as the least serious among all incidents. These results are consistent with gender-role stereotypes and physical sex differences which hold that males are more capable of injuring victims than females, while females are more likely to be injured than males. However, this study also found that perceiver attitudes influenced evaluations of seriousness for all instances of non-prototypical IPV in unique ways. In addition, individuals appeared to create a gendered framework for victims (i.e., feminine) and perpetrators (i.e.,masculine) of IPV regardless of sex. Relatedly, study 2 found a non-significant difference in evaluations of seriousness between an incident of prototypical and non-prototypical IPV (i.e., female-on-female) when the degree of victim injury was controlled. Taken together, these findings suggest that gender-role stereotypes, perceiver attitudes, and degree of injury all influence evaluations of seriousness for both prototypical and non-prototypical IPV.
Article
Among the crucial advancements in the study of intimate partner violence (IPV) is an understanding of the distinct help-seeking barriers that gay and lesbian victims face. Despite these additions to the literature, transgender IPV victimization remains under-researched. The current study utilized semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires of 18 trans-identified survivors of IPV. Working through a modified grounded analytic approach, two major themes emerged in the help-seeking process: “walking the gender tightrope” in which participants first struggled with gendered notions of victimization that made it difficult to identify abuse, and second, the challenges of “navigating genderist resources.”
Article
One of the most promising applications of cryogenic therapy is its ability to transform a wide range of materials. In this study, Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) was subjected to both deep and shallow cryogenic treatment. In addition to the anti-aging treatment, a deep cryogenic treatment was administered to the patient. Tensile tests were used to examine how cryogenic treatment affected the mechanical characteristics and ductility of Ti6Al4 alloy. According to this studies, cryogenic treatment expands flexibility of Ti6Al4V alloy. After 24 and 36 h, the deep cryo-treated samples had Uniform Plastic Deformation Region (UPDR) that were 5.3% and 8.3% greater than the untreated ones. However, after 36 h of cryogenic treatment, the yield strength of the material decreased by 2%. When subjected to a 36-hour period of severe cryogenic treatment, the alloy's phase ratio decreased from 8.1% to 5.6%, resulting in structural changes within the material. The unstable a phase gave rise to both stable and unstable phases. Experiments have shown that cryogenic treatment raises the flexibility and durability of Ti6AI4V alloy while also controlling the microstructure and lowering residual stress when performed at room temperature.
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Societal definitions of intimate partner violence (IPV) are highly gendered and heteronormative, resulting in dissonance regarding cases of same-sex IPV. This study explored perceptions of IPV when the context of the case is inconsistent with societal norms regarding sex and sexuality. Mock jurors read a vignette describing a case of alleged IPV in which the sex and sexual orientation of the defendant were manipulated. Participants (N = 415) rendered a verdict and provided ratings of the defendant, victim, and case. Results suggest participants were more confident in a guilty verdict when the defendant was male, compared to female. Further, male defendants were perceived as more morally responsible, but only when the victim was female. Perceptions regarding the crime suggest violence perpetrated by a man against a woman is viewed more adversely than any other condition. Data are discussed in terms of implications for legal decision makers and public policy.
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This chapter provides an introduction to the research on intimate partner violence in LGBT relationships. The background of research in this area is provided along with an exploration of common methodological issues and limitations. The available research evidence on the prevalence of intimate partner violence for LGBT subgroups is summarized along with an outline of the contexts and considerations of intimate partner violence unique to LGBT communities. Finally, a discussion of responses to LGBT intimate partner violence, including help-seeking behaviors and the social services available for LGBT survivors is offered.
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Intimate partner violence is a preventable and costly public health challenge that affects more than one in three women and one in four men in the United States. Survivors of these forms of violence can experience frank physical injury and mental and physical health consequences including STDs, gastrointestinal disorders, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and suicide. LGBT individuals in same-sex relationships, particularly transgender individuals, experience IPV at rates greater than their heterosexual counterparts; however, despite the higher prevalence of IPV within the LGBT community, same-sex IPV and transgender is far less likely to be addressed adequately by healthcare providers, policy makers, educators, and social services. This chapter defines intimate partner violence, explores the sociopolitical and methodological issues around this complex and sensitive topic, outlines challenges unique to vulnerable LGBT communities, and provides clinicians a comprehensive guide to recognize and address this public health challenge within the doctor-patient relationship. A list of national regional resources is also included for reference.
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This chapter discusses characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex couples, similarities and differences with heterosexual IPV, predictors and causes of same-sex violence, types of same-sex violence, reasons for staying in same-sex abusive relationships, and treatment implications. The strongest predictor of aggressing against a same-sex partner is having been abused as a child. Other correlates with same-sex violence perpetration include alcohol and substance abuse, excessive dependency, and borderlines traits. Gay and lesbians report staying in abusive relationships for reasons such as fear, love, economics, hope for change, and low self-esteem. Although trauma bonding research has not been conducted on gays and lesbians, the ingredients are certainly present in these relationships for its occurrence. In treating same-sex intimacy violence, counselors must consider societal context factors such as isolation, fear of alienation from the gay and lesbian community, and homophobia along with PTSD symptoms, insecure attachment, depression, and anger.
Article
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) continues to represent a critical public health issue that affects individuals across the globe, irrespective of race, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, or sexual orientation. As a result, individual and community-based advocacy efforts are desperately needed to combat the negative repercussions of IPV. This article outlines the development of the See the Triumph Survivor Advocacy Training Program, a community-based advocacy intervention program for survivors of IPV.
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Physical and emotional violence is prevalent in couple and family relationships (Office for National Statistics UK in Chapter 4—Intimate personal violence and partner abuse, 2014). There are many well-established books on how to assess for the risk of future violence in families, and on how to intervene therapeutically to help family members stop the violence, including the book by one of the present authors (Hamel and Nicholls in Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. Springer, New York 2006; Hamel in Gender-inclusive treatment of intimate partner abuse: a comprehensive approach. Springer, New York, NY 2005; Cooper and Vetere in Domestic violence and family safety: a systemic approach to working with violence in families. Whurr Publishers, London, UK 2005). However, less is written on how to help couples and families once the violence has stopped.
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a health problem affecting people of all genders and other social locations. While IPV victimization of cis-gendered women has been widely researched, how men conceptualized or experience IPV victimization, and the variations in their experiences of IPV, has not been thoroughly examined. In this critical review of men’s experiences of IPV, an extensive search of peer reviewed literature was conducted using multiple database (Cochrane database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycgINFO, and Google Scholar) as well as the gray literature. We critically reviewed examining the conceptual foundations of IPV victimization among men. The influence or gender roles and societal expectation on men’s experiences and perceptions of IPV victimization and their help-seeking behavior are explored. Current knowledge about types, tactics, and patterns of IPV against men and the health and social consequences of IPV are addresses. Additionally, the conceptual and empirical limitations of current research are discussed, including the tendency to compare only the prevalence rates of discrete incidents of abuse among women versus men; the use of IPV measures not designed to capture men’s conceptualizations of IPV; and the lack of attention given to sex and gender identity of both the victim and perpetrator. Future research priorities that address these limitations and seek to strengthen and deepen knowledge about IPV among men are identified.
Article
While men’s sexual violence against women is unarguably a social and public health issue, both nationally representative data and smaller studies tell us that rates for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer+ (LGBTQ+) individuals are equally or significantly higher. Despite this, there remains little structural support for LGBTQ + survivors. This article highlights the voices of 38 queer and trans people of color (QTPOC)-identified U.S. Southerners who have experienced sexual violence and came together across three focus groups to detail their interactions with advocates and other professionals and explore posttraumatic needs. Nearly all survivors reported that the level of awareness regarding sexual violence in their communities was limited, with most reporting that they did not successfully access mainstream services, due to concerns about homophobia, transphobia, and racism. To address sexual violence in LGBTQ + communities, survivors pointed to the importance of friendship and community networks “outside the system,” knowledge sharing about LGBTQ+-specific violence tactics (e.g., threats of outing a partner), and holding batterers accountable for their behavior within LGBTQ + circles. Findings highlight the need to move beyond “culturally competent” health care by proactively engaging LGBTQ + communities in education, networking, resource sharing, and anti-violence outreach.
Chapter
This chapter examines the empirical literature concerning family preservation. Although many chapters include information relevant to family preservation, this chapter focuses on family problems not explicitly discussed elsewhere in the book. Thus, we discuss marital conflict in terms of not only how couple members are affected, but also how family life impacts the health and well-being of the children. We do not address specific problems, such as chemical dependency, juvenile delinquency, and eating disorders, even though these problems affect family preservation, and we discuss family violence strictly in terms of domestic or spousal abuse, rather than child abuse, sibling abuse, or elder abuse, even though these problems, obviously, affect family preservation. This chapter includes a discussion of assessment methods and intervention methods related to intimate partner violence.
Article
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La violencia en parejas del mismo sexo es un fenómeno que hasta hace poco no había llamado la atención en la comunidad científica, especialmente en regiones como Latinoamérica, tal vez factores como el heterocentrismo, estigmas sociales y una poca visibilidad contribuyen a las pocas investigaciones sobre esta problemática. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación tiene como objetivo explorar y describir la presencia de violencia cometida y sufrida en parejas del mismo sexo. Participaron veintinueve personas: 14 mujeres que señalaron ser lesbianas y 15 hombres que indicaron ser gais, quienes contestaron el Inventario de violencia en el noviazgo adolescente (VADRI). Los resultados mostraron que ambos sexos tienden a ser víctimas y perpetradores de violencia dentro de sus relaciones, lo que concuerda con hallazgos obtenidos en otras investigaciones realizadas con parejas heterosexuales, resultado que podría indicar que las dinámicas de violencia no difieren entre parejas homosexuales y heterosexuales, puesto que ambas parecen tener una naturaleza bidireccional. En la violencia manifestada a través del control se halló que ambos sexos son víctimas y perpetradores, a través de medios tecnológicos y redes sociales, lo que concuerda con hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en parejas heterosexuales donde se remarca su alta frecuencia y posible normalización.
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It is understood that corruption can change the incentives to engage in political violence. However, the scope for corruption to change attitudes toward the permissibility of violence has received less attention. Drawing on Moral Foundations Theory, we argue that experiences of corruption in the social environment are likely to shape individual attitudes toward violent behavior. Using Afrobarometer data, we document a statistically significant and sizable relationship between an individual's experience of paying bribes and their attitudes to political, interpersonal, and domestic violence. These relationships are evident, and not significantly different, for men and women and are robust to the inclusion of variables capturing the local incidence of corruption, local norms regarding violence, and a proxy for the local incidence of violence with the community. Corruption is associated with permissive attitudes to violence even after controlling for the perceived legitimacy of the police and courts.
Article
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Past research has determined that individuals with a history of maltreatment victimization during adolescence (i.e., neglect, emotional, physical, or sexual abuse prior to the age of 18) are more likely to perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) against their partners later on in the life-course. The vast majority of this understanding, however, focuses on male perpetration against female victims, relies on clinical or offender data that is not widely generalizable, and does not specifically focus on sexual IPV. As such, there is little known about the impact of adolescent maltreatment victimization on later sexual IPV perpetration among women or how this might vary according to gender. In order to bridge these gaps in the literature, the current study examined how maltreatment victimization during adolescence influenced later sexual IPV perpetration, both in general and then separately according to gender, using nationally representative data from the public sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Multivariate results indicated that adolescent maltreatment victimization increased one's risk of perpetrating sexual IPV during adulthood, however this relationship was stronger for women than it was for men. The importance of these findings for future policy and research GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL IPV PERPETRATION 2 are discussed, particularly with regard to further gender-specific empirical study of sexual IPV perpetration and the development of gender-specific treatment initiatives aimed at reducing this type of offending. Keywords sexual intimate partner violence, cycle of violence, childhood maltreatment, gender differences in offending Acknowledgements
Thesis
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The topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) in lesbian and queer relationships continues to be under-researched in Sweden. This lack of knowledge and recognition can have severe consequences for the help-seeking of those who are not recognized as victims of IPV. This thesis aims to fill this knowledge gap by examining the help-seeking processes of lesbian and queer victim-survivors of IPV in Sweden. By drawing on qualitative interviews with 25 people who have experienced violence in intimate lesbian and/or queer relationships, the thesis examines how the interviewees made sense of the experiences of IPV, where they sought help and how they perceived the support they received. These findings contribute to our understanding of the challenges that recognition of IPV in queer and lesbian relationships entails. Many of the interviewees struggled to identify themselves as victims of IPV, as their experiences did not fit with the public stories of violence, which frame IPV as a heterosexual phenomenon and tend to emphasize physical violence. To understand the struggle for recognition, the thesis draws on the theoretical concept of slow violence from environmental studies, which calls attention to invisible and processual forms of violence that manifest over time. The help-seeking patterns of the interviewees were characterized by subtle, iterative and aborted attempts to gain support and included different informal and formal actors. The findings suggest that the help-seeking processes of victim-survivors often mirror the violence experienced, meaning that they are repeated and processual. Many interviewees initially sought support for other reasons than IPV. This indirect help-seeking suggests that help-providers need to be able to recognize potential victims. Failed help-seeking encounters caused by institutionalized heteronormative values were often characterized by inadvertent misrecognition. This included ignoring or minimizing signs of abuse, leading to failed or lack of interventions. To understand the specific conditions for help-seeking in the Swedish context, ideals around progress, family-making and community support are discussed. This includes specifically the social and legal vulnerability which shape both violence and help-seeking in lesbian and queer families. Finally, the ideal of the singular LGBTQ community as a ready resource for support is challenged.
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The themes of oppression, privilege, and solidarity continue in this chapter as we discuss how neoliberalism impacts on the way research is undertaken, evaluated, and esteemed within the academy and (increasingly corporatized) public health, education, and welfare. While our focus is on same-sex abuse and housing issues, it is part of a broader discussion of how inequality, discrimination, and stigma can flourish under neoliberalism, which is after all designed to simplify, decontextualize, and dehumanize in the pursuit of efficiencies [see McCluskey (Indiana Law Journal 78: 783, 2003)]. In this chapter, as with the rest of the book, our focus is on both a critique of neoliberal interpretations of the world and what counts as legitimate knowledge and on finding ways to resist and challenge such interpretations. Here, we narrate our own experience of building academic alliances through being invited to write about human–animal violence links in same-sex relationships.
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In comparison to a large body of literature about battered heterosexual women and a growing body about battered lesbians, this is one of the first published studies that investigates the experiences of battered gay and bisexual men. Results indicated that these men suffered patterns, forms, and frequencies of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse similar to what has been documented by research on battered heterosexual and lesbian women. Likewise, the most commonly reported reasons for staying--namely, hope for change and love for partner--appear to be universal to the experience of being battered. Unlike battered heterosexual women, respondents in this study were not likely to report that being financially trapped was a major reason why they had remained. HIV-status, however, appears to significantly influence their decision to remain. Moreover, lack of knowledge about domestic violence and the lack of availability of appropriate resources play a significant role in same-gender domestic violence victims' decisions to remain. Like battered lesbians, battered gay men infrequently sought assistance from battered women's services and perceived these services as not helpful. By contrast, individual counselors and agencies who provided individual counselors were rated as quite helpful.
Article
This paper examines the challenges presented to current gender-based domestic violence theory by the existence of same-sex domestic violence. Charging the dominant theory is heterosexist and ignores the experience of battered lesbians and gay men, Island and Letellier (1991) have argued that domestic violence is not a gender issue and advocate a psychological framework that emphasizes batterer treatment. Examining the theoretical conflicts, this paper attempts to domenstrate that sociopolitcal and psychological theories can be successfully integrated into a social-psychological model. Such a model, developed by Zemsky (1990) and Gilbert, Poorman, and Simmons (1990), is explored and critiqued as an excellent beginning. By integrating psychological principles and sociological concepts, this theory explores the many dimensions of power and explains the phenomenon of domestic violence as it occurs in all relationship configurations. Suggestions for further theoretical considerations and research are made.
Article
Objective: The Lesbian Partner Abuse Scale-Revised (LE-PAS-R) was designed and construct validated to assess power imbalance between lesbian couples resulting in partner abuse. Method: The 135-item Lesbian Partner Abuse Scale (LE-PAS) was content validated. Implementing a nationwide survey using convenience sampling, an assessment packet containing the LE-PAS, two established scales (the Index of Self-Esteem and the General Contentment Scale), and demographic information was completed by 45 abused and 33 nonabused lesbians. Results: A series of factor analyses resulted in six factors (communication and social skills, substance abuse, intergenerational transmission of violence, fakes illness, internalized homophobia, and status differentials) accounting for 77.3% of all item variance. The 25-item LE-PAS-R shows evidence of strong reliability (r = .94), credible concurrent validity (p < .01), and the ability to differentiate between abused and nonabused lesbians (p < .01). Conclusions: Further validation of the LE-PAS-R will provide evidence of its ability to assist clinicians in identifying lesbian relationships in which power imbalance may result in partner abuse.
Article
Studies over the last two decades have greatly advanced knowledge about gay and lesbian aging. These studies have also discovered the challenges involved in studying older gay and lesbian populations. The study described in this article adds to this knowledge by examining the caregiving experiences of this “hidden” population. It describes the research process used in the study, and advocates for the use of qualitative methods to empower study respondents and uncover their unique experiences. It also presents the challenges faced, strategies employed, and lessons learned from the study.
Article
This paper addresses the poverty of services available to lesbian victims of partner abuse, despite the need for such services. Drawing on data from a survey of 1,505 help providers (to which 566 responded), the paper focuses on the services that the help providers themselves claim to offer. The data reveal a serious disparity in help providers' rhetoric and offical policies and the reality of the services available. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving services to battered lesbians.
Article
The purpose of this research is to present empirical evidence regarding the dynamics, help-seeking behaviors, and correlates of gay men's partner abuse. Implementing a nationwide survey using convenience sampling, data were gathered using a 12-page questionnaire. Data from 63 self-identified victims (aged 26-50 yrs) were compared with studies conducted by C. Renzetti (1992) and G. S. Merrill and V. A. Wolfe (2000). Partner abuse between gay men occurs in many forms, complies with the cycle of abuse, and often is severe over a long period of time. Help-seeking behaviors are limited and mostly remain with informal sources. The correlates of dependency, jealousy, power imbalance, and substance abuse are modest predictors of severity of abuse. Empirical evidence confirms the need for intervention directed toward this social problem, and groundwork is laid for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Based on a nationwide study of violence in lesbian relationships, this comprehensive, accessible volume derives from a common theme expressed by the subjects: the sense of having been betrayed, first by their lovers, and subsequently by a lesbian community which tends to deny the problem when victims seek help. Renzetti skillfully addresses several central issues: consequences for victims, batterers and the community as a whole; and what we can learn about domestic violence in general by studying violence in lesbian relationships. The research offers a fresh look at domestic violence by examining the phenomenon of women as perpetrators of intimate violence against women, at the same time making a clear distinction between battering and self defense. Students and professionals in victimology, gender studies, sociology, psychology, criminology, social work, clinical psychology, counseling, and family studies will not want to miss this brilliant work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Identifying and treating battered lesbians
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Morrow, J. (1994, April). Identifying and treating battered lesbians. San Francisco Medicine, 17, 20-21.
The evolution of social policy in gay/lesbian/bisexual domestic violence A professional's guide to understanding gay and lesbian domestic violence: Understanding practice interventions
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Smith, R., & Dale, O. (1999). The evolution of social policy in gay/lesbian/bisexual domestic violence. In J. C. McClennen & J. Gunther (Eds.), A professional's guide to understanding gay and lesbian domestic violence: Understanding practice interventions (pp. 257-276).